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1
Content available Biodegradacja związków fosfonowych przez grzyby
EN
Phosphonates are the group of organophosphorus compounds, which are characterized by the presence of covalent bond(s) between carbon and phosphorus atom in their structure. Both; the natural and synthetic phosphonic compounds, are encountered in various ecosystems, however because of their wide range of applications, the latter ones are considerably more frequently discussed. Regarding the broad spectrum of biological activity, capability to chelate metal cations and environmental stability of direct carbon to phosphorus bond under physiological conditions, phosphonic compounds found a variety of applications e.g. as pesticides, drugs, anticorrosive agents, additives to surfactants and flame resistant (partially)polymers. Such massive use of phosphonates, together with mentioned environmental stability of those compounds, results in their common presence as xenobiotic environmental pollutants. Scientific efforts dedicated to recognising the fate and biodegradation of phosphonic compounds in the environment had begun in 80’s last century. Currently it is known that many microorganisms, mainly bacteria, but also fungi, are able to decompose the C-P bond. Interestingly however, the number of known species of fungi that are able to biodegrade and/or to bio-transform the phosphonates, is relatively low. It seems to be surprising, because especially the fungi are known from their impressive skills to adaptation to various nutritional conditions. Such a thesis may be supported by the fact that the process of biodegradation of phosphonates may occur via several pathways. Enzymes which are known to catalyse this process are phosphonoacetaldehyde hydrolase, phosphonoacetate hydrolase, phosphonopyruvate hydrolase and C-P lyase complex. This article briefly presents the issue of degradation pathways of phosphonates, and the role of phosphonate- degrading fungi.
2
Content available remote Nowe zastosowania biotechnologii w obszarze syntez farmaceutycznych
PL
Dokonano przeglądu stosowania enzymów w syntezie optycznie czynnych kluczowych półproduktów leków i aktywnych substancji farmaceutycznych, jak również przeglądu biokatalizatorów stosowanych do stereoselektywnego uwodorniania prochiralnych ketonów lub olefin w przemyśle farmaceutycznym.
EN
A review, with 49 refs., of uses of enzymes for the synthesis of racemic key intermediates and active pharmaceutital ingredients as well as use of a biocatalysts for stereoselective hydrogenation of prochiral ketones or olefins in the pharmaceutical industry.
3
Content available remote Kwas kapronowy jako alternatywny produkt biotransformacji
PL
Dokonano przeglądu najważniejszych zagadnień związanych z procesem biotechnologicznej produkcji kwasu kapronowego. Wykonano analizę techniczno-ekonomiczną potwierdzającą potencjał ekonomiczny jego produkcji.
EN
A review, with 55 refs., of methods for biotechnol. prodn. of caproic acid. A techno-economic anal. was performed to confirm the economic potential of the prodn.
4
Content available remote Synthetic biology in perspective
EN
Towards the end of the XXth century, genetics expanded its scope not only in the field of structure and mechanisms of heredity, owing to progress in nucleic acid research including efficient sequencing and reassembly methods, but in acquiring precise tools which enable construction of new forms of life. Synthetic biology marks a radical change in practices of genetic manipulation from random mutations followed by selection, to design of specific DNA transformations attainable by application of genetic engineering methods. Mastering enzymatic gene splicing procedures and chemical synthesis of polynucleotides allowed perceiving macromolecules of life as “parts” or “bricks” amenable to specification, cataloguing and also fit for applications commensurable with the rules of engineering. The purpose of synthetic biology is to apply defined macromolecular constructs (abstracted from living matter or synthetic) as modules for construction of devices, sensors or switches, which can ultimately be integrated into self-sustained systems. Target applications of synthetic biology products ranges from biotechnological manufacturing of energy, fuels, chemicals, food and pharmaceuticals, through marker sensors and diagnostic devices, to various classes of therapeutics like antibodies, vaccines, probiotic microbes or modified immune cells. Thus, synthetic biology becomes an integral part of the prospective switch from present industrial reality to circular bioeconomy, which is the greatest challenge facing humanity.
PL
Na przełomie stuleci genetyka zyskała, w wyniku dogłębnych badań nad kwasami nukleinowymi, nowe specyficzne narzędzia modyfikacji materiału genetycznego, nieporównywalnie skuteczniejsze od wykorzystywanych uprzednio przypadkowych mutacji z następczą selekcją. W wyniku rozwoju różnych form biotechnologii, korzystających z narzędzi inżynierii genetycznej wyłoniła się (najpierw w formie postulatywnej) biologia syntetyczna, zakładając wykorzystanie funkcjonalnych biomakromolekuł jako elementów zamiennych (cegiełek lub podzespołów) do projektowania i konstrukcji większych modułów, systemów a wreszcie organizmów, spełniających z góry zadane założenia metaboliczne. Zadaniem biologii syntetycznej jest zapewnienie dostępności (docelowo w skali procesów przemysłowych) układów biologicznych zdolnych do korzystnego przetwarzania energii (szczególnie solarnej), transformacji składników biomasy w niskoemisyjne paliwa, półprodukty chemiczne, biopolimery oraz składniki żywności i leków. Inne zastosowania biologii syntetycznej koncentrują się w obszarze ochrony zdrowia; projektowane obecnie konstrukty będą spełniać role markerów i sensorów dla diagnostyki, probiotyków dla profilaktyki oraz przeciwciał, szczepionek a nawet celowo reprogramowanych komórek (np. układu immunologicznego) dla terapii lub medycyny rekonstrukcyjnej.
EN
Mushrooms of the Pleurotus genus are found naturally in forests in almost all latitudes where they are responsible for the decomposition of wood. These fungi are valuable to cultivate and eat, as they are source of valuable nutrients and healing ingredients. Mycelium of white rot is known for its bioremediation abilities, including the accumulation of heavy metals and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. Mushrooms of the Pleurotus genus have also been found applicable in the biotransformation of unsaturated terpenoid compounds. These reactions involve hydroxylation at the allyl position and subsequent oxidation of the introduced hydroxyl group. The article presents a number of applications of various strains of fungi of the Pleurotus genus.
EN
Phanerochaete chrysosporium is an ubiquitous fungus having huge potential for application in biodegradation processes. Its enzymatic system, consisting of ligninases, membrane-associated oxidases and hydrogen peroxide generating enzymes is capable of degrading a wide range of pollutants like 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 2,5-dinitrophenol, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid or azodyes produced by military or civilian industry. Synergetic action between enzymes, based on providing substrates essential for their activity and their extreme low-specificity guarantees successful degradation of recalcitrant pollutants. Nevertheless, a development of a technique, taking into the account the type of pollutant, its concentration in the environment, its metabolic pathway and maintenance of the system is required. This paper presents a literature survey related to enzymatic system of a white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium and its potential application in biodegradation processes.
7
Content available remote Jak najefektywniej oczyszczać ścieki przemysłowe z nadtlenku wodoru?
PL
Przeprowadzono analizę matematyczną by ocenić, czy zastosowanie optymalnego sterowania temperaturą w procesie rozkładu nadtlenku wodoru przez natywną katalazę Terminox Ultra jest uzasadnione. Oceny dokonano w oparciu o wskaźnik będący ilorazem czasów trwania procesu prowadzonego przy optymalnym profilu temperatury oraz w warunkach izotermicznych. Wykazano, że zastosowanie optymalnego sterowania temperaturą jest uzasadnione, gdy proces przebiega do osiągnięcia wysokich stopni przemiany oraz niskich aktywności enzymu. Dodatkowo wprowadzenie ograniczeń temperaturowych obniża wartość ocienianego wskaźnika. Przedstawiona analiza może być pomocna przy ekonomicznej ocenie procesów sterowanych optymalnie.
EN
A mathematical analysis is proposed to assess if the application of optimal temperature control (OTC) in the hydrogen peroxide decomposition process by Terminox Ultra catalase is justified. The estimation was performed on basis of the indicator expressed by a quotient of process duration under time-optimal temperature control and that for isothermal conditions (IC). It was found that the application of OTC is justified when the process under consideration is running up to attain a high conversion and low final enzyme activity. Additionally, the application of temperature constraints causes a decrease of the assessed indicator value. The framework proposed here can be helpful for the evaluation of economic aspects of optimally controlled processes.
EN
Considerable progress has been made in the past few years with industrial use of essential key intermediates for chemical and pharmaceutical industry. The increasing demand for obtaining chiral drugs in enantiomerically pure form makes it necessary to search for novel biocatalysts useful in the synthesis of amino acids, chiral amines, amino sugars and alcohols. According to the reaction mechanism, aminotransferases (ATs) have useful applications because of their capability of transfer of an amino group from a donor substrate to an acceptor, thus resulting in the synthesis of a wide variety of building blocks. This article reviews current biocatalytic approaches using microbial ATs in the synthesis of optically active products. Focus is also put on the engineering of ATs and their limitations in the industrial applications. Moreover this review covers biocatalytic approaches using ATs isolated from extreme environments.
PL
Przeprowadzono biotransformacje piętnastu substratów w kulturach dwóch szczepów grzybów strzępkowych: Coryneum betulinum KCh 6534 i Chaetomium sp. KCh 6651. Badane biokatalizatory charakteryzują się bardzo wysoką specyficznością substratową. Zaobserwowano wyraźny wpływ budowy zastosowanego substratu na stopień konwersji oraz enancjoselektywność procesu redukcji. W kulturze C. betulinum uzyskano enencjomerycznie czysty (S)-1-(1-naftylo)-etanol i (S)-1-(6-tetralino)-etanol. W kulturze szczepu z gatunku Chaetomium uzyskano z wysokim nadmiarem enancjomerycznym zarówno alkohole o konfiguracji absolutnej S: 1-(4-bromofenylo)-etanol i 1-cykloheksyloetanol, jak i R: 1-(4-metylofenylo)-etanol i 7-metoksy-1-tetralol.
EN
Fifteen α-aryloketones were biotransformed to resp. enantimerically pure EtOH or tetralol derivatives by using Coryneum betulinum KCh 6534 and Chaetomium sp. KCh 6651 strains of filamentous fungi. A very high substrate specificity and a significant impact of the substrate structure on the conversion and enantioselectivity of the redn. were obsd. In the culture of C. Betulinum, enantiomarically pure (S)-1-(1-naphthyl)-ethanol and (S)-1-(6-tetralino)-ethanol were obtained. On the contrary, both (S)-(1-(4-bromo- phenyl)-ethanol and 1-cyclohexylethanol) as well as (R)-(1-(4-methylphenyl)ethanol and (R)-7-methoxy-1-tetralol were produced in the culture of Chaetomium species in high enantiomeric excess.
PL
Zbadano aktywność katalityczną dwóch szczepów Coryneum betulinum KCh 6534 i Chaetomium sp. KCh 6651 względem pochodnych β-tetralonu. Cztery pochodne (6-, 7- i 8-metoksy- oraz 6-chloro-β-tetralon) spośród pięciu zastosowanych ulegały efektywnej enancjoselektywnej redukcji do zgodnych z regułą Preloga S-alkoholi.
EN
Two of Coryneum betulinum KCh 6534 and Chaetomium sp. KCh 6651 strains were used for redn. of 6-, 7- and 8-methoxy-β-tetralones and 6-chloro-β-tetralone. An efficient enantioselective redn. resulted in formation of resp. tetralols consistently with the Prelog rule.
11
EN
Both plants and animals in the process of evolution gained the ability to produce compounds that affect their existence in the wild. These compounds may affect the organisms producing them, and may also be used by completely different individuals. Among huge number of molecules characterized by extremely essential features are, among others, ionones and their derivatives. Ionones are ketones composed of 13 carbon atoms. They are found in many essential oils being the products of degradation of carotenoids. Both they and their structural analogues can play various biological functions such as being deterrent to other individuals or, conversely, atractant. Compounds found in plants, containing like ionone carbon skeleton, and having in their structure additional hydroxyl groups or epoxide ring (4)–(23) often exhibit allelopathic activity [1–15] (Fig. 2–5). Marine animals may in turn use them as ichtyotoxic compounds (27) and (28) [19] (Fig. 7). A compound called luciferin Latia (29) is responsible for the bioluminescent properties of marine snail [20] (Fig. 8). Plants used for centuries in traditional folk medicine of different countries are a source of glycoside derived α- and β-ionone (37)–(55) [22–31] (Fig. 11–14). These compounds may also be used in modern medicine, inter alia, in the regulation of neurodegenerative diseases or for the treatment of osteoporosis. Because of the potential biological properties of structural analogs of ionones they are also obtained by chemical synthesis (56)–(69) [32–39] (Fig. 15–18) or biotransformation (70)–(89) [40–47] (Fig. 19–25), and then subjected to careful examination of their biological activities. By applying these methods we can also obtain a molecules whose acquisition from natural sources is unprofitable. We have received such derivatives which have no counterpart in nature.
PL
Przedmiotem badań była selektywna transformacja dwóch grup związków fosforoorganicznych epoksy- oraz winylofosfonianów do odpowiednich pochodnych, z wykorzystaniem całych komórek bakterii lub grzybów. Aktywność hydrolityczną względem modelowego epoksyfosfonianu wykazywał tylko szczep Aspergillus niger, podczas gdy szczepy Cladosporium herbarum oraz Fusarium oxysporum zdolne były do degradacji trwałego wiązania C-P w winylofosfonianach, w zadanych warunkach procesu.
EN
The subject of research was the selective transformation of the two groups of organophosphorus compounds, epoxy- and vinylphosphonates, to the corresponding derivatives, using whole cells of bacteria or fungi. Hydrolytic activity towards model epoxphosphonate was observed only in the case of Aspergillus niger, whereas Cladosporium herbarum and Fusarium oxysporum were able to degrade stable C-P bond in vinylphosphonates, under defined experimental conditions.
EN
Biotransformations involve mainly microorganisms or individual enzymes applied to catalyze chemical reactions [1]. This field of science is particularly important, because it allows to obtain optically active compounds, which are valuable raw materials for pharmaceutical (Fig. 3, Fig. 6, Fig. 20, Fig. 21), wood and paper (Fig. 18), food (Fig. 4), textile (Fig. 12), cosmetic (Fig. 14) industries and environmental protection (Fig. 19). Oxidoreductases, in particular alcohol dehydrogenases (E.C.1.1.1.1, ADH) are valuable biocatalysts enabling to obtain enantiomerically pure products. These enzymes, commonly found in nature, catalyze both oxidation and reduction reactions [3]. Described dehydrogenases descend from mesophilic, psychrophilic and thermophilic microorganisms. The increasing application of thermophiles is due to their exceptional resistance against heat and organic solvents. The article describes and explains how microbial ADH’s interact with NAD+/NADH or NADP+/NADPH and present those enzymes which catalyze reactions with both forms of cofactors. The alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast are particularly commonly used [9–14]. Bacterial enzymes, among them ADH isolated from Thermoanaerobacter brockii [47–51], are widely distributed too. In addition, the literature describes a number of (R)-specific ADH’s from Lactobacillus kefir [40–42], L. brevis [45, 46], Leisofonia sp. [20] Pseudomonas fluorescens [23] and (S)- -specific ADH’s from Rhodococcus erythropolis [15, 16], Thermus sp. [30], Sulfolobus solfataricus [23, 28] and many others.
PL
Celem przeprowadzonych badań było zastosowanie mikroorganizmów fotoautotroficznych jako biokatalizatora w redukcji -ketoalkilofosfonianu dietylu. Przeprowadzone badania przesiewowe wskazały szczepy cyjanobakterii Arthrospira maxima CCALA 027 oraz Nodularia sphaerocarpa CCALA 114 jako zdolne do redukcji 2-oksopropanofosfonianu dietylu do odpowiedniego 2-hydroksypropanofosfonianu dietylu. W trakcie 7-dniowego procesu biokonwersji stopień przereagowania substratu w przypadku zastosowania wymienionych szczepów wynosił odpowiednio 26,4% oraz 12,9%, zaś czystość optyczna produktu w obu przypadkach wyniosła ponad 99%.
XX
The aim of the study was applying of autotrophic microorganisms as a biocatalyst in the reduction of oxoalkylphosphonates. Cyanobacteria strains Arthrospira maxima CCALA 027 and Nodularia sphaerocarpa CCALA 114 are capable to reduce diethyl 2- oxopropylphosphonate to the corresponding diethyl 2- hydroxypropylphosphonate. The degree of conversion of the substrate was respectively 26.4% and 12.9%, and the optical purity of the product in both cases was over 99%.
PL
Celem badań był rozdział kinetyczny mieszaniny racemicznej kwasu 2-butyryloksy-2-(etoksy-P-fenylofosfinylo)octowego na drodze biotransformacji z wykorzystaniem biokatalizatora całokomórkowego. Optycznie czyste produkty mogą znaleźć zastosowanie jako dyskryminatory chiralności oraz bloki budulcowe do syntezy związków biologicznie czynnych, takich jak leki czy środki ochrony roślin. Biokatalizatorem użytym w przeprowadzonej syntezie był szczep Penicillium oxalicum o potwierdzonych właściwościach lipolitycznych. Zbadano również wpływ dodatku oleju roślinnego na indukcję syntezy lipaz przez grzyby oraz na efektywność procesu biotransformacji. Zastosowanie induktora nie wpłynęło pozytywnie na szybkość procesu, zaobserwowano natomiast znaczące różnice w enancjoselektywności reakcji.
EN
The aim of the study was to resolve the racemic mixture of 2-butyryloxy-2-(ethoxy-P-phenylphosphinyl)acetic acid by kinetically controlled biotransformation with whole-cell biocatalyst – Penicillium oxalicum strain with confirmed lipolytic activity. Also effect of the vegetable oil addition on induction of fungal lipases synthesis and efficiency of the biotransformation process was examined. The use of inductors did not positively influenced the degree of substrate conversion, while significant differences were observed in the enantioselectivity of the reaction.
PL
Zdolności adaptacyjne cyjanobakterii związane ze swoistym, „plastycznym” metabolizmem cechującym te mikroorganizmy sprawiły, że możliwe jest ich wykorzystanie jako biokatalizatorów w procesach biotransformacji związków naturalnych i połączeń syntetycznych. Inne cechy sinic umożliwiają ich zastosowanie w procesach bioremediacji jonów metali, w których równocześnie wytwarzane są nanocząstki tych pierwiastków. Wspomniane możliwości wskazują na znaczący potencjał biotechnologiczny cyjanobakterii.
EN
Cyanobacteria adaptability related to their specific „flexible” metabolism that characterizes these microorganisms enables their use as biocatalysts in biotransformation processes of natural and synthetic compounds. Other qualities of blue-green algae allow to use them in bioremediation of metal ions, during which nanoparticles of these elements are also produced. Mentioned possibilities indicate significant biotechnological potential of cyanobacteria.
PL
Katalizatory warunkują przebieg oraz odpowiednią wydajność wielu reakcji chemicznych. Przemiany biochemiczne w większości przypadków katalizowane są z udziałem enzymów. Szczególne cechy biokatalizatorów są powszechnie wykorzystywane w przemyśle, a w ostatnich latach drobnoustroje ekstremofilne, adaptowane do skrajnych warunków abiotycznych, wzbudzają duże zainteresowanie licznej grupy badaczy. Wyjątkowe predyspozycje biokatalizatora psychrotroficznego z dobrymi efektami zostały wykorzystane w procesie biotransformacji a-pinenu do werbenolu i werbenonu, będących cennymi związkami smakowo-zapachowymi stosowanymi w branży spożywczej i kosmetycznej. Uzyskane wyniki (sumaryczne stężenie produktów przekraczające 0,5 g/dm3) stanowią obiecującą perspektywę wykorzystania tego typu procesów w większej skali (ponadlaboratoryjnej).
EN
Many chemical reactions and their appropriate performance depend on catalysis. Most biochemical reactions are catalysed by enzymes. Special features of these biocatalysts are commonly employed in industry and current researches are focused on psychrotrophic microorganisms. These unique organisms can be a rich source of useful biocatalysts for biotransformation of a-pinene to verbenol and verbenone - valuable compounds used as flavours and fragrances. Results obtained in this study are promising for further application in the large scale.
EN
Baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is quite commonly applied as a wholecell biocatalysts in biotransformations – reactions based on enzymatic transformations of chemical compounds. Yeast cells are easy in cultivation and use. They are usually used to catalyze such reactions as bioreduction or hydrolysis. The full sequencing of its genome accompanied with achievements of genetic engineering allowed to design new yeast strains characterized by high conversion yield and reaction selectivity. Genetically modified cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae catalyze biotransformations, which lead to chiral building blocks important in pharmaceutical industry (especially those obtained by reduction of á- and â -oxoesters). „Designer yeast” is a new catalyst for Baeyer–Villiger oxidation. Recombinant yeast lipases have been discussed as useful means in biodiesel production because the microbiological method of producing of this kind of fuel has many advantages. There is a growing interest in application of modified yeast in biotransformation reactions. Modern directions to improve catalytic abilities of baker’s yeast include: the use of surface display technology of enzymes, optimization or increase in availability of cofactor required for bioreduction reactions or gene knock-out, which eliminates the activity of enzymes with conflicting and unwanted stereoselectivities. Commonly used technique is also overexpression of the desired protein or expression of heterologous enzymes in yeast cells.
20
Content available remote Perspektywy rozwoju biotechnologii przemysłowej w Unii Europejskiej
EN
White, or industrial, biotechnology is the application of biotechnology for the processing and production of chemicals, materials, and energy. White biotechnology uses enzymes and microorganisms to generate products in industrial sectors as diverse as pharmaceuticals and chemistry, food and feed, pulp and paper, textiles or detergents. This review gives an overview of the possible developments in the transition to bio-based production with a focus on the production of chemicals. Implementation of industrial biotechnology offers significant ecological advantages. Renewable agricultural crops are the preferential starting materials, instead of dwindling fossil resources such as crude oil and natural gas. This technology consequently has a beneficial effect on greenhouse gas emissions and at the same time supports the agricultural sector, delivering these raw materials. Moreover, industrial biotechnology frequently shows significant performance benefits compared to conventional chemical technology, such as a higher reaction rate, increased conversion efficiency, improved product purity, lowered energy consumption and significant decrease in chemical waste generation. The combination of these factors has led to the recent strong penetration of industrial biotechnology in all sectors of the chemical industry, particularly in fine chemicals but equally so for bulk chemicals such as plastics and fuels. The chemical industry in Europe, which contributes about 28% of the world demand for chemicals, has identified industrial biotechnology as a key emerging technology area. The biorefinery concept offers numerous possibilities to integrate the production of bio-energy and chemicals. This will also provide substantially higher value-added economic activities, besides promoting production in agriculture and forestry. Shifting the resource base for chemical production from fossil feedstocks to renewable raw materials provides exciting possibilities for the use of industrial biotechnology-based process tools. In a bio-based production, industrial biotechnology also interfaces with plant biotechnology (green biotechnology), where gene technology is applied to accelerate the process of plant breeding for crop improvement or for altering the composition of the feedstock for a desired product. The concept of Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy and the vision of bio-economy in Europe to 2030 presented in so called "Cologne Paper". [82] are also briefly outlined.
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