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EN
This research investigates the mechanical behavior of artificially cemented sandy soils formed by lime alkali activation of natural zeolite under saturation settings. In order to verify the bar capability of cemented sands with this new method, an analysis of the undrained shear strength of the soil with pore water pressure ratio measurements was performed from the interpretation of the results of unconfined compression tests. The effect of zeolite-lime blend on treated sands was also visualized by scanning electron microscopy. For the studied soils, it was concluded from the unconfined compression stress values that the soil is fully capable of withstanding compressions due to overburden pressure. Additionally, this study seeks to evaluate the effect of the void ratio on the pore space and undrained shear strength. The results showed that pore water B-ratio increases with the decrease of the void ratio. Moreover, with the increase of zeolite content, confining pressure, and curing age, the peak failure strength increases. The results indicated a promising consistency of treated samples with lime and zeolite under various values of undrained shearing and B-ratios, making this method an ideal treatment for loose sand deposits.
EN
Lacustrine deposits, e.g. gyttja and lcustrine chalk, in natural conditions are weak soils from the engineering point of view. These soils under loading have large and long-lasting consolidation settlement. In the last years, these soils have been more often used as a subsoil, mainly for road and hydraulic engineering embankments. To predict the settlement, we have to know the strain and filtration parameters of the subsoil. The paper presents the results of coefficient permeability tests of gyttja and lacustrine chalk, performed in oedometer tests after following loading steps. The results have allowed obtaining downward but various trends of coefficient permeability changes in the consolidation process due to a decrease of void ratio. In general, the differences of trends are related to different types of gyttja. In the case of mineral-organic high-carbonate gyttja, three different decreasing trends were obtained. For these different trends, the causal relation was determined to the lithological impact factor. The lithological impact factor in the paper is proposed as the combination of main lithological characteristics.
3
EN
This paper deals with the structural factors affecting shrinkage phenomena. Seventy eight soil samples were tested, including: Neogene (Mio-Pliocene) clays, glacial tills, clayey alluvial soils, bentonite, illitic clay and kaolinite. Destructed soils (remoulded samples) were compared with undisturbed soils (NNS). Analysis of shrinkage curves showed that the most hydrophilic clays and well-graded soils have the lowest void ratio and shrinkage limit. Shrinkage curves ofsilty and sandy soils are relatively plane with poorly differentiated shrinkage stages. For Neogene clays, shrinkage curves of remoulded samples are similar to the undisturbed ones. Both series of samples yielded similar final void ratio and shrinkage limit values. For alluvial soils and glacial tills, remoulded samples yielded a lower void ratio and higher shrinkage limit values than NNS samples. The results obtained showed that the soil fabric (natural preserved versus disturbed) does not influence shrinkage of Neogene clays while affects significantly shrinkage of alluvial soils and glacial tills. The statistical analysis revealed that there was no correlation between shrinkage limit and clay content or plastic index. A linear rela¬tionship was found between shrinkage limit and void ratio for clays as well as remoulded samples.
4
Content available Permeability of sand-clay mixtures
EN
This study deals with the behavior of composite blends constituted of rigid and impervious grains included in saturated clay paste of kaolin, considered as permeable and deformable. Permeability tests performed during standard oedometr tests (before each load step) highlight the key role of the original and actual state of the clay paste, and show the existence of a threshold of sand grain concentration above which a structuring effect influences its permeability. In the light of these experiments some usual homogenization methods (with simplifying assumptions to make the problem manageable) are considered in order to model the mixture permeability. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons with experimental data point out their respective domain of interest and limitations of such approaches.
PL
W inżynierii lądowej/geoinżynierii bardzo często spotykamy się z materiałami gruntowymi zbudowanymi z frakcji piaskowej i ilastej. Materiały te stanowią naturalne podłoże gruntowe dla posadawianych na nim budynków lub jako mieszanki rekonstytuowane używane są do budowy nasypów drogowych, tam, zapór jak również barier uszczelniających. Doświadczenie pokazuje, że cechy tych materiałów zależą od właściwości komponentów, szczególnie od mineralogii iłu, od wzajemnych proporcji składników, od stopnia zagęszczenia, jak również od wilgotności mieszanki. Mimo, że do projektowania konstrukcji geotechnicznych stosuje się proste i powszechnie znane zasady (równania empiryczne) bazujące na właściwościach składników, wielokrotnie stawia się pytanie czy jest to podejście właściwe. W związku z tym autorzy podjęli próbę lepszego zrozumienia właściwości mieszanek piasek-ił w skali makro poprzez powiązanie ich ze zjawiskami fizycznymi jakie mają miejsce w materiale w skali mikro. Takie podejście "skalowania" jest typowe dla homogenizacji. Prezentowane badania dotyczą filtracji kompozytów/mieszanek zbudowanych ze sztywnych i szczelnych ziaren piasku zanurzonych w nasyconej wodą paście kaolinitu, rozważanej jako materiał podlegający filtracji i deformacji. Badania wodoprzepuszczalności wykonane w czasie typowych badań edometrycznych uwidaczniają ważną rolę początkowego i aktualnego (uzależnionego od stanu naprężenia) stanu matrycy ilastej, jak również pokazują istnienie wartości progowej zagęszczenia ziaren piasku, powyżej której zjawisko "strukturyzacji" matrycy wpływa istotnie na wodoprzepuszczalność mieszanki. W świetle przeprowadzonych badań, wyniki doświadczalne porównano w sposób jakościowy i ilościowy z oszacowaniami empirycznymi typowych modeli homogenizacji, co pozwoliło na wskazanie zakresu poprawnego działania użytych modeli matematycznych.
EN
Numerical FE investigations of size effects in problems of footings on sand were performed. Micro-polar hypoplastic constitutive model was used to describe a mechanical behaviour of a cohesionless granular material during a monotonic deformation path. The FE analyses were carried out with three different footing widths. In deterministic calculations, a uniform distribution of initial void ratio was used. In statistical calculations, initial void ratios took the form of random spatial fields described by a truncated Gaussian random distribution. In order to reduce the number of stochastic realizations without sacrificing the accuracy of the calculations, a stratified sampling method was applied. The numerical results were compared with corresponding laboratory tests by Tatsuoka et al (1997). The numerical results show that the bearing capacity of footings decreases with increasing specimen size. If the initial void ratio is stochastically distributed, the mean bearing capacity of footings may be larger than the deterministic value. The statistical size effect is smaller than the deterministic one.
6
Content available remote Ductile Tearing Analysis in Overmatched Welded Joints
EN
Numerical analysis has been carried out to evaluate the ductile fracture in an overmatched welded joints case using a standard CT specimen. These investigations have been performed by analysing the monometallic, bimetallic and trimetallic configurations in order to compare global approaches (i.e. the J integral and CTOD) with a local approach (Rice and Tracey model). The different cases lead to a globally similar evolution of CTOD and of the J integral. These two parameters are not really affected when changing the configuration while the void growth ratio (R/Ro) is very sensitive to the strain and strain fields around the crack tip. Furthermore, according to the parameter (R/Ro) distribution at the crack tip, it seems possible to predict the crack propagation direction in the overmatched welded joints case.
EN
The paper deals with investigations of the effect of the stochastic distribution of the initial void ratio in granular bodies on shear localization during shearing of an infinite granular layer 500 mm high with free dilatancy under plane strain conditions. The initial void ratio was assumed to be stochastic with a correlated random field generated by a conditional rejection method by Walukiewicz et al (1997). To simulate mechanical behaviour of a cohesionless granular material during a monotonous deformation path, a micro-polar hypoplastic constitutive law was used, which takes into account particle rotations, curvatures, non-symmetric stresses, couple stresses and the mean grain diameter as a characteristic length. The proposed model captures the salient mechanical features of granular bodies in a wide range of densities and pressures with a single set of constants. In addition, the comparative FE-analyses were carried out with a uniform and spatially non-correlated random fields of the initial void ratio.
8
EN
Projects for the storage of municipal waste involve systems of successive safety barriers consisting at least of a geomembrane and a natural mineral layer. “Poznań Clay” are among materials which can be used as a mineral layer. In this paper mineral layers standards from different countries are described. Studies of the important properties of “Poznań Clay” such as hydraulic conductivity, mineral composition, and void ratio are presented. Samples with undisturbed and disturbed structure were examined. Differences between properties of these samples are negligible.
EN
Heterogeneity of granular materials triggers shear zone formation. In the paper, the FE-analysis of the effect of the material heterogeneity on the formation of a spontaneous shear zone inside of granular materials during a plane strain compression test is presented. The numerical calculations are performed with a finite element method on the basis of a hypoplastic constitutive law extended by polar quantities: rotations, curvatures and couple stresses. A mean grain diameter is used as a characteristic length. The constitutive law takes into account the effect of pressure, void ratio, direction of deformation rate and mean grain diameter on the behaviour of granular bodies. The heterogeneity in the granular body is assumed in the form of spots with a different initial void ratio. The spots are single or distributed randomly and stochastically with an exponential probability function. The single spots are distributed sparsely and densely in an initially dense and loose granular specimen. Special attention is focused on the effect of heterogeneity on the onset of shear localization and its thickness at residual state.
EN
In this paper a hypoplastic model proposed by Gudehus and Bauer is presented which is apt to describe the mechanical behaviour of loose and dense sand within a wide range of pressures and densities using a single set of constants. State changes are assumed to depend on the current void ratio, the Cauchy stress tensor and the stretching tensor. The constitutive equation is of the rate type and based on non-linear tensor-valued functions. By including a pressure dependent relative density the hypoplastic model describes the influence of pressure and density on the incremental stiffness, the peak friction angle and on the void ratio in a stationary state. The performance of the hypoplastic models is discussed and the results of numerical simulations are compared with experiments.
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