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EN
The article shows that effective organization of occupational health and Safety (OHS) at industrial enterprises have not only social, but also technical and economic consequences. Analysis of the dependences of the frequency and the severity coefficients of occupational injuries on the cost of OHS measures allowed to draw an important conclusion, that with insufficient funding for injuries protection, the level of injuries remains high enough, and with increasing OHS funds the level of injuries decreases significantly. However, there comes a situation, when further economic stimulation of injuries protection measures does not yield significant results. Definition of technical and economic criteria for assessing the production system from occupational safety indicators is proposed using the apparatus of the probability and queuing theories. An example of calculating the downtime of process equipment due to occupational injuries in the shop of mechanical engineering plant is considered.
2
Content available remote Zasady BHP i PPOŻ podczas eksploatacji stacji regazyfikacji LNG
PL
Technologia skraplania gazu ziemnego w ostatnich latach rozwija się na świecie w sposób dynamiczny, gdyż jest jednym ze sposobów dywersyfikacji zaopatrzenia w gaz ziemny, pozwalającym na uniezależnienie się od jednego dostawcy gazu. W artykule szczegółowo omówiono podstawowe zagrożenia oraz zasady bezpieczeństwa w celu wyeliminowania lub zmniejszenia zagrożenia na stacji regazyfikacji LNG, z uwzględnieniem ochrony przeciwpożarowej. Podano ponadto korzyści ze stosowania w gazownictwie technologii LNG. We wnioskach zaproponowano zmiany w obowiązującym Rozporządzeniu Ministra Gospodarki w sprawie warunków technicznych jakim powinny odpowiadać sieci gazowe i ich usytuowanie.
EN
The technology of liquefying natural gas in recent years has been developing dynamically in the world, as it is one of the ways to diversify the supply of natural gas, allowing it to become independent from one gas supplier. The article discusses in detail the basic threats and safety principles to eliminate or reduce the threat at the LNG regasification station, including fire protection. The benefits of using LNG technology in the gas industry are also given. The proposals proposed changes to the current Regulation of the Minister of Industry on technical conditions to be met by gas networks and their location.
EN
In enterprises, accidents happen mainly due to improper and dangerous behavior of employees. The approach called Behavioral Safety (BBS) assumes that the most effective attempts to modify dangerous employee behavior are based on influencing people abuse. As a consequence, change in behavior leads to a change in the way of thinking and attitude. In the other words, as a result of using behavioral methods for a long time, employees create a safe attitude that in the future translates into further safe behavior. Mutual control of employees during work is not accepted in Poland and positively perceived by participants of the work process. It is difficult to change the mentality and habits of people. Increasingly, employee behavior control systems are implemented in medium and large enterprises. Shaping a positive attitude of the employee to such systems and methods is a long and time-consuming work that lies with the employer and OSH supervisor. Presented studies have shown that a fairly large pro-portion of employees do not understand the positive effects of using behavioral safety methods. There is a great need to shape awareness of safe behaviors among Polish employees using behavioral safety, i.e. safety based on mutual observation of behaviors. This paper contains the results of the first stage of the study aimed at modifying undesirable behavior among employees using the implemented BBS system.
EN
The purpose of this article was to identify occupational hazards at the laser cutter operator's workplace and to assess occupational risk. The article also indicates the basic requirements for the analyzed workplace. Research methods included: observation of the workplace (using a checklist), interviews with the employer, selected employees and a health and safety specialist, as well as analysis of the company's internal documents. The occupational risk assessment carried out at work using the Risk Score method showed that there are many different risk factors for accidents or diseases related to the work performed at the position of the laser cutter operator. However, thanks to the preventive measures applied, they are in the analyzed workplace at an acceptable (acceptable) level.
EN
Introduction: Occupational safety includes technical, organisational and economic measures to protect employees against threats that may occur in the work environment. Popularisation of the subject of occupational health and safety and action in the field of accident prevention is one of the obligations of the employer and employees of the occupational health and safety service (OHS). Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of the behavioural observation programme in a large manufacturing company belonging to a global concern in the household appliances industry. The purpose of the programme was to increase the awareness of the employees regarding the risks and health and safety rules. This awareness helps to minimize the number of accidents and potential accidents. Design and methods: The research used the method of covert observation of employees’ behaviour while performing work at particular positions and moving around the plant. The research tool was a free interview. Results: The results of the conducted research made it possible to answer the question how behavioural observation programmes improve work safety. As a result of the analysis of the collected data, it can be concluded that the implementation of the behavioural observation programme increased the level of operational safety, increased safety culture in the organisation and raised the number of safe behaviours among employees. The results of behavioural observations constitute the source of data and the basis for taking further corrective actions in the area of occupational health and safety. Conclusions: In case of the workplace described in the article, it would be advisable to extend the programme to other locations of the factory, including laboratories, maintenance area and offices. Behaviour-based safety (BBS) could also be used in other areas of the organisation’s activities, e.g., during exercises of the factory rescue staff (fire protection and evacuation) or audits in the field of quality and environmental protection.
PL
Wprowadzenie: Bezpieczeństwo pracy obejmuje działania techniczne, organizacyjne i ekonomiczne ukierunkowane na ochronę pracowników przed zagrożeniami, jakie mogą wystąpić w środowisku pracy. Popularyzacja tematyki bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy oraz działanie w zakresie profilaktyki wypadkowej jest jednym z elementów należących do obowiązków pracodawcy oraz pracowników służby bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy (BHP). Cel: Celem niniejszego artykułu jest prezentacja wdrożenia programu obserwacji behawioralnych w dużym przedsiębiorstwie produkcyjnym, należącym do światowego koncernu w branży AGD. Zadaniem programu było zwiększenie świadomości pracowników na temat zagrożeń oraz zasad BHP. Świadomość ta wpływa na minimalizację liczby zdarzeń wypadkowych i potencjalnie wypadkowych. Projekt i metody: W badaniach wykorzystano metodę niejawnych obserwacji zachowań pracowników podczas wykonywania pracy na poszczególnych stanowiskach oraz przemieszczania się po terenie zakładu. Narzędziem badawczym był swobodny wywiad. Wyniki: Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań umożliwiły uzyskanie odpowiedzi na pytanie, w jaki sposób programy obserwacji behawioralnych wpływają na poprawę bezpieczeństwa pracy. W wyniku analizy zebranych danych można wywnioskować, że wdrożenie programu obserwacji behawioralnych wpłynęło na zwiększenie poziomu bezpieczeństwa operacyjnego, wzrost kultury bezpieczeństwa w organizacji oraz wzrost liczby bezpiecznych zachowań wśród pracowników. Wyniki obserwacji behawioralnych stanowią źródło danych i podstawę do podejmowania kolejnych działań korygujących w obszarze bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy. Wnioski: W przypadku zakładu pracy opisanego w artykule wskazane byłoby rozszerzenie działania programu na pozostałe lokalizacje fabryki, m.in. laboratoria, obszar utrzymania ruchu i biura. Podejście oparte na obserwacji zachowań (BBS) mogłoby zostać wykorzystane także w innych zakresach działań organizacji, np. podczas ćwiczeń zakładowej kadry ratowniczej (ochrona przeciwpożarowa i ewakuacja) lub audytów z zakresu jakości i ochrony środowiska.
PL
Omówiono skutki zdrowotne zawodowego narażenia pracowników zatrudnionych przy procesach galwanicznych na nikiel, kadm i chrom. Przedstawiono obowiązki pracodawcy związane z ochroną zdrowia osób narażonych, jak również propozycje działań profilaktycznych.
EN
A review, with 73 refs., of the health effects of occupational exposure to Ni, Cd and Cr of workers employed in galvanic processes. The obligations imposed on employers related to the protection of the health of workers in relation to their exposure to chem. substances and suggestions of preventive measures were presented.
PL
Spożywanie alkoholu w miejscu pracy jest surowo zabronione. Niestety zakaz ten jest często łamany. Nietrzeźwość pracownika może stworzyć zagrożenie, a w najgorszym przypadku może również doprowadzić do trwałego kalectwa, a nawet śmierci. Celem prowadzonych badań było zidentyfikowanie głównych problemów związanych z nadużywaniem i ze spożywaniem alkoholu przez pracowników budowlanych w trakcie pracy. Dane do analizy pozyskano z dokumentacji powypadkowej (analizie poddano 219 osób poszkodowanych w wypadkach przy pracy z wykorzystaniem rusztowań budowlanych) oraz ankiet zebranych podczas realizowanego projektu naukowo-badawczego „Model oceny ryzyka wystąpienia katastrof budowlanych, wypadków i zdarzeń niebezpiecznych na stanowiskach pracy z wykorzystaniem rusztowań budowlanych” (573 badań ankietowych osób pracujących na rusztowaniach, na ankietowanych terenach budowy).
EN
The consumption of alcohol in the workplace is strictly prohibited. Unfortunately, this interdict is often broken. Alcohol intoxication of an employee could lead to a threat, and in the worst case could also lead to permanent disability or even death. The aim of the research was to identify the main problems associated with heavy drinking of alcohol and consumption at work among construction workers. Data for the analysis were obtained from post-accident protocols (analyzed 219 people injured in accidents at work involving scaffolding) and surveys collected during the research project “Model of the assessment of risk of the occurrence of building catastrophes, accidents and dangerous events at workplaces with the use of scaffolding” (573 surveys of people working in the construction scaffolding of respondents).
9
Content available Nowa metoda oceny ryzyka zawodowego - risk analysis
PL
Artykuł przedstawia nową metodę oceny ryzyka zawodowego Risk Analysis. Pierwsza część artykułu to wprowadzenie, które informuje o istocie oceny ryzyka zawodowego oraz porusza problem braku parametru opisującego wpływ zachowania człowieka na poziom ryzyka zawodowego w istniejących metodach Przedstawione informacje statystyczne potwierdzają jak istotny wpływ ma zachowanie człowieka na wystąpienie wypadku przy pracy. Drugi rozdział został poświęcony wyłącznie tematyce oceny ryzyka zawodowego. Rozdział trzeci zawiera główną cześć artykułu, czyli przedstawienie autorskiej metody oceny ryzyka zawodowego, która składa się z indywidualnie opracowanego wzoru oraz parametrów. Artykuł przedstawia metodę Risk Analysis, a także jej cechy, które wyróżniają ją na tle innych metod. Metoda cechuje się dokładnością, funkcjonalnością, a także nowatorskim podejściem do tematyki oceny ryzyka zawodowego.
EN
The article presents a new method of risk assessment Risk Analysis. The first part of the article is an introduction that informs about the essence of risk assessment and addresses the lack of a parameter describing the impact of human behaviour on occupational risk in existing methods of risk assessment. The statistical information presented confirms the significant impact of human behaviour on the occurrence of an accident at work. The second chapter is devoted exclusively to the subject of risk assessment. The third chapter contains the main part of the article, i.e. the presentation of the author's own risk assessment method, which consists of an individually developed formula and parameters. The article presents the Risk Analysis method, as well as its features, which distinguish it from other methods. The method is characterized by accuracy, functionality, and an innovative approach to the subject of professional risk assessment.
PL
W związku z epidemią COVID-19, w zakładach pracy, poza występującymi dotychczas zagrożeniami, pojawiło się nowe zagrożenie powodowane przez koronawirusa SARS-CoV-2. Na pracodawcach oraz przedsiębiorcach spoczywa więc obowiązek podjęcia działań zmierzających do ograniczenia ryzyka związanego z narażeniem na ten czynnik biologiczny.
PL
Przedstawiono wpływ coraz bardziej powszechnej techniki prac pod napięciem na jakość energii elektrycznej, zwłaszcza eliminującą wyłączenia urządzeń elektrycznych do prac planowych w zakresie diagnostyki, eksploatacji, remontów, modernizacji. Przedstawiono stan wdrożenia techniki PPN w największych polskich koncernach oraz perspektywy dalszej poprawy jakości wynikające z poszerzania zakresu technologicznego i technicznego pozwalającego na unikanie wyłączeń i poprawę ciągłości zasilania.
EN
The impact of an increasingly common technique of live works on the quality of electricity, especially eliminating electrical equipment shutdowns for planned works in the field of diagnostics, operation, repairs and modernization, was presented.
EN
In the article there were presented issues related to the improvement of the occupational health and safety (OHS) management system in a selected energy industry company. The research entity belongs to the leading producers of electricity and heat in Poland. In the paper there were analyzed data on accidents in the research period covering the years 2012-2017. There was also made a short description of the company's activities regarding internal health and safety inspections carried out periodically. Furthermore, there were analyzed the activities improving the occupational health and safety management system in a selected research entity. In the paper there were also presented the sizes and types of activities (projects), that were aimed at improving the health and safety area and included in the company's business strategy. On the basis of the data and the analyzes carried out, it was possible to make a comprehensive assessment of the health and safety management system of the company and to indicate that corrective actions are continuous.
EN
Formwork systems are necessarily used in the implementation of the RC (reinforced concrete) structures. Formworks are required regardless of whether a construction is monolithic or prefabricated and used to form the engineering and general structures or structural elements, such as abutments, supports and decks of the bridges, tanks and retaining walls, but also industrial and accommodation facilities etc. Ensuring the OHS (occupational health and safety) during transport, assembly and disassembly of formworks is a necessary condition for the execution of RC works in a safe and economical way. The paper presents the analysis of the safety requirements for formworks. Furthermore, the general requirements for the execution of the formwork structures were discussed. The most common organizational and technological mistakes and cased of neglects related to the operation of the formwork which lead to infringement of the OHS regulations were also identified.
EN
Work in uniformed services carries a high risk of losing health and even life. The occupational activities undertaken are related to exposure to factors belonging to the group of dangerous (accident) hazards. The work of uniformed services is also a work of high psychosocial risk. It can be said that the stress at work of firefighters or policemen is an everyday reality, which they deal with in different ways. This paper deals with the analysis of occupational stress at work of uniformed services on the example of employees of the State Fire Service. To analyze and assess occupational stress the European Foundation checklist for the Improvement of Working and Living Conditions has been used.
EN
Currently operating enterprises are more and more willing to adopt a process approach in their structures. The process approach means the transition from traditionally understood management towards adapting to constantly changing environmental conditions. This change is accompanied by the possibility of using a wide range of tools of ICT technology, that allow modelling of any type of process occurring in the enterprise, including processes related to OHS. Thus, the objective of the paper is to indicate the opportunity for the integration of OHS processes with other processes (primary and auxiliary) of the organization using ERP systems. In the first part of the study, there will be indicated the determinants of the development of the process approach in modern enterprises. Subsequently, there will be characterized OHS processes against the background of other processes of the organization. In the third part, there will be indicated the most significant features of ERP systems. The last part will refer to the practical implementation of the process in the area of OHS in the Macrologic Merit system.
PL
Artykuł porusza kwestie związane z bezpieczeństwem podczas wykonywania prac laboratoryjnych, doborem zasad ochrony oraz biernych i czynnych zabezpieczeń.
PL
Podano charakterystykę mierników, które mogą być stosowane do oceny warunków pracy w przedsiębiorstwach budowlanych, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ich przydatności do kontrolowania bezpieczeństwa pracowników na stanowiskach pracy. Oprócz opisu najczęściej stosowanych wskaźników wynikowych i wiodących, zwrócono uwagę na wskaźniki do oceny skuteczności systemu zarządzania bhp, zintegrowane wskaźniki bhp oraz wskaźniki ekonomiczne umożliwiające określenie strat ponoszonych w wyniku złych warunków pracy.
EN
The article presents a short characteristics of the indicators that can be applied to the assessment of working conditions in construction enterprises, with particular taking into consideration on their usefulness to the monitoring of the safty of workers in the workplaces. Beyond description of the most commonly used resulling and leading indicators, attention was paid to: indicators to evaluate the effectiveness of the safety management system, integrated health and safety indicators, and economic indicators for determination of losses incurred as a result of bad working conditions.
EN
Risk scoring methods applied in risk assessments used in Turkey, differ from each other in terms of analysis methods, scoring the risks, presumption and sensitivity levels. This article aims to eliminate the effects of divergent results of different risk analyses of lifting equipments used in the building industry and develop a practical hybrid risk analysis and ranking method. In this study risks of lifting equipments used in the building industry were scored by conventional Fine-Kenney risk analysis method first. Secondly, with the experience of previous accidents on construction sites, the reasons of accidents were sorted into 7 main criteria, which being ‘Demographic’, ‘Behavioral’, ‘Machine Related’, ‘Working Environment Related’, ‘Economical’, ‘Administrative’ and ‘Organizational’ criteria and related sub-criteria. Developing these criteria was supported by the experience of inspections carried out by labour inspectors. The weighted scores of these criteria were calculated by AHP method using a questionnaire applied to 14 experienced labor inspectors. The weighted scores obtained by the analytical hierarchy process method (AHP) were multiplied by the scores obtained by Fine-Kinney risk assessment method and a new integrated risk assessment and ranking application was introduced. With this application, a different priority rank was created and which risk to be eliminated primarily was determined. Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, lifting equipments, fine-kinney, occupational health and safety, integrated risk analysis, ranking method
EN
The concept of occupational health and safety is not defined in Polish law. The only place where such a definition can be found is PN-N-1801:2004. Nevertheless, according to the Act on standardisation, the application of Polish Standards is voluntary. Activities in the field of occupational health and safety should be an integral part of business management. Companies from countries which are members of the European Union, in accordance with Directive 89/391/EEC, are obliged to implement standards related to occupational health and safety. The most commonly used and recognised standard for occupational health and safety management systems, in line with the specifics of each company, is the OHSAS 18001 international management system, while in Poland it is the PN-N-18001 standard. The study examined the scope of OHS at work among Research and Innovation Centre Pro-Akademia employees. The employees were subjected to surveys. The results obtained show that employees appreciate the importance of OHS regulations, but they do not always consciously comply with them. One of the tools that enabled author to prepare this article is analytic method called desk research. Desk Research is a research method that boils down to analyzing the records of available data sources, including in particular their compilation, mutual verification and processing. Such analysis is the basis for drawing conclusions about the examined problem. For example - the effect of the Desk Research analysis proceeded as part of the labor market survey is the diagnosis of the state of the labor market in the studied area, the characteristics of all its component groups as well as a description and verification of the actions taken by the institutions operating within it.
PL
Artykuł1 zawiera próbę określenia świadomości pracowników o zagrożeniach istniejących w pracowni diagnostyki obrazowej w placówkach medycznych. Przeprowadzono badania ankietowe wśród pracowników i dokonano analizy uzyskanych wyników, na podstawie których można stwierdzić, że istnieje potrzeba w dokształcaniu pracowników w temacie zagrożeń na stanowisku pracy.
EN
The aim of the article is to determine the self-awareness of employees about the risks existing in the radiology departments. A questionnaire-based observational was conducted and the results obtained were analyzed. This study found that employess’ knowledge of risk in radiology departments is insufficient and improvement is required.
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