System identyfikacji obszaru zagrożenia dla operatora stanowi pierwszy moduł, opracowywanego w Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, komputerowo wspomaganego systemu projektowania bezpiecznych siłowni okrętowych. W artykule wyróżniono system decyzyjny identyfikacji obszaru zagrożenia, a następnie przedstawiono go za pomocą opisu dążenia do zamierzonego celu, wykorzystując w tym celu formalną interpretację ogólnego problemu podejmowania decyzji. Na podstawie tego opisu sformułowano zadanie identyfikacji oraz wyznaczono i określono charakterystyczne cechy zbiorów elementów systemu decyzyjnego, tj. zmiennych wejściowych, wynikowych oraz elementów obszaru zagrożenia. Przedstawiono także założenia budowy zbioru miar wartości umożliwiającego pomiar stopnia dążenia systemu decyzyjnego do celu oraz zdefiniowano wskaźniki realizacji tego celu.
Many international reports show us that the most dangerous spaces of ships are their power plants. Moreover, their specificity allows us to assert that their every space can be more or less dangerous for operators carrying out any kind operation. For this reason, ship power plants should be well-designed to minimize possible hazards for their operators. Therefore, the International Maritime Organization has paid attention to this factor by developing guidelines including general principles for design of safe ship power plants. As a rule, they do not have an obligatory character and therefore engineers can ignore them. Today, in order to force engineers to take into account the mentioned guidelines, many maritime design offices have introduced so-called quality control systems to the design process like ISO or TQM. According to these systems, engineers responsible for safety issues have to participate in design reviews. In this approach, they can offer some remarks and suggestions concerning design solutions but only after the fact. Acceptance of their suggestions can trigger off the necessity for redesign which, in turn, could entail increasing the design cost and time. The paper deals with the computer-aided system for hazard zone identification in ship power plants. Some issues connected with modelling of a decision-making process coursing in the developed decision-making system are presented. Particularly, for enabling an appropriate course of that process, we have constituted the framework in the form of a decision-making system. In this decision-making system, we selected the following system elements: a set of input variables (dangerous and harmful factors which can trigger off hazards for operators); a set of elementary hazard situations (collection of a ship machinery component and an operational activity constitutes the set of an elementary hazard situation); a set of output variables (types of hazards for operators), a set of decisions and a set of comparative values allowing to compare the decisions to be reached by the user's system. Moreover, we distinguished the following two functions; influence of dangerous and harmful factors on hazards for operators (triggering off potential hazards for operators) and assessment of a hazard level. Any combination of these elements sets up the decision-making system for hazard zone identification in a ship power plant. Nevertheless, the presented functions allow us to consider such a system as relations between its inputs and outputs variables. According to the existing relations between sets of these variables, we can develop various types of desired models. In our approach, we have adopted relations in the form of prepositional functions. When we want to apply these functions, then we have the question: how to evaluate their logical values? In our opinion, assessments of experts in the field of design, operation, and maintenance of ship power plants could be successively used for this purpose. Their experience, intuition, and understanding of the nature of the matter should allow them to assess the influence of dangerous and harmful factors on hazards for operators and the hazard level. Moreover, the developed decision making system of hazard zone identification sets up the space of possible solutions facilitating knowledge acquisition from experts. It is obvious that experts can formulate their opinions using verbal language. In many cases, such opinions are ambiguous and cannot be analyzed by computers. Therefore, these opinions should be converted into language that can be interpreted by computers.