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PL
Nawiązując do mostu Południowego przez Wisłę w Warszawie, scharakteryzowano w artykule problemy rozmyć zagrażających bezpieczeństwu mostów.
EN
In reference to the South Bridge across the Vistula river in Warsaw, the article describes the problems of scour that threaten safety of the bridges.
EN
A comprehensive review of the local scour due to vortical fow around a cylindrical bridge pier under steady current is presented in this paper. The mechanism of the formation of vortices, the size, velocity and strength of horseshoe vortex (HSV), formation of the HSV by the separation of laminar and turbulent boundary layer and the scour around a cylindrical pier due to vortices have been presented. The complexity involved in the scour-related calculations, and the scope for future research are discussed in the last section.
EN
This paper sheds light on the formulation of a new equilibrium local scour depth equation around a pier. The total bed materials removed from the scour hole due to the force exerted by the fowing fuid after colliding with the pier in the fow feld are estimated. At the equilibrium condition, the shape of the scour hole around the pier may take any form, viz. linear, circular, parabolic, triangular, or combination of diferent shapes. To consider that, two functions are assumed at the stoss and the lee sides of the pier. The total volume of bed materials removed from the scour hole of an arbitrary shape at the stoss and the lee sides of the pier is obtained by integrating the two functions. The equilibrium scour depth is formed by applying the energy balance theorem. An example problem is illustrated and the results are compared with the equations presented by Melville and Coleman (Bridge scour. Water Resources Publication, Colorado, 2000) and HEC-18 (Richardson and Davis in Evaluating scour at bridges, HEC-18. Technical report no. FHWA NHI, 2001).
PL
Artykuł przedstawia zagrożenia przyczółków przez rozmycia oraz wpływ na stabilność przyczółków zjawisk hydraulicznych, lodu i szczątków przynoszonych przez wodę. Podaje charakterystyczne przypadki awarii przyczółków powodowane przez rozmycia. Przedstawia środki ochrony przed rozmyciami stosowane przy przyczółkach oraz metodologię wymiarowania dla nich narzutów kamiennych. Informuje o specyfice zabezpieczania przyczółków mostów przez wąskie rzeki.
EN
The article presents the risk of the abutments by scour and the impact on the stability of the abutments of hydraulic phenomena, ice and debris brought by the water. It gives specific instances of failure abutments caused by scour. Presents countermeasures used at the abutments and the sized riprap methodology. Tells about the specifics of the protection of bridge abutments over the narrow rivers.
EN
Results of an experimental study on the countermeasure of scour depth at circular piers are presented. Experiments were conducted for pier scour with and without a splitter plate under a steady, uniform clear-water flow condition. The results of pier scour without splitter plate were used as a reference. Different combinations of lengths and thicknesses of splitter plates were tested attaching each of them to a pier at the upstream vertical plane of symmetry. Two different median sediment sizes (d50 = 0.96 and 1.8 mm) were considered as bed sediment. The experimental results show that the scour depth consistently decreases with an increase in splitter plate length, while the scour depth remains independent of splitter plate thickness. In addition, temporal evolution of scour depth at piers with and without a splitter plate is observed. The best combination is found to be with a splitter plate thickness of b/5 and a length of 2b. Here, b denotes the pier diameter. An empirical formula for the estimation of equilibrium scour depth at piers with splitter plates is obtained from a multiple linear regression analysis of the experimental data. The flow fields for various combinations of circular piers with and without splitter plate including plain bed and equilibrium scour conditions were measured by using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. The turbulent flow fields for various configurations are investigated by plotting the velocity vec-tors and the turbulent kinetic energy contours on vertical and horizontal planes. The splitter plate attached to the pier deflects the approach flow and thus weakens the strength of the downflow and the horseshoe vortex, being instrumental in reducing the equilibrium scour depth at piers. The proposed method of pier scour countermeasure is easy to install and cost effective as well.
EN
In this study, three kinds of pier arrangements were tested. They are (i) two piers in tandem, (ii) two piers in staggered arrangement, and (iii) three piers in symmetrically staggered arrangements. In the arrangement of two piers in tandem, the equilibrium scour depth at downstream pier decreases with an increase in downstream distance up to approximately eight times pier diameter and then increases with further increase in downstream distance. However, the scour depth at downstream pier is always smaller than that at upstream pier. In the arrangement of two staggered piers, the scour depth at the downstream pier for L/b = 4, where L is the offset distance and b is the pier diameter, is the same as that of the upstream pier at S = 8b, where S is the streamwise spacing or distance between piers. Further, for three piers in staggered arrangement, as the lateral spacing between downstream piers increases, the equilibrium scour depth at downstream pier decreases.
EN
The installation of free falling jet grade control structures has become a popular choice for river bed stabilization. However, the formation and development of scour downstream of the structure may lead to failure of the structure itself. The current approaches to scour depth prediction are generally based on studies conducted with the absence of upward seepage. In the present study, the effects of upward seepage on the scour depth were investigated. A total of 78 tests without and with the application of upward seepage were carried out using three different sediment sizes, three different tailwater depths, four different flow discharges, and four different upward seepage flow discharge rates. In some tests, the three-dimensional components of the flow velocity within the scour hole were measured for both the cases with and without upward seepage. The scour depth measured for the no-seepage results compared well with the most accurate relationship found in the literature. It was found that generally the upward seepage reduced the downward velocity components near the bed, which led to a decrease in the maximum scour depth. A maximum scour depth reduction of 49% was found for a minimum tailwater depth, small sediment size, and high flow discharge. A decay of the downward velocity vector within the jet impingement was found due to the upward seepage flow velocity. The well known equation of D’Agostino and Ferro was modified to account for the effect of upward seepage, which satisfactorily predicted the experimental scour depth, with a reasonable average error of 10.7%.
EN
J-Hook vanes are grade control structures used to stabilize the riverbed. This paper aims to investigate the behaviour of J-Hook vanes as a grade-control structure in straight rivers. Scour downstream of J-Hook vane structures like other grade-control structures depends on the shape of the structure and the river hydraulic conditions. The purpose of this study is classifying the scour geometry and predicting the main scour parameters such as the scour depth, length, width, and the ridge height and length downstream of the J-Hook vanes in straight rivers. Experiments were carried out in a horizontal channel. For each length of the structure, three heights in different hydraulic conditions, including densimetric Froude numbers, water drops, and opening ratios, were tested. Results show that the densimetric Froude number, the drop height, and the height of the structure are the key parameters to form and classify the scour. Equations have been derived using dimensional analysis and experimental data to predict the maximum scour depth, the maximum length of the scour, the maximum scour width, and the maximum height and length of the dune. All the experiments were conducted in clear water conditions.
EN
Rock and stepped gabion weirs are peculiar hydraulic structures that received relatively little attenti on in technical literature. Neverthe- less, they can be successfully used for river restoration instead of tradi- tional hydraulic structures. They have the advantage of being elastic structures and to preserve the natura l environment. They can easily adapt to the in situ conditions and can be effortle ssly modified according to the different hydraulic or geometric cond itions which can occur in a natural river. The present study aims to anal yze the effects of their presence on flow pattern and on the scour hole occurring downstream. The analysis involved scour processes, hydraulic jump types, stilling basin morphol- ogy and flow patterns. Two different hydraulic jump types were distin- guished and classified. It was show n that the flow regime deeply influences the scour process, which evolves much more rapidly when a Skimming Flow regime takes place. Empirical relationships are pro- posed to evaluate maximum scour depth, maximum axial length, and non dimensional axial profiles.
EN
Watercourse morphology is affected by local scouring when the flow interferes with anthropic structures. Controlling the scour hole size is of predominant importance to guarantee bridge safety as well as to limit the variations of river morphology. A combined countermeasure against bridge pier scour is proposed and tested in order to reduce the maximum scour depth and deviate it away from the bridge foundation. In the first part of the laboratory campaign, combination of two countermeasures (bed-sill and collar) was evaluated for a circular pier under clear-water and live-bed steady flow conditions. The proposed combined countermeasure exhibited an efficiency of about 64% in terms of scour depth reduction. Afterwards, it was tested in unsteady flow conditions, first for a circular pier, then in the case of a rectangular pier with round nose and tail, two circular in-line piers and two rectangular in-line piers, under a hydrograph with a peak flow velocity slightly above the threshold condition of sediment motion. Results showed that the combined countermeasure had an efficiency of about 63% for a single circular pier; however, higher efficiency (about 75%) was obtained in applications to rectangular pier and two in-line circular or rectangular piers.
11
Content available remote Numeryczne modelowanie rozmyć poniżej budowli piętrzących
EN
The scour below the dam is numerically simulated using an Eulerian two-phase model that implements Euler-Euler coupled governing equation for fluid and solid phase and a modified k-ε turbulence closure for the fluid phase and comparison with laboratory results. The modeling system being a part of CFD software package FLUENT. Both flow-particle and particle-particle interactions are considered in the model. During the simulations, the interface between sand and water is specified using a threshold volume fraction of sand. The predictions of bedform evolution are in good agreement with conducted laboratory measurements.
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