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1
Content available remote Co warto wiedzieć o wodzie i jej działaniu na dachach
PL
Biofilmy w sieci dystrybucji można zdefiniować jako niepożądane nagromadzenie materiału biologicznego na różnych powierzchniach instalacyjnych, co niesie ze sobą poważne konsekwencje związane ze zmianą barwy, zapachu i smaku wody, a także ze stopniowym niszczeniem materiału rur i złączek. Początkowe próby rozwiązywania problemu biofilmów obejmowały stosowanie zbiorników sedymentacyjnych oraz czyszczenie sieci dystrybucji. Na przełomie XIX i XX wieku zaczęto stosowanie techniki filtracji piaskowej i dezynfekcji, co bardzo pomogło ograniczyć ładunek substancji organicznych w wodzie pitnej. Lepsze zrozumienie przyczyn bioosadzania w systemach dystrybucji wody skutkowało wprowadzaniem różnych przepisów i wytycznych, które z kolei były czynnikiem napędzającym kierunek wprowadzania nowych metod uzdatniania wody, nowych materiałów rur i połączeń, wreszcie rozwoju nowych technik analitycznych. Celem tego przeglądu jest omówienie przyczyn i konsekwencji tworzenia biofilmów z historycznego punktu widzenia, począwszy od pierwszych zapisanych wydarzeń aż do początków XX wieku.
EN
Biofilms in water distribution system can be defined as the undesirable accumulation of biological material on the various installation surfaces, with serious consequences in terms of color, odor and taste, as well as the gradual deterioration of the material of pipes and fittings. Initial attempts to solve the biofilm problem included using of sedimentation tanks and cleaning of the distribution network. At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, sand filtration and disinfection techniques were used, which greatly helped to reduce the load of organic substances. A better understanding of biofouling in water distribution systems resulted in the introduction of various regulations and guidelines, which in turn drove the direction of new water treatment methods, new pipe materials and connections, and finally the development of new analytical techniques. The purpose of this review is to discuss the causes and consequences of biofilm formation from a historical point of view, from the first recorded events to the early 20th century.
PL
W ostatnim czasie na świecie z roku na rok odnotowywany jest rekord średniej temperatury rocznej. W kontynentalnej części Europy, w tym w Polsce, zmany klimatyczne będą skutkować wzrostem skrajnie wysokich temperatur oraz spadkiem częstotliwości opadów letnich. Mając na uwadze globalne zmiany klimatu, coraz częścij mówi się o konieczności podjęcia działań adaptacyjnych, które pozwolą złagodzić ich skutki.
PL
Na podstawie danych zawartych w opracowaniu GUS „Ochrona środowiska 2019” omówiono charakterystykę wód w Polsce. Zarządzanie zasobami wodnymi jest realizowane z uwzględnieniem podziału państwa na obszary dorzeczy, regiony wodne i zlewnie. Jednostkami organizacyjnymi odpowiedzialnymi za gospodarowanie wodami w regionie wodnym są Regionalne Zarządy Gospodarki Wodnej (RZGW). Przedstawiono dane i bilanse zasobów wód powierzchniowych oraz zasoby eksploatacyjne wód podziemnych. Największy udział w poborze wody (69%) przypadał na cele produkcyjne, a na potrzeby eksploatacji sieci wodociągowej wynosił 21,5%. Produkcja wody przez zakłady wodociągowe w 2018 r. oparta była głównie o zasoby wód podziemnych (73%, tj. 1552,2 hm3), które są zdecydowanie lepszej jakości. Zużycie wody na potrzeby gospodarki narodowej i ludności było zróżnicowane w poszczególnych województwach i miastach. Omawiając gospodarowanie wodą w sieci wodociągowej przedstawiono długość sieci wodociągowej rozdzielczej (307 690,4 km), liczbę przyłączy do budynków mieszkalnych (5 682,4 tys.) oraz zużycie wody dostarczanej przez sieć wodociągową w gospodarstwach domowych w Polsce w przeliczeniu na jednego mieszkańca (33,3 m3/rok). Wartości te zmieniały się na przestrzeni ostatnich lat.
EN
The data derived from the work by the Statistics Poland entitled “Environment 2019” provided a basis for discussing the characteristics of water resources in Poland. Water resources management takes into account the division of the country into river basin districts, water regions and drainage basins. Regional Water Management Boards (Polish: Regionalne Zarządy Gospodarki Wodnej (RZGW)) are the organizational units responsible for water management in the water region. Data and balance of surface water resources (by RZGW) were presented, as well as exploitable underground water resources. The largest share in water intake (69%) was for production purposes, whereas 21.5% was for the operation of the water supply system. In 2018 water production by municipal waterworks was mainly based on groundwater resources (73%, i.e. 1552.2 hm3), which are of far better quality. Water consumption for the needs of the national economy and population varied in individual voivodships and cities. The discussion on water management in the water supply network included the length of water supply distribution network (307690.4 km), the number of connections to residential buildings (5682.4 thousand units) and the consumption of water supplied by the water supply network in households in Poland per one inhabitant (33.3 m3/year). These values have been changing over the course of recent years.
EN
Aim: The purpose of this article is to evaluate the extinguishing efficiency of water, compressed air foam and gel forming agents in solid materials fires. Project and methods: Comparison of the efficiency of extinguishing water, gel forming agents and compressed air foam was performed by conducting an experimental study to determine the appropriate indicator. An experimental device of the compressed air foam system was used for the study. The model fire of class 1A was selected as the fire. Comparison of extinguishing compounds was evaluated by extinguishing efficiency indicator Ie.e. There were two experiments, with three series in each. Results: Extinguishing efficiency indicator Ie.e took into account the time, and the mass of extinguishing agents needed to extinguish the model fire. Therefore, it was established that the mass of the compressed air foam used for extinguishing is 6.1 kg, which is 47% less than the mass of water used for extinguishing the test fire. With respect to the gel forming agent, the mass required for quenching was equal to 6.53 kg. This is 45% less than the weight of water and 2% less than the mass of compressed air foam. With respect to the quenching time, the greatest amount of time was observed for water. Time required for extinguishing (τ) amounted to 99 seconds. This value is 39% greater than the time it took to quench the flames using gel forming compounds, which was equal to 60 seconds. The minimum time required to extinguish the model fire (τ) was observed for compressed air foam, and was found to be 55 seconds. This is 45% less than that for water and 10% less than the time recorded for gel forming agent. Therefore, it was found that the fire extinguishing efficiency of compressed air foam is more than 80% higher than the water’s, and 15% higher in relation to gel forming agents. Conclusions: The authors analysed fire extinguishing agents that can be used to extinguish solid combustible substances. Experimental studies with standard model A fires let them to determine a quenching efficiency indicator Ie.e. Compressed air foam was found to have the highest fire extinguishing efficiency compared to water and gel forming agents. The advantages of compressed foam are due to the technology of its formation. Such foam has a high cooling and insulating ability, which is well reflected in its fire extinguishing efficiency compared to other extinguishing agents.
PL
Cel: Celem artykułu jest ocena skuteczności gaśniczej wody, piany sprężonej i związków żelotwórczych podczas gaszenia stałych substancji palnych. Projekt i metody: Dokonano porównania skuteczności gaśniczej wody, związków żelotwórczych i piany sprężonej poprzez przeprowadzenie badań eksperymentalnych w celu ustalenia odpowiedniego wskaźnika. Do badań użyto eksperymentalnego urządzenia z pianą spreżoną. Wybrano pożar testowy klasy 1A. Porównanie środków gaśniczych oceniono na podstawie wskaźnika skuteczności gaszenia Ie.e. Przeprowadzono dwa eksperymenty, po trzy serie w każdym z nich. Wyniki: Wskaźnik skuteczności gaszenia uwzględniał czas i masę środka gaśniczego potrzebnego do ugaszenia pożaru modelowego. Ustalono, że masa piany sprężonej użytej do gaszenia wynosi 6,1 kg, co oznacza o 47% mniej niż masa wody użytej do gaszenia pożaru próbnego. W przypadku związków żelotwórczych wymagana masa wynosi 6,53 kg. Jest to o 45% mniej niż masa wody i 2% mniej niż masa piany spreżonej. Z badań wynika, że najwięcej czasu zajmuje gaszenie wodą. Obliczona dla niej wartość: τ = 99 sekund jest o 39% większa niż czas potrzebny do schłodzenia związków żelotwórczych, który wyniósł dla nich 60 sekund. Najkrótszy czas wymagany do gaszenia pożaru modelowego jest obserwowany dla piany sprężonej i wynosi 55 sekund. Jest to o 45% mniej niż w przypadku wody i o 10% mniej w odniesieniu do związków żelotwórczych. Stwierdzono zatem, że skuteczność gaśnicza piany spreżonej jest większa o 80% w stosunku do wody i o 15% większa w odniesieniu do związków żelotwórczych. Wnioski: Przeanalizowano środki gaśnicze, które można zastosować do gaszenia stałych substancji palnych. Badania eksperymentalne pozwoliły ustalić wskaźnik skuteczności gaszenia pożarow klasy A. Wynika z nich, że piana sprężona ma najwyższą zdolność gaśniczą w porównaniu do wody i związków żelotwórczych, co wynika z technologii jej powstawania. Taka piana ma wysoką zdolność chłodzenia i izolowania, co dobrze wpływa na jej skuteczność gaszenia.
PL
Przeprowadzono badania Wielofunkcyjnego pakietu PACHEM-CR-1021 do przemysłowych wodnych instalacji chłodzących, opracowanego w projekcie NCBiR. Badania korozyjne z udziałem pakietu wg NACE 1D182, dla wody zasilającej i obiegowej układ chłodzący w rafinerii wykazały, że szybkość korozji kuponów ze stali węglowej przy dozowaniu 200 ppm mieściła się w zakresie 0,01-0,02 mm/rok, a ochrona przed korozją 94-99%. Badania korozyjne z udziałem pakietu dla wody zasilającej układ chłodzący w kopalni ropy wykazały, że szybkość korozji kuponów ze stali węglowej przy dozowaniu 100 ppm wynosiła 0,002 mm/rok, a ochrona przed korozją pow. 99%. Badania zdolności do zapobiegania wytrącania się siarczanu i węglanu wapnia wg NACE-TM-0374, z udziałem pakietu PACHEM-CR-1021, wykazały, że przy dozowaniu 50 ppm pakietu uzyskano 100 % ochrony przed wytrącaniem się osadów.
EN
Tests were carried out with the multifunctional PACHEM-CR-1021 package for industrial water cooling units, developed in the NCBiR project. Corrosion tests , performed according to NACE 1D182, for the feeding and circulating water of the cooling system in the refinery, showed that the corrosion rate of carbon steel coupons at the dosage of 200 ppm was in the range of 0.01-0.02 mm/year, and the corrosion protection was 94-99%. Corrosion tests for the water supplying the oil-field cooling system showed that the corrosion rate of the carbon steel coupons at the dosage of 100 ppm was 0.002 mm/year, and the corrosion protection above 99%. Calcium sulphate and carbonate precipitation prevention ability tests, according to NACE-TM-0374, showed 100% protection when 50 ppm dosage of PACHEM-CR-1021 package was used.
PL
Woda jest podstawowym związkiem chemicznym, na którym zbudowane jest życie na Ziemi. Na sprawy wody można spoglądać z różnych punktów widzenia. Wszechobecność tego składnika świadczy o jego ważności i potrzebie zachowania stabilności w dostępności do źródeł obecności wody. Bilans wody w skali globalnej jest zachowany i podlega regularnym cyklom przemian. Cały świat, a więc i Polska jest zagrożona problemem braku wody słodkiej. W zaistniałej sytuacji należy zdefiniować i określić ramy czasowe realizacji programu naprawy i unowocześnienia gospodarki wodnej w Polsce.
EN
Water is the basic chemical compound on which life on Earth is built. Water matters can be viewed from different points of view. The omnipresence of this component proves its importance and the need to maintain stability in the availability of water sources. The global water balance is maintained and is subject to regular cycles of changes. The whole world, including Poland, is threatened with the problem of the lack of fresh water. In this situation, it is necessary to define and state the time frame for the implementation of the program of repair and modernization of water management in Poland.
EN
Bath gray water organoleptically did not appear to be significantly contaminated liquid. However, in order to re-use them, they need proper treatment. When recirculated in a household, they cannot pose a threat to human life. Based on their appearance, it seems that the solution to the problem is the use of cartridges filter. The article presents the results of the filtration of gray water from the bath through the filtration system with a housing double stage polypropylene-carbon filter FCCA-STO and to determine the impact of individual filter layers on wastewater treatment, tests were carried out on a single polypropylene FCPS10 and carbon FCCA filtration cartridge. The aim of the study was to determine the suitability of the selected housing filter cartridges for the treatment of bathing gray water for their reuse. For the tests were used natural bathing gray water from a two-family building inhabited by seven people. Wastewater were fed to the filter with a constant flow rate of 0.1 dm3·s–1. The assessment of the work of the filters based on parameters such as: COD, BOD5, suspension, dry residue, decay and turbidity. The conducted tests have shown a slight improvement in most of the quality parameters of gray water after filtration through selected housing cartridge filters. Only for turbidity, the reduction in the value of the pollution indicator was noticeable. The cartridge filters used in tests, acted like ordinary mechanical filtration cartridges. For the considered gray water, the use of analyzed cartridge filters can only be used for their initial purification.
EN
In this paper, mechanical losses in a hydraulic motor supplied with water and mineral oil (two liquids having significantly different viscosity and lubricating properties) are described and compared. The experimental tests were conducted using a special design (prototype) of a hydraulic satellite motor. The design of the satellite motor is presented. This motor was developed to supply both with water and mineral oil and features a non-circular tooth working mechanism. The paper also characterizes sources of mechanical losses in this motor. On this basis, a mathematical model of these losses has been developed and presented. The results of calculation of mechanical losses according to the model are compared with the experimental results. Experimental studies have shown that the mechanical losses in the motor supplied with water are 2.8 times greater than those in the motor supplied with oil. The work demonstrates that the mechanical losses in both the motor supplied with water and the one supplied with oil are described well by the mathematical model. It has been found that for the loaded motor working at high speed, the simulation results differ from experimental ones by no more than 3% for oil and 4% for water.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań 6. próbek komercyjnych związków chemicznych, w tym: pochodnych kwasów: fosfonowego(III), bursztynowego, asparginowego, akrylowego i glutaminowego. Badania prowadzono pod kątem ich efektywności przeciwdziałania wytrącaniu się osadów siarczanu(VI) wapnia i węglanu wapnia z roztworu oraz jako inhibitorów korozji stali w przygotowanych solankach. Badania prowadzono zgodnie z normami NACE TM 0374-2007 “Laboratory Screening Tests to Determine the Ability of Scale Inhibitors to Prevent the Precipitation of Calcium Sulfate and Calcium Carbonate from Solution” oraz NACE 1D182-2005 „Wheel Test Method Used for Evaluation of Film-Persistent Corrosion Inhibitors for Oilfield”. Najlepsze efekty w zakresie przeciwdziałania wytrącaniu się osadów nieorganicznych po dodaniu 10 i 20 ppm badanych substancji uzyskano dla pochodnej kwasu fosfonowego- (III) B (94,7-100%), pochodnej kwasu akrylowego (67,6-100%) i pochodnej kwasu fosfonowego(III) A (65,9-100%). Najlepszą ochronę przeciwkorozyjną, przy stężeniu 50 ppm badanych substancji, wykazała pochodna kwasu fosfonowego(III) B (51,6%), pochodna kwasu asparginowego (47,4%), pochodna kwasu fosfonowego(III) A (46,4%) i pochodna kwsu akrylowego (46,2%). Badania wykazały, że pochodna kwasu fosfonowego(III) A, pochodna kwasu fosfonowego( III) B, pochodna kwasu asparginowego i pochodna kwasu akrylowego są dwufunkcyjne i mogą być równocześnie stosowane jako inhibitory kamienia i inhibitory korozji stali”.
EN
In this article, the results of research on 6 commercial samples, including derivatives of phosphonic, succinic, aspartic, acrylic and glutamic acid are presented. The research was carried out in terms of their anti-corrosive properties and the effectiveness of preventing the precipitation of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate deposits from the solution. The research was conducted in accordance with the NACE TM0374-2007 standard “Laboratory Screening Tests to Determine the Ability of Scale Inhibitors to Prevent the Precipitation of Calcium Sulfate and Calcium Carbonate from Solution” and NACE 1D182 -2005 standard „Wheel Test Method Used for Evaluation of Film-Persistent Corrosion Inhibitors for Oilfield”. The best effects in the field of counteracting the precipitation of inorganic sediments at dosages of 10 and 20 ppm were obtained for the phosphonic acid derivative B (94.7-100%), the acrylic acid derivative (67.6-100%) and the phosphonic acid derivative A (65.9-100%). The best anti-corrosion protection at a dosage of 50 ppm was demonstrated by the derivative of phosphonic acid B (51.6%), derivative of aspartic acid (47.4%), derivative of phosphonic acid A (46.4%) and acrylic derivative (46.2%) . Research has shown that the phosphonic acid derivative A, the phosphonic acid derivative B, the aspartic acid derivative and the acrylic derivative are bifunctional and can be used simultaneously as scale inhibitors and corrosion inhibitors.
EN
Samples of water, sediment and two native plants (Eichhornia crassipes and Ceratophyllum demersum), collected seasonally from eight sites, were analyzed to investigate the level of contamination with metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Zn, Cu, Cr, Pb and Cd) in the Nile River in the Cairo region, using heavy metal pollution and contamination indices in the case of water, and the geoaccumulation index, the pollution load index, the enrichment factor and the potential ecological risk factor in the case of sediment. The results clarified that the levels of metals among three compartments were in order: sediments > plants > water. The Nile water in Cairo is not critically polluted by the studied metals and the metal pollution index for most sites does not exceed the critical limit (< 100). Sediment samples showed a clear accumulation of Mn, Ni and Cd when compared with benchmarks cited by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), especially during low flow seasons. The contribution of Cd to the ecological risk assessment was about 80%, while the contribution of Ni was about 10%, reflecting that these elements originated primarily from anthropogenic sources. Eichhornia crassipes and Ceratophyllum demersum have a higher accumulation capacity for Mn, Cu and Fe compared to the other studied metals.
EN
This paper presents a unique method to calculate a wettability index based on well log data and laboratory measurements performed on cores. The subject of the research is middle Cambrian sandstone located in the offshore part of the Baltic Basin. Cambrian oil production horizons have a form of structural traps associated with faults. In the research, the measured wettability values using the Amott– Harvey test and available well log data were used. In the first stage, the dependence between different petrophysical parameters and measured wettability index values was analysed. The average pore sizes and capillary water content were calculated. It was noted that capillary water saturation and pore sizes that build the pore space have an impact on wettability. Analyses of 10 wells enabled the development of an equation to calculate the saturation exponent N. Then, the results of the N parameter were compared against the values from the Amott– Harvey test and a continuous curve of wettability on the Amott–Harvey scale was calculated. Other objectives of this study included assessments of the effect of wettability on formation resistivity, water saturation, and relative permeability to oil and water in the sandstone reservoir. The last part of the performed work included rock-typing and determination of the variability of wettability, water saturation, and relative permeability for each unit. Rock-typing was performed using Principal Component Analysis and the K-mean clustering method. As an input, calculated and core-calibrated permeability and porosity values were used. The reservoir was divided into three classes. The final stage of work indicated the dominant wettability system in the reservoir.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje nowatorską metodę obliczania zwilżalności przy wykorzystaniu danych geofizyki wiertniczej oraz pomiarów laboratoryjnych wykonanych na rdzeniach. Obszar badań to piaskowce kambru środkowego zlokalizowane w morskiej części basenu bałtyckiego. Akumulacje ropy w tym złożu zlokalizowane są w pułapkach strukturalnych i mają związek z występowaniem uskoków. W pracy jako dane wejściowe wykorzystano wyniki zwilżalności oznaczone laboratoryjnie na próbkach przy wykorzystaniu testu Amotta–Harvey'a oraz dostępne pomiary geofizyki wiertniczej. Celem pracy było także zbadanie wpływu zwilżalności na oporność skały, wartości współczynnika nasycenia wodą oraz zbadanie zależności pomiędzy zwilżalnością a rozmiarem porów budujących przestrzeń porową. Pierwszy etap pracy obejmował obliczenie zawartości wody kapilarnej średnich wielkości porów. Zauważono, że wyliczone parametry zależą od pomierzonej zwilżalności – to spostrzeżenie pozwoliło na zdefiniowanie wzoru do wyznaczania parametru zwilżalności N. Następnie uzyskaną ciągłą krzywą obrazującą zmiany zwilżalności wzdłuż całego analizowanego interwału zbiornikowego korelowano z wartościami z testu Amotta–Harvey'a, co pozwoliło na wyliczenie zwilżalności ośrodka w skali Amotta–Harvey'a (–1; –1). W kolejnym etapie analizowano wpływ zwilżalności na rzeczywistą oporność formacji, współczynnik nasycenia wodą oraz względną przepuszczalność dla wody i ropy. Ostatnia część wykonanych prac objęła podział piaskowców kambru środkowego na jednostki jednorodne hydraulicznie i określenie zmienności zwilżalności, współczynnika nasycenia wodą i względnej przepuszczalności w każdej z wydzielonych klas. Wydzielenie jednostek jednorodnych hydraulicznie zostało przeprowadzone na podstawie analizy składowych głównych oraz grupowania metodą k-średnich. Ostatnim etapem było określenie dominującego w złożu systemu zwilżalności.
EN
Contemporary challenges related to rapid urbanization, migration, deepening inequalities and climate change inspire to contemplate the future of dwelling. The article aims to present particular solutions in housing that use advantages created by the relation to the water. The aquatic neighbourhoods become a field of experience for residential architecture, where traditional systems are enriched with new elements and solutions. Some of these solutions can be brought back to the system and improve the overall catalogue of answers for the development of traditional dwelling. The analysis discusses contemporary housing projects 1998–2005 and includes: the program overview, basic numerical parameters, accessibility details and relation to the context. Current water-related examples are accompanied by a reference to standard solutions developed in the modern era. All presented designs use traditional components of dwelling program, grouping day zone elements and separate them from private spaces. In basic parameters development is visible in bigger areas of living space. In terms of accessibility housing on or close to water gives new opportunities, as well as in relation to the context. The paper presents research on different types of dwelling located by the water, with particular emphasis on functional and architectural advantages, which may be used to improve contemporary housing models. The proposed guidelines can be used in further studies on housing typologies in aim to develop more open and flexible spatial layouts.
EN
The pressure on the use of water and climate change has caused a decreased availability of water resources in semi-arid areas in the last decades. The Setif Province is one of the semi-arid zones of Algeria as it receives an average less than 400 mm∙year–1. The question of the evolution of demographic pressures and their impacts on water resources arise. By applying WEAP software (water evaluation and planning), the aim is to develop a model of water resources management and its utilization, assess the proportion of the resource-needs balance and analyse the future situation of water according to different scenarios. This approach allows to identify the most vulnerable sites to climatic and anthropogenic pressures. The estimation of the needs for drinking water and wastewater in the Setif Province has shown that these needs increase over time and happening when the offer is not able to cover the demand in a suitable way. It is acknowledged that there is a poor exploitation of water resources including underground resources, which translates into unmet demand in all sites of demand.
EN
Heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are pollutants that are toxic, difficult to decompose and accumulate in biota. One of the biota that lives in the waters is mullet fish. This fish is demersal, has a relatively long life period, has a specific tolerance to the aquatic environment and highly consumable in Indonesia. Therefore need to know the metal content of Cd and Pb in water, sediments and mullet fish and their relationship in Indonesia. The study used a survey method with purposive random sampling at four stations, three replications. The study was conducted from June to November 2019. Analysis of data was descriptive, F-test and correlation. The results showed that the heavy metal content of Cd and Pb between stations in the water media, sediment and in mullet fish there was a significant difference. The highest Cd and Pb were showed in station III, coming from the oil industry, domestic waste and transportation activities. The heavy metal content of Cd and Pb in water, sediment and mullet fish (Planiliza subviridis) in the Donan River, Cilacap shows results exceeding the allowed threshold and danger to human health.
EN
The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of salinity indicators in the Bystrzyca River in the city of Lublin, located in south-eastern Poland. The studies on the quality of water from the river were carried out from November 2018 to June 2019, i.e. in winter and spring. The water samples for analysis were taken from 9 measurement points located on the river under bridges and at high traffic roads. In total, 8 series of analyses were carried out, during which 72 water samples from the Bystrzyca River were examined. The samples were analyzed in terms of: water temperature, pH value, conductivity as well as concentration of chlorides and sulfates. An increase in both the specific conductivity and chloride and sulfate concentrations was found in the water from the Bystrzyca River during the period of low air temperatures (≤0°C), i.e. in December 2018 and January 2019. This may be a result of winter road maintenance procedures, i.e. by using salts for their defrosting. At the same time, an increase in the conductivity value and the concentration of chlorides and sulfates was observed with the course of the river, which indicates that the pollution generated in the city of Lublin has a negative impact on the water quality in the studied river. The salinity of the Bystrzyca River was greatly affected by the operation of the municipal wastewater treatment plant in Hajdów, especially by the use of coagulants: polyglycol chloride (PAX 18) and iron sulfate (PIX 113).
EN
The study examines selected physical and chemical indicators of water at four sites in the Tatra National Park and one in Zakopane. The results were compared with the requirements to be met by water intended for human consumption. On the basis of the analyses, the examined samples of water were assessed in terms of their potential use as potable water supplies for the human population. It was found that water collected from selected intake points meets the standards for the tested physical and chemical indicators, which determine the drinkability of water. It was found that the main problem of the Tatra National Park is mass, uncontrolled tourism and tourists who do not comply with the regulations.
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The environment and its components have been severely contaminated over the years due to massive pollution. The multiple use of heavy metals in industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment. Different studies implied that the primary contribution to the ecological risk index, originated from various anthropogenic influences such as industrialization and urbanization. This has compromised the ability of the environment to foster life and render its intrinsic values due to the heavy usage of these elements. This research illustrates the assessment of heavy metals in waste, water, sludge and soil. Monitoring was performed in vicinity of a cement factory on the southern Kosovo, where the sampling and measurements were performed in the autumn season of 2018. With the use of atomic absorption spectroscopy technique (AAS), the elements determined in this study were Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Al. The findings of this study revealed a little change in the concentrations of these elements in the environment samples, especially in water, apart from that there is slight pollution of the environment with heavy metals in this zone.
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Under hydrological uncertainty and to secure the potable water supply for the Fez city with more than one million and a half inhabitants, the competent authority intends to bring water from the Idriss 1st reservoir 30 km away, downstream the Inaouene watershed. The pollution risks as well as the contamination degree of surface water and sediments were assessed by monitoring the physicochemical characteristics of the water and sediment samples. The results revealed high values of chemical oxygen demand and chloride mainly linked to the uncontrolled liquid discharges. Calcium and magnesium showed also high concentrations that are due to the watershed geology, where carbonate rocks are dominant. The contents of some heavy metals remain relatively low and within the Moroccan standards. The metal contents in sediments show a low degree of the anthropogenic pollution. This led to conclude that the waters and sediments in the study area show relatively degraded quality and then could be used for water supply under continuous control.
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