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PL
W artykule poruszono kwestię przydomowej mikrosiłowni kogeneracyjnej, przedstawiając terminologię i podstawowe zagadnienia tej tematyki. Zaprezentowano w sposób przeglądowy trwające od lat w Instytucie Nafty i Gazu – Państwowym Instytucie Badawczym prace nad alternatywnymi źródłami energii. Pokrótce przedstawiono wykonane w roku 2016 stanowisko do badań polowych dostępnego na rynku systemu mikrokogeneracyjnego, o osiąganych mocach umożliwiających wykorzystanie w pojedynczym gospodarstwie domowym. Na łamach artykułu zwrócona została uwaga na obowiązujące akty prawne.
EN
Article introduces the issue of household micro CHP cogeneration system, presenting the terminology and basic issues. Presents in a review ongoing for years in the Oil & Gas Institute – National Research Institute, research on alternative energy sources. Briefly presents made in 2016 y test stand for field tests commercially available CHP system, with energy parameters enabling use in single household. On the pages of the article brought to the attention of the applicable laws.
EN
The first Polish micro-combined heat and power unit (micro-CHP) with solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) was designed and constructed in the facilities of the Institute of Power Engineering in Warsaw. The system was launched in September 2015 and is under investigation. At the current stage the unit is customized to operate on a pre-treated biogas. Adaptation of the fuel processing system, which is based on a steam reformer, makes it possible to utilize other gaseous and liquid fuels, including natural gas. The electric and thermal output of the system, up to 2 kW and about 2 kW, respectively, corresponds to the typical requirements of a detached dwelling or a small commercial site. Functionality of the system was increased by engaging two separate start-up modules, which are used for preheating the system from a cold state to the nominal working conditions. The first module is based on a set of electric heaters, while the second module relies on an additional start-up burner. The startup of the system from ambient conditions up to a thermally self-sufficient stage takes about 7 hours using the electric preheaters mode. Output residual heat was used to heat water to a temperature of about 50°C. The temperature of the flue gases at the inlet to the hot water tank was measured at approximately 300°C. Steam reforming of the biogas was performed by delivering deionized water to the steam reformer in order to maintain the S/C ratio at a range of 2–3.5. Selected aspects of the design and construction as well the first operational experiences are presented and discussed. The numerical modeling methodology is presented as a complimentary tool for system design and optimization.
EN
The economics of an ORC system is strictly linked to thermodynamic properties of the working fluid. A bad choice of working fluid could lead to a less efficient and expensive plant/generation unit. Some selection criteria have been put forward by various authors, incorporating thermodynamic properties, provided in literature but these do not have a general character. In the paper a simple analysis has been carried out which resulted in development of thermodynamic criteria for selection of an appropriate working fluid for subcritical and supercritical cycles. The postulated criteria are expressed in terms of non-dimensional numbers, which are characteristic for different fluids. The efficiency of the cycle is in a close relation to these numbers. The criteria are suitable for initial fluid selection. Such criteria should be used with other ones related to environmental impact, economy, system size, etc. Examples of such criteria have been also presented which may be helpful in rating of heat exchangers, which takes into account both heat transfer and flow resistance of the working fluid.
EN
The results of investigations conducted on the prototype of vapour driven micro-CHP unit integrated with a gas boiler are presented. The system enables cogeneration of heat and electric energy to cover the energy demand of a household. The idea of such system is to produce electricity for own demand or for selling it to the electric grid – in such situation the system user will became the prosumer. A typical commercial gas boiler, additionally equipped with an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) module based on environmentally acceptable working fluid can be regarded as future generation unit. In the paper the prototype of innovative domestic cogenerative ORC system, consisting of a conventional gas boiler and a small size axial vapour microturbines (in-house designed for ORC and the commercially available for Rankine cycle (RC)), evaporator and condenser were scrutinised. In the course of study the fluid working temperatures, rates of heat, electricity generation and efficiency of the whole system were obtained. The tested system could produce electricity in the amount of 1 kWe. Some preliminary tests were started with water as working fluid and the results for that case are also presented. The investigations showed that domestic gas boiler was able to provide the saturated/superheated ethanol vapour (in the ORC system) and steam (in the RC system) as working fluids.
5
Content available remote Wymiennikowy zasobnik ciepła w mikrokogeneracji
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki eksperymentalne okresowego badania efektów pracy wolno stojącego wymiennika z wężownicą spiralną jako zasobnika ciepła w instalacji kogeneracji opartej na małej jednostce kogeneracyjnej GECC60A2N firmy AISIN. Zasobnik jako bufor ciepła ma zapewnić możliwość dostarczenia czynnika grzewczego do odbiorcy przy chwilowym poborze większym niż wydajność źródła ciepła. Czasowy okres badań instalacji mikrokogeneracji wyznaczało rozpoczęcie ładowania zasobnika, a zakończenie badań to włączenie zewnętrzne chłodzenia kogeneratora. Otrzymane wartości pomiarów mocy cieplnej kogeneratora zasilającego zasobnik w ciepło mają tendencję spadkową, dochodzącą do 60% początkowej mocy.
EN
This article presents the results of experimental periodic studies on the effect of work of a free-standing exchanger with a spiral coil as a heat storage tank in the cogeneration installation based on the small AISIN GECC60A2N cogeneration unit. The heat storage tank as a heat buffer is to deliver the heating medium during the temporary request greater than the heat source efficiency. Investigations of cogeneration were started at the moment of heat storage tank and it was finished at startup of external cooling of the cogenerator. The measurement values of thermal power of cogenerator feeding the heat accumulator tend to decrease to 60% of the initial power.
EN
The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the ORC system with two scroll expanders which have been used as a source of electricity. The working fluid was HFE-7100 – a newly engineered fluid with a unique heat transfer and favourable environmental properties. In the ORC system three heat exchangers were used (evaporator, regenerator, condenser) and before expanders the droplet separator was installed. As a source of heat an innovative biomass boiler was used. Studies have been carried out for the expanders worked in series and in parallel. The paper presents the thermal and fluid-flow properties of the ORC installation for the selected flow rates and different temperatures of the working medium. The characteristics of output electrical power, operating speed and vibrations for scroll expanders were also presented.
7
Content available remote Gas boiler as a heat source for a domestic micro-CHP
EN
This analysis considers a commercially available domestic gas boiler as a heat source for a domestic organic Rankine cycle system. An experimental study was made into the applicability of the gas boiler (De Dietrich with thermal power 25 kW) coupled with the laboratory prototype micro ORC setup. The main aim of the study is to determine the working fluid temperature, attainable heat rates and efficiencies of the whole system. Preliminary investigations show that the boiler was able to provide saturated/superheated vapor of ethanol and HFE-7100 as a working fluid at the required conditions needed in the ORC system and it can be utilized as a heat source in a domestic micro-CHP. The results should encourage future development of micro cogeneration units.
PL
Ambitna inicjatywa, obejmująca 12 krajów europejskich i angażująca przedsiębiorstwa energetyczne, producentów wyposażenia i przedsiębiorstwa montażowo-budowlane, ma na celu zbadanie potencjału mikrokogeneracji opartej na ogniwach paliwowych na rynku sektora komunalno-bytowego Europy.
EN
Heat exchangers of different types find application in power systems based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). Compact plate fin heat exchangers are typically found to perfectly fit systems with power output under 5 kWel. Micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) units with solid oxide fuel cells can exhibit high electrical and overall efficiencies, exceeding 85%, respectively. These values can be achieved only when high thermal integration of a system is assured. Selection and sizing of heat exchangers play a crucial role and should be done with caution. Moreover, performance of heat exchangers under variable operating conditions can strongly influence efficiency of the complete system. For that reason, it becomes important to develop high fidelity mathematical models allowing evaluation of heat exchangers under modified operating conditions, in high temperature regimes. Prediction of pressure and temperatures drops at the exit of cold and hot sides are important for system-level studies. Paper presents dedicated mathematical model used for evaluation of a plate fin heat exchanger, operating as a part of micro-CHP unit with solid oxide fuel cells.
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