Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników

Znaleziono wyników: 20

Liczba wyników na stronie
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
Wyniki wyszukiwania
Wyszukiwano:
w słowach kluczowych:  Mediterranean Sea
help Sortuj według:

help Ogranicz wyniki do:
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
EN
The paper analyzes the possibilities of saving illegal immigrants, on the Mediterranean Sea, by the non-governmental organizations. The number, structure, equipment and legal determinants of using the ships owned by the organizations were evaluated.
EN
We present the first report and description of the pinnate diatom Haslea sp. from the northeastern Adriatic Sea, Croatia, producing a blue pigment. This organism is very similar to the well-known Haslea ostrearia, the first described “blue” diatom producing marennine, i.e. the pigment involved in the greening of oysters, and recently described H. provincialis. However, the Croatian diatom slightly differs from other Haslea species in its morphology and 18S rRNA sequence. The discovery of Haslea sp. from Croatia confirmed the possible existence of more species among the representatives of blue Haslea species, as previously assumed. The discovery of several genetically distinct populations of Haslea ostrearia, new species H. karadagensis, H. provincialis and Haslea sp. from Croatia, suggests that species richness in the group of “blue” diatoms is probably underestimated and still more new blue diatoms remain undiscovered. This also raises questions about previously published reports and observations of Haslea distribution in the Mediterranean Sea whether these organisms really belong to H. ostrearia.
EN
Diel changes in the vertical distribution and abundance of calyptopes were studied in the deepest area of the southern Adriatic over four seasons (July 2003, February 2004, October 2004, April 2009). Temperature variations were limited to the upper 100 m and salinity variations were small. Of previously known adult euphausiid species – 12 for the Adriatic (Gangai et al., 2012) and 13 for the Mediterranean (Mavidis et al., 2005) – calyptopes of 11 species of euphausiids were recorded. Abundance of calyptopes of all species was the highest in spring. Species were characterized according to their mean depth: surface (0-50 m), sub-surface (50-200 m), mesopelagic (200-800 m), or bathypelagic (800-1200 m) and vertical dispersion (scattered or non-scattered). Four diel patterns emerged: (i) nocturnal ascent to upper layers (Euphausia brevis, E. hemigibba, E. krohnii, Nematoscelis megalops, N. couchii), (ii) migration to upper layers at middle of the day and at night, and descent during the morning and evening (Stylocheiron maximum – only winter), (iii) weakly-migrating or non-migrating (S. longicorne), (iv) irregular migration independent of the day/night cycle (S. abbreviatum, S. maximum – during spring, summer and autumn, T. aequalis).
EN
The Levantine basin in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea is subject to spatial and seasonal variations in primary production and physical-chemical properties both on a short and long-term basis. In this study, the monthly means of daily MODIS product images were averaged between 2002 and 2015, and used to characterize the phytoplankton blooms in different bioregions of the Levantine basin. The selected products were the sea surface temperature (SST), the chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a), the diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance at 490 nm (Kd_490) and the colored dissolved organic matter index (CDOM_index). Our results showed that phytoplankton blooms were spatially and temporally variable. They occurred in late autumn at the Nile Delta, in early spring and late summer at the eastern coastline, and in spring at the northeastern coastline. The northern coastline and the open water had a common bloom occurring in winter. The Nile Delta was found to be the most productive area of the Levantine basin showing high Chl-a. Kd_490 and Chl-a present a parallel co-variation indicating a dominance of Case 1 waters in the Levantine basin. The CDOM_index shows a phase shift with the Chl-a fluctuation. A strong inverse correlation was observed between both Chl-a and CDOM_index with SST, connoting an indirect relation represented by a depression of CDOM in summer by photobleaching, and a suppression of the chlorophyll-a concentration due to water stratification, together with nutrient stress. An overestimation of the Chl-a values had been signaled by the use of the CDOM_index, suggesting a correction plan in a latter study.
EN
The aim of the present work is to broaden our knowledge on the variability of trace metals in mussel tissues, focusing on seasonal fluctuations in the three different sampling sites of Algerian west coast (Oran Harbor (S1), Ain Defla (S2) and Hadjaj (S3)). For this purpose, the bioavailability (metal indices) and bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in soft tissues) of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd), and the physiological characteristics (e.g. biological indices such as condition index (CI)) of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis have been assessed and related to seasons and sites. In S1, the highest levels of metal concentrations and indices were obtained in mussels sampled in winter for Zn, Cu and Cd, but in summer for Pb. The biological indices significantly decreased in winter. In S2, the levels of concentrations and indices of all metals varied whatever the seasons, excepting in summer where the values were the lowest. In summer and spring, the biological indices were lower than in autumn and winter. The low growth of organisms in spring and summer might be correlated to the reproductive period and the low trophic level known in S2. S3, considered as a “pristine” area, showed low metal concentrations and indices, and high biological indices, reflecting the favorable physiological conditions for the mussel growth. This approach might be used in the monitoring of the quality of coastal waters and the present work provided a useful data set for Mediterranean monitoring network.
EN
This paper presents a two-basin model of the water and heat balances of the Western and Eastern Mediterranean sub-basins (WMB and EMB, respectively) over the 1958–2010 period using available meteorological and hydrological data. The results indicate that the simulated temperature and salinity in both studied Mediterranean sub-basins closely follow the reanalysed data. In addition, simulated surface water in the EMB had a higher mean temperature (by approximately 1.6°C) and was more saline (by approximately 0.87 g kg−1) than in the WMB over the studied period. The net evaporation over the EMB (1.52 mm day−1) was approximately 1.7 times greater than over the WMB (0.88 mm day−1). The water balance of the Mediterranean Sea was controlled by net inflow through the Gibraltar Strait and Sicily Channel, the net evaporation rate and freshwater input. The heat balance simulations indicated that the heat loss from the water body was nearly balanced by the solar radiation to the water body, resulting in a net export (import) of approximately 13 (11) W m−2 of heat from the WMB (to the EMB).
EN
Appendix III of MARPOL´s Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA).These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.
8
EN
We analyse recent Mediterranean Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and their response to global change using 1/4-degree gridded advanced very-high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) daily SST data, 1982-2012. These data indicate significant annual warming (from 0.24°C decade-1 west of the Strait of Gibraltar to 0.51°C decade-1over the Black Sea) and significant spatial variation in annual average SST (from 15ºC over the Black Sea to 21°C over the Levantine sub-basin). Ensemble mean scenarios indicate that the study area SST may experience significant warming, peaking at 2.6°C century-1 in the Representative Concentration Pathways 85 (RCP85) scenario.
EN
Lampedusa – an Italian island barely 70 miles from northern Africa and 100 miles from Malta – has become a gateway to Europe for migrants. In some seasons, boats filled with asylum seekers arrive almost daily. However, yearly, hundreds of people die trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea. This paper will deal with the obligations of States towards seaborne migrants, the question of why so many people die near Lampedusa and the possible solutions in order to prevent further loss of life at sea.
10
Content available remote The Italian Navy, the Mediterranean and the war
EN
The Mediterranean green crab Carcinus aestuarii Nardo, 1847 (Crustacea, Brachyura, Portunidae) is a common inhabitant of the shallow waters of Homa Lagoon in Izmir Bay, Turkey, in the eastern Mediterranean. Monthly samples were collected in Homa Lagoon from June 2006 to May 2007 using trammel nets, fyke nets, beach seines and fence traps. In total, 608 males and 559 females of C. aestuarii were collected. The highest sex ratio (81-86% females) was recorded between October and December, and in August (58% females). Ovigerous females were obtained only from November to February with the highest ratio of ovigerous females (55%) observed in January 2007. The maturation curve presenting the carapace width showed that 50% of female crabs with the carapace width of 26.84 š1.58 mm (r= 0.72) were physiologically mature. Regression analyses indicated that the number of eggs was positively correlated with carapace width and wet weight (P < 0.05, in both cases).
EN
Eastern Mediterranean water and heat balances were analysed over 52 years. The modelling uses a process-oriented approach resolving the one-dimensional equations of momentum, heat and salt conservation; turbulence is modelled using a two-equation model. The results indicate that calculated temperature and salinity follow the reanalysed data well. The water balance in the Eastern Mediterranean basin was controlled by the difference between inflows and outflows through the Sicily Channel and by net precipitation. The freshwater component displayed a negative trend over the study period, indicating increasing salinity in the basin. The heat balance was controlled by heat loss from the water surface, solar radiation into the sea and heat flow through the Sicily Channel. Both solar radiation and net heat loss displayed increasing trends, probably due to decreased total cloud cover. In addition, the heat balance indicated a net import of approximately 9 W m-2 of heat to the Eastern Mediterranean Basin from the Western Basin.
EN
Two types of large, branched structures from the Lower Pleistocene (Calabrian) high-energy calcarenites of Favignana Island are described: Faviradixus robustus gen. et sp. nov. and Egadiradixus rectibrachiatus gen. et sp. nov. They may be interpreted as root structures of large plants, trees and trees or shrubs, respectively. The former taxon co-occurs with the marine animal trace fossils Ophiomorpha nodosa, Ophiomorpha isp., Thalassinoides isp. and Beaconites isp. The interpretation as root structures although tentative is probable and can be related to short emergence episodes for the formation of E. rectibrachiatus or to longer emergence, responsible for the discontinuity at the base of the overlying Tyrrhenian deposits, for F. robustus. Calcified root mats of smaller plants associated with the Tyrrhenian or younger emergence surfaces are common.
PL
Polityka zagraniczna stanowi podstawowy instrument realizacji zarówno interesów państw, jak i organizacji międzynarodowych. Unia Europejska, jako twór składający się z dwudziestu siedmiu państw leżących na być może najważniejszym kontynencie świata, musi odgrywać coraz większą rolę w obliczu dominacji potęgi Stanów Zjednoczonych i rodzącej się potęgi państw Dalekiego Wschodu — Chin i Indii. Stworzenie monolitu z odrębnych polityk zagranicznych państw członkowskich wydaje się być nie lada wyzwaniem w sytuacji wciąż trwającej transformacji organizacyjnej Unii Europejskiej. Polityka zagraniczna wobec najbliższych sąsiadów wydaje się być rzeczą kluczową dla funkcjonowania bytu, jakim jest Unia Europejska. Fakt okresowego poszerzania UE oraz olbrzymi jej obszar powoduje, że polityka wobec sąsiadów musi być niezwykle elastyczna, dostosowana indywidualnie do określonej grupy partnerów, z jednoczesnym uwzględnieniem interesów Unii.
EN
The European Neighborhood Policy (ENP) was developed in 2004, with the objective of avoiding the emergence of new dividing lines between the enlarged EU and our neighbors and strengthening the prosperity, stability and security of all. In order to realize the vision of building an increasingly closer relationship with our neighbors, and a zone of stability, security and prosperity for all, the EU and each ENP partner reach agreement on reform objectives across a wide range of fields within certain ‘common’ areas such as cooperation on political and security issues, to economic and trade matters, mobility, environment, integration of transport and energy networks or scientific and cultural cooperation. The EU provides financial and technical assistance to support the implementation of these objectives, in support of partners’ own efforts. During the Barcelona Conference in November 1995, the foreign ministers of the 15 member states and the 12 TCMs, from then on ‘partners’ (Maghreb and Mashrek countries including the Palestinian Authority as well as Israel, Turkey, Malta and Cyprus) officially approved the principle of the creation of a Euro-Mediterranean free-trade economic zone. This article shows how this cooperation is connected with The European Neighborhood Policy.
PL
W pracy opisano miesięczne rozkłady przestrzenne związków między zmianami temperatury powietrza w basenie Morza Śródziemnego a zmianami ciśnienia atmosferycznego (SLP) w Arktyce Atlantyckiej. Stwierdzono występowanie różnic regionalnych między poszczególnymi częściami morza. Związki te nie są zbyt silne i z reguły nie są istotne statystycznie, przy czym w zachodniej części są silniejsze niż we wschodniej. Zarówno w zachodniej, jak i wschodniej części basenu Morza Śródziemnego, silniejsze związki zaznaczają się w miesiącach schyłku jesieni i zimy, a w pozostałych miesiącach zanikają całkowicie. Brak zgodnych w czasie związków między SLP w Arktyce Atlantyckiej ze związkami z SLP i temperaturą powietrza nad obszarem śródziemnomorskim nasuwa podejrzenie, że związki między SLP w Arktyce Atlantyckiej a SLP nad Morzem Śródziemnym mogą być artefaktem statystycznym.
EN
Analysis of the impact of pressure changes in the Atlantic Arctic on changes in air temperature in the Mediterranean region shows that the atmospheric circulation in the Arctic shows no relationship with air temperature over the area. Existing relations are generally weak and without statistical significance, much less than similar correlations in the area of Northern Europe and Siberia. Also the time distribution of relations is different. There is no compact autumn/winter “block” of strong negative relations. There appears only one short period (November-January), in which at the southern Mediterranean there are very strong positive relations. This means that the existence of pressure changes in the Atlantic Arctic is not a factor enforcing changes in air temperature over the Mediterranean Sea.
PL
Praca charakteryzuje miesięczne rozkłady przestrzenne związków między zmianami ciśnienia atmosferycznego na poziomie morza (SLP) nad Morzem Śródziemnym a zmianami SLP w Arktyce Atlantyckiej. Stwierdzono występowanie znacznych różnic regionalnych między zachodnią i wschodnią częścią Morza Śród-ziemnego. Nad zachodnią częścią morza związki te są silne i istotne statystycznie przez 9 miesięcy w roku, nad wschodnią – istotne, choć słabsze i ograniczone do 5 miesięcy. W obu częściach morza najsilniejsze związki zaznaczają się w miesiącach zimowych (listopad-marzec), zanikają w kwietniu oraz lipcu i sierpniu. Ich siła zmie-nia się w czasie: w latach 1951-1978 były słabsze, uległy wzmocnieniu w okresie 1978-2008. Wzrost siły związków stanowi rezultat spadku SLP w Arktyce Atlantyckiej i wzrostu SLP nad obszarem Morza Śródziemnego.
EN
The process of changes of relations between the atmospheric pressure at the point over the West Spitsbergen Current axis (75°N and 15°E) and the atmospheric pressure at the Mediterranean Basin show that there are statistically remarkable interrelations within the meteorological elements, unstable in time, relatively stable in space and they appear during the winter period – from November to March. The space range covers also the areas of the Iberian Peninsula, France and Germany – especially in winter time and in the SLP scale. The negative and statistically important correlations between the Atlantic Arctic pressure and the Mediterranean Basin pressure can be observed mainly in the western part of the sea in the October-May period or even October-June period with the break in April. Such correlations can be observed in the eastern part of Mediterranean Basin only in the November-March period but they do not reach the western part values. The reason differentiating the winter correlations and non-winter ones is the difference of pressure between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Arctic. The strong relations appear in the conditions of big pressure differences (10.5-11.0 hPa between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Arctic. The reason of instability of these relations in time is the trend change above both areas. The change of the trend took place over the Mediterranean Sea and the Arctic in the years 1977-1978. It is considered that it is the effect of the change of the circulation system of the Northern Hemisphere.
EN
The current knowledge of freshwater entomostracans from Sicily and some neighbouring central-Mediterranean countries is briefly reviewed. Data concerning different countries and different taxonomical groups are markedly inhomogeneous and often far from being representative of the real biota of the corresponding countries. This gap prevents a sound, biogeographical analysis of the freshwater microcrustacean fauna of the area. The major gaps that have to be filled are highlighted and the need for more surveys and monitoring is emphasised.
19
Content available remote Local geodynamic researches in Sudetes and the Mediterranean Region
EN
The general characteristics of local tectonic movements studies basing on the selfdeveloped monitoring system are presented in the paper. The system has been installed on some selected objects in the Sudetes ("Snieznik Massif" and "Dobromierz") and in the Mediterranean basin ("Gargano" and "Norcia" in Italy, "Kaparelli" in Greece).These research areas are located in zones characterised with different magnitudes of recent tectonic activity and monitoring of movements using GPS. The accuracy analysis of repeated GPS observations with respect to tectonic movements detection is also presented.
20
Content available remote Project "The Geodynamics at the Northern Mediterranean"
EN
The research project "The Geodynamics at the North Mediterranean" was prepared on the basis of the geodynamics research in the framework of the CERGOP II project. Results obtained so far are presented, as well the project, in which the Italy, Slovenia and Croatia participate in the united project about the Geodynamics of the Adriatic Plate at the juncture of the European and African Plates.
first rewind previous Strona / 1 next fast forward last
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.