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EN
In the sandstones and conglomerates of the Idzików Conglomerate Member (Coniacian), exposed in the Idzików Quarry (SW Poland, Upper Nysa Kłodzka Graben), a moderately diverse assemblage of trace fossils has been recognized. The trace fossils include Arenicolites isp., Asterosoma isp., ?Bergaueria isp., Cylindrichnus isp., Conichnus conicus, Curvolithus simplex, Dactyloidites ottoi, Diplocraterion parallelum, ?Diplocraterion isp., Gyrochorte isp., Gyrophyllites aff. kwassizensis, Macaronichnus segregatis, Ophiomorpha nodosa, Ophiomorpha isp., ?Palaeophycus isp., ?Rhizocorallium isp., Rosselia isp., ?Scolicia isp., Teichichnus isp. and Thalassinoides isp. Escape traces (fugichnia) and some unidentified trace fossils also were found. The following ichnoassociations are distinguished: (IA1) Ophiomorpha-Cylindrichnus, (IA2) Asterosoma-Conichnus and (IA3) Ophiomorpha- Arenicolites. IA1 probably represents a mixture of the impoverished proximal Cruziana ichnofacies and the distal Skolithos ichnofacies, which points to the lower, weakly storm-affected shoreface. IA2 is interpreted as the archetypal Skolithos ichnofacies (opportunistic colonization of tempestite beds) with some elements of the Cruziana ichnofacies (bioturbated, fair-weather background deposits) in the middle, moderately storm-affected shoreface. IA3 is assigned to the archetypal Skolithos ichnofacies, which indicates the upper shoreface-foreshore settings. The trace-fossil evidence implies that the Upper Cretaceous succession was deposited in a shallow, open basin with good oxygenation of the sea floor and normal salinity, under low- to moderately high-energy hydrodynamic conditions. On the basis of ichnological and sedimentological analyses, the deposits studied originated in a system of fan-delta and shallow-shelf settings with common transitional-proximal tempestites. They were deposited in the eastern part of the Upper Nysa Kłodzka Graben during the Coniacian regression.
2
Content available Osuwiska w Sudetach
EN
This paper presents the results of analysis of landslides distribution in the Sudetes (SW Poland). Our study was based on the analysis of the LiDAR-data digital elevation model and integrated with investigations of different factors for landslide development. The results of the study showed relationships between the spatial distribution of landslides and geology of their basement. For the areas built by Permo-Mesozoic and late Variscan sedimentary and volcanogenic rocks, the tectonic and lithological factors are predominant for landslide occurrences. The largest landslides have a tectonic affinity and represent a frontal type of geometry. The relationships between geological conditions and mass movements were also confirmed by the constructed landslide susceptibility map of the Sudetes.
PL
Analiza obecnego występowania i zróżnicowania miąższości utworów ewaporatowych (siarczanowych i chlorkowych) górnego permu (cechsztyn) na obszarze centralnej części monokliny przedsudeckiej, bazująca na danych z 635 archiwalnych otworów wiertniczych, umożliwiła przedstawienie obrazu przypuszczalnej paleogeografii basenów siarczanowych i chlorkowych w przypadku niektórych ewaporatowych wydzieleń litostratygraficznych kolejnych czterech cyklotemów. Utwory siarczanowe i chlorkowe cyklotemów PZ1 i PZ3 oraz siarczany cyklotemu PZ2 (anhydryt podstawowy [A2]) powstały w zbiornikach o wyraźnie zróżnicowanej batymetrii, ze strefami płytszymi (bariera i płycizny) i głębszymi (baseny). Akumulacja tych osadów następowała według schematu występującego w basenie typu „wypełnieniowego”, w którym na etapie depozycji soli chlorki wypełniają głównie obniżenia dna wcześniejszego zróżnicowanego batymetrycznie zbiornika siarczanowego, zaakcentowane różnym tempem osadzania siarczanów (szybszym na płycinach i wolniejszym w basenach). Lokalne występowanie pozostałych ewaporatów cyklotemów PZ2 i PZ4 nie pozwala otworzyć paleogeografii ich zbiorników depozycji. Omówiono też wykształcenie wydzieleń ewaporatowych, wykorzystując dane z terenów sąsiadujących z obszarem badań w sytuacji braku miejscowego materiału rdzeniowego.Tektonika dysjunktywna (sieci uskoków i dwa rowy tektoniczne) w różnym stopniu przemodelowała pierwotne rozmieszczenie ewaporatów i spowodowała ich lokalny wzrost miąższości w strefach przyuskokowych.
EN
Analysis of recent extension and thickness of Upper Permian (Zechstein) evaporites (sulphates and chlorides) in the area of central Fore-Sudetic Monocline, based on data from 635 archive boreholes, enabled to reconstruct the possible palaeographic images of both sulphate and chloride basins, represented some evaporitic lithostratigraphic units of four Zechstein cyclothemes. Sulphates and chlorides of PZ1 and PZ3 cyclothemes as well as sulphates of PZ2 cyclotheme (Basal Anhydrite [A2] unit) have deposited in the basins with distinctly varied bathymetry, where existed the shallow (barrier and shoals) and the deeper (basins) parts. Their accumulation realized the depositional scheme of the „infill” type of evaporitic basin, after which dominant infill by chlorides took place in the deeps of former sulphate basin with differentiated bathymetry accentuated by other accumulate rate of sulphates (a higher on bottom shoals and slower in the deeps). Local occurrence of other evaporate units of PZ2 and PZ4 cyclothemes eliminated creation of similar palaeogeographic images for their depositional basins. Commented evaporite units were characterized by data representative for their age equivalents drilled in the nearest areas because of extremely rare core data form the study area. Disjunctive tectonics (fault systems and two tectonic grabens) modified in a different rate the primary extent of studied evaporites as well as it was responsible for their local thickness increase in the near-fault zones.
EN
The paper reviews an application of non-destructive electromagnetic imaging of shallow bedrock and landslide colluvium horizons performed with ground-penetrating radar (GPR) technique on mass movement-affected mountain slope. We used a non-shielded 52 MHz GPR equipment to study an area of a shallow translational landslide, which developed on steeply inclined gneissic bedrock on Mt. Sredniak slopes (1210 m a.s.l.) in the Śnieżnik Massif. This landslide originated at the boundary zone between intact bedrock comprising Proterozoic gneisses and uppermost slope cover, as a result of continuous rainfall during July of 2011. Furthermore, to better understand and examine a landslide area on Mt. Sredniak slopes we also applied structural geological and geomorphological methods. The GPR analyses resulted in high-resolution imaging of internal slope structure and gravitational deposit architecture in the range of 0.5-5 m below surface level. Electromagnetic sounding performed directly above the landslide source area elucidated a set of bedrock discontinuities with a possible direct impact on water aggregation and migration during the rainfall episodes. Furthermore, a GPR profile performed in a landslide toe area, showed subsurface reflection horizons to be correlated with a colluvium/bedrock transitional zone and internal heterogeneous architecture of colluvial deposits. Ground-penetrating radar proved to be both powerful and an easy-maintained 'on-site' method for steep mountain slope analysis, with a potential for high-resolution imaging of shallow-seated gravitational slope deformations.
EN
The paper presents the results of precipitation influence on the discharge regime changes of 6 springs located in south-western Poland and draining a variety of rocks differing in lithology and age. Calculations for the very wet (2010) and the extremely dry years (2015) have shown that the low spring discharges experienced the greatest variations, with the coefficient ofvariation falling between 3-141%. The coefficient of variation for the maximum and average discharges generally does not exceed 90%. The obtained values of the regression coefficient from 0.0016 to 0.1 d-1 and the coefficient of variation (0-33%) indicate a relatively low variability of groundwater resources and the low transmissivity and high storage capacity of the weathering cover. The spring discharge analysis indicates also the drainage of groundwater bodies of various capacity. The maximum values of the storage capacity are several hundred thousand cubic meters, whereas in the lowest spring resources it does not exceed several thousand cubic meters. Three springs have shown a low variability of the storage capacity (Cv = 4-32%), two have indicated a moderate variability (66 and 70%) and one has shown a large variability (135%). The large storage capacity and high hydraulic resistance of the weathering cover does not guarantee the spring recharge during longer periods (summer-autumn) without rain.
EN
The study deals with clay-silt shales occurring in the lower Palaeozoic basin at the western slope of the East European Craton, and sandstones known from the Carboniferous Basin of SW Poland (basement of theFore-SudeticHomocline).The clay groundmass of the shales consistslargely of illite, and the silt fraction is made up of quartz with a variable admixture of feldspars. Quartz and carbonate cements are common, while pyrite, kaolinite and phosphate cements are rare. The clay groundmass reveals microporosity in the form of microchannels paralleling illite plates, and visible with in mica packets. Carboniferous sandstones are represented mostly by sublithic or subarkosic wackes and rarely by lithic, sublithic or subarkosic arenites. The pore space between sand grains is completely filled by clayey matrix. Both porosity and permeability are very low in the sandstones.
EN
Basic statutory task of the Polish Geological Institute-National Research Institute within the framework of the State Geological Survey is conducting detailed geological mapping ofPoland. One of the leading themes of the III Polish Geological Congress is the "Geological mapping - history and contemporary challenges”. The article presents an analysis of the current state ofdetailed geological mapping in the Sudetes and adjacent areas, as well as the reasons for the need to start a new, second edition of the Detailed Geological Map of the Sudetes (SMGS) at the scale of 1 : 25,000. These reasons can be briefly defined as follows: long-lasting duration of the SMGS development (nearly half a century), lack of uniformity, and outdatedness of this edition. The first edition covered 139 map sheets at the scale of1 : 25,000, with a total area over 10,100 km2. The newly presented comprehensive project assumes very fast workflow, just 10 years of work before the implementation of the second edition of the 1 : 25,000 SMGS. The new edition is going to be more modern and based on the new classification of rocks, providing more information about their origins, geotectonic settings, as well as the processes and geological phenomena, which are not included in the first edition of the 1 : 25,000 SMGS.
EN
In modern architecture, slates, phyllites and schists are becoming more and more popular, and the example of Polish deposits of slates, phyllites and schists indicates that, in the last 10 years, the traditional method of using these rocks as raw material, e.g. for the production ofgranular surface, silty carriers of plant protection products or refractory material, has become gradually dominated by their use as dimension stones. The paper presents the first ranking of the decorative aspects, carried out for slates, phyllites and schists originating from active deposits: Orlowice, Jawornica, Dewon-Pokrzywna, Jeglowa and Jenków, located in the Sudetic Block and Fore-Sudetic Block (Lower Silesian Block, SW Poland). Evaluation of the decorative aspects of slates, phyllites and schists, which takes into account the colour, textural and structuralfeatures of the rock, its ability to be polished, and petrologic type, revealed that the primary and secondary petrographic types documented in these deposits have a high decorative value, mainly because of attractive colour and structural arrangement of mineral components. It should be noted that in the group of over 150 different varieties of colourful metamorphic slates on the stone market in the European Union, Polish slates, phyllites and schists are characterised by unique colours. Therefore, the high decorative value and unique colours characteristic of the Polish slates, phyllites and schists is their essential trait that conditions their use as decorative stone material with a wide range of applications.
EN
This study deals with the spatial distribution and the PAAS-normalized patterns of rare earth elements (REE) studied by ICP-MS in the Kupferschiefer series of SW Poland. The most characteristic feature is a progressive enrichment in REE content (including Y and Sc) outward from the rocks with pyritic and Pb-Zn mineralisation, across the rocks with copper mineralisation, towards the oxidized (Rote Fäule) areas. The same trend can also be observed with respect to LREE, MREE and HREE. Whereas REE distribution diagrams for shales with pyrite and Pb-Zn mineralisation are almost flat, diagrams for shales with hematite and copper mineralisation are convex-upward and the strongest convexity is attributed to the transition from hematitic alteration to copper-rich rocks. REE distribution diagrams normalized to PAAS show strong MREE enrichment relative to LREE and HREE, which is typically the highest in the hematite zone, lower in shale with copper mineralisation, and the lowest in shales with Pb-Zn and pyrite mineralisation. The systematic increase in the concentration of REE towards the Rote Fäule, and the strong enrichment in MREE in the transition zone are indicative of variable intensity of leaching and formation of the REE enrichments (including MREE) by MREE>HREE>LREE fluids, as evidenced by the MREE-enriched signatures. Overprinting of secondary enrichments over the original REE pattern due to redistribution along the pathways of expanding fluids are postulated to account for the apparent differences in the distribution and concentration of REE (including the MREE-enriched trend) between the oxidized rocks, copper-bearing rocks, and reduced lithologies barren in copper.
EN
Themost significant copper reserves in Poland are confined to sediment-hosted stratiform Kupferschiefer-type deposits that occur at the Zechstein/Rotliegend transition. Gradual depletion of shallow reserves in the Fore-Sudetic Monocline results in exploration of deeper beds, and the long-term challenges require new solutions for mining industry of the future and industrial market within the EU, to enable the reindustrialization of Europe. Latest studies of numerous drillhole cores strongly indicate that the Kupferschiefer series in SW Poland (outside the Lubin–Sieroszowice Copper District) contains a very large volume of prognostic, prospective and hypothetical resources. Thirty Cu-Ag prospects have been delineated (including six areas with prognostic resources, six with prospective resources, and 18 areas with hypothetical resources). Among the prospective areas, particular attention is paid to the areas with prognostic resources (Bia³o³êka, Grochowice, Krêpa, Kulów, Luboszyce), adjacent to the existing mines of the Lubin–Sieroszowice copper district. The areas of Nowiny, Mirków, Raciborowice and ¯arków are also interesting due to accessible depths, and the Bogdaj, Henrykowice, Janowo and Sulmierzyce areas due to considerable resources and reasonable depth. Extremely interesting is the possibility of extension of the Bytom Odrzañski deposit towards the Jany, Mozów and Wilcze prospective areas. Studies of archival drillhole cores taken outside the documented Cu-Ag Lubin–Sieroszowice deposit revealed Rote-Fäule-related Au-Pt-Pd mineralization in many localities of SW Poland. Fifteen Au prospective areas, accompanied by Pt-Pd mineralization, have been delineated. However, due to relatively low thickness and content, Au-Pt-Pd mineralization can be considered only as associated with the overlying Cu-Ag ores. It can be estimated that approximately 166 million Mg Cu and 269 thousand Mg Ag concentrated as predicted resources in prospects of SW Poland for future mining, which will be possible, when geological and technological barriers (depth, temperature, oil and gas) will meet economic trends in the world market.
EN
South-west Poland (Silesia) is the region of dramatic history which has left significant heritage, comprising, e.g., numerous historical castles. In this paper, we describe selected castles in Lower Silesia, with special attention given to the usage of exotic (imported) decorative stone materials traded across Europe in various historical periods. Out of the total number of c. 100 historical castles and palaces in SW Poland, only three of them, i.e. Czocha, Ksi¹¿ and Moszna, have preserved significant amount of the original stone decoration. In Czocha Castel, apart from local stones, we have identified, e.g.: red and white, and grey limestones (from Belgium, Germany or Italy). In Ksi¹¿ Castle, the interiors have a great variety of exotic stone materials: travertine, marbles and limestones, e.g. Rosso di Francia, and many others, mostly from France and Italy. In Moszna Castle, representative rooms are adorned with “marbles”: Rosso di Verona, Giallo di Verona, Giallo Siena, Rosso di Francia, and serpentinites and ophicalcites (from Austria and Italy). Most of the exotic stones in the three castles studied were imported at the turn of the 19th–20th centuries and in the early 20th century, when the castles were largely reconstructed and redecorated.
EN
Loess-soil sequences provide one of the most continuous and detailed records of the climate changes on land areas in the Quaternary. The Late Pleistocene loess section in Dankowice (Niemcza-Strzelin Hills) is one of the best recognized in SW Poland. For the investigation of the chemical composition of loess-soil sequence in Dankowice, 31 loess samples were tested. Ten main oxides were determined (SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2 and P2O5) using certified reference materials to obtain good credibility of the analysis. The chemical composition of loess from Dankowice is similar to the results presented in the world loess literature. The characteristic feature is extremely high concentration of the silica. The chemical composition of loess in Dankowice is differentiated within the vertical sequence and confirm previous division of litho-pedostratigraphic units. Therefore, the chemostratigraphic method can be successfully used as a one of lithostratigraphic methods. Decreasing values of the chemical weathering indices to the top of the section may indicate that the source areas of loess silt have provided material over time, less and less transformed by prolonged and intense chemical weathering processes.
EN
The development of basal Zechstein (Wuchiapingian) strata inSW Polandindicates the existence of a diversified relief inherited after the flooding of the pre-existing depression by the transgressing Zechstein sea. The deeper parts of the basin were the place of development of thin basinal Zechstein Limestone showing sedimentary condensation manifested by bored and encrusted grains and thick evaporites (mostly halite), and in shallow parts Zechstein Limestone reefs followed by thinner evaporite sequences (dominated by anhydrite) occur. The analysis of 3D seismic sections showed that instead of three conventionally recognized evaporite units of stratigraphic potential in the PZ1 cycle, five units occur (from the base to the top: Lower Anhydrite, Lower Oldest Halite, Middle Anhydrite, Upper Oldest Halite, Upper Anhydrite). In a particular place their number may vary from two (Lower Anhydrite at the base of the PZ1 cycle and Upper Anhydrite at the top of the PZ1 cycle) to five. There are two complexes of Lower Anhydrite occurring throughout the platform and basinal zones showing deepening-upward (transgressive) trend. The halite sedimentation in the deepest parts of salt basins began shortly after the deposition of the upper Lower Anhydrite complex while in the sulphate platform areas the sulphate deposition lasted still for a long time. The Lower Oldest Halite deposits occur in the depressions. Between the halite basins, anhydrite platforms occur, and the thickness of anhydrite platform deposits is smaller than it is observed in salt basins. The Upper Oldest Halite in turn is recorded above the anhydrite platform. The two halite units represent different phases of development of halite basins. The Lower Oldest Halite basins are related to the pre-Zechstein depressions, although in some cases their syndepositional subsidence was controlled by reactivation, during the deposition of basal Zechstein strata, of former faults. In turn, the Upper Oldest Halite basins used the accommodation space created due to anhydritization of the Lower Anhydrite deposits composed originally of selenitic gypsum. The 3D seismics evidences that the PZ1 evaporites inSW Polandhave been deposited in far more complex and dynamic system than it was assumed before.
EN
Molecular composition of natural gases accumulated in autochthonous Miocene strata of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathian Foredeep is dominated by methane, which usually constitutes over 98 vol%. Methane was generated by the carbon dioxide reduction pathway of microbial processes. Ethane was generated both during microbial and thermogenic processes ("oil window") and propane at the initial stage of the low-temperature thermogenic processes, and also by the microbial processes. The rhythmic and cyclic deposition of Miocene clays and sands as well as the vigorous generation of microbial methane caused that the gas produced in claystone beds was accumulated in the overlaying sandstones, and capped, in turn, by the succeeding claystones. Such generation and accumulation system of microbial gases gave rise to the formation of multi-horizontal gas fields. Analysis of the distribution of immature humic dispersed organic matter in the Upper Badenian and Lower Sarmatian sequences indicates that it is practically homogeneous. A migration range of microbial gases was insignificant and locations of their accumulations would depend only on the existence of proper type of traps (compactional anticlines situated above basement uplifts, sealed by the Carpathian Overthrust and/or by faults; stratigraphic pinching out and stratigraphic traps related to unconformities). Another situation is encountered in the south, beneath the Carpathian Overthrust. The thickness of the autochthonous Miocene strata in this area is more than 1,500 metres. Geochemical studies reveal that from a depth of 2,500 metres starts the process of low-temperature thermogenic hydrocarbon generation (“oil window”). At greater depths, more than 7,500 metres, within the autochthonous Lower Miocene basin only the high-temperature methane ("gas window") could be produced and accumulated.
EN
A block development operation at the "Rudna" copper mine (KGHM Polska Miedź S.A.) encountered a "compressed gas trap" that caused the ejection of fragmented rock material into a drift. Faced with a new threat of gas ejection the mine needed to find methods to identify potential gas concentration zones prior to any further exploration work. Surface seismic surveying was chosen as a widely-accepted standard method of investigating rockmass structure and tectonics and pinpointing natural gas deposits. An area of one square kilometre was selected directly above the ejection site, a 3D seismic survey, known as Duża Wólka 3D, was performed and a survey well S-421A was drilled. The objective was to investigate the overall rock structure, especially the structure of Zechstein and top Rotliegendes formations, as well as to attempt identifying anomalous zones, which could be linked with the gas saturation of Ca1 dolomites, on the 3D seismic image at the P1 level (Zechstein/ Rotliegendes boundary). An interpretation of multi-scenario seismic modelling of the recorded data helped to: – recognize the structure and tectonics of the area, including minor faults cutting through the top-level Rotliegendes formations and floor-level Zechstein formations. Such faults could constitute migration channels for Carboniferous-period gases, – locate zones with nearly zero-reflection amplitude at the surface of the top-level Rotliegendes (P1 seismic boundary), which would suggest a reduction of elastic parameters of the Ca1 dolomite. This reduction could be linked to an increased porosity and fracturing of the dolomite and its saturation with gas (a reduction of the seismic wavelet propagation velocity). Credibility of this interpretation is already partly corroborated by data from wells drilled in the Zechstein limestone by the mine. The paper presents the first in the world attempt to use the surface seismic survey for location of zones with small gas concentration in porous rocks at the Zechstein/Rotliegendes boundary. Such zones should not be identified with gas pools that occur in the Zechstein Limestone (Ca1) in the area of the Fore-Sudetic Monocline.
EN
Reconstruction of burial and thermal history was modelled for the Mesozoic strata in the basement of the Polish and Ukrainian parts of the Carpathian Foredeep and in the marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The 1-D modelling was carried out in profiles of the wells located in the area between Tarnogród and Stryi towns. In the Polish part, the modelling were performed in the profiles of the Księżpol 15, Lubliniec 9, Markowice 2 and Opaka 1 wells, and in the Ukrainian part in the profiles of the Chornokuntsi 1, Korolyn 6, Mosty 2, Podiltsi 1 and Voloshcha 1 wells. The geochemical characteristics of the Mesozoic stratigraphical horizons revealed that the best features of source rocks were present in the Middle Jurassic strata in the Polish part of the study area and in the Middle and Upper Jurassic strata in the Ukrainian part. Within these strata, the horizons of source rocks were distinguished and their quantitative evaluations were characterized. For these horizons, reconstruction of processes for hydrocarbon generation and expulsion were performed. The source rocks in the Polish part reached maturity only in the initial phase of “oil window”. However, the maturity achieved towards the end of the Upper Jurassic was insufficient to exceed the 10% threshold of the transformation degree for hydrocarbon generation. Therefore, the amount of generated hydrocarbons was minimal. Slightly higher maturity of organic matter in the Ukrainian part resulted in exceeding the thresholds of kerogen transformation and the initiation of hydrocarbon generation and expulsion processes. The process began after the deposition of thicker Miocene formations and developed even up to the main phase of the "oil window". The amount of the generated hydrocarbons reached ca. 150 mg/g TOC with an insignificant volume of expulsion.
EN
This work aims at estimation of the amount of metamorphic fluids which led to the present-day variability of isotopic compositions, ?D and ?18O, in serpentinites from the Gogołów–Jordanów Massif. This goal was achieved by means of a numerical model reproducing selected features of geological environment and a computer application supporting this model. The Gogołów–Jordanów Massif consists of peridotites transformed to a different degree into serpentinites and subject to brittle deformation that produced a complex fracture system. The potential tectonic control on the pattern of the fluid migration paths was investigated using palaeostress analysis based on slickenside measurements. Isotopic analyses were carried out for hydrogen and oxygen from serpentine, oxygen from magnetite, and hydrogen and oxygen from carbonates. The variability of ?D and ?18O in the serpentinites along the modelled migration paths demonstrates that serpentinization of peridotites was caused by fluids derived from at least three sources revealing different isotopic characteristics. Fluids produced during the magmatic-hydrothermal stage played a major role in serpetinization, since they represent approximately 95% of all fluids interacting with the rock. In contrast, oceanic water represents only 1% of fluids involved in serpenti- nization. The calculated mean amount of fluid required for serpentinization of 1 m3 of peridotite is equal to 98 × 104 kg.
18
Content available remote The oak chronology (948-1314 ad) for the Żary area (SW Poland)
EN
The study presents the results of investigations aimed at construction of a site chronology for oak wood from the surroundings of Żary (SW Poland). The 366-year chronology ZY_2006, covering the period 948-1314 AD was determined on the basis of 189 individual ring patterns representing samples of archaeological wooden objects lifted at the excavation works led in the Old Town of Żary in the years 2004-2005. The chronology produced exhibits high similarity to the standards for the neighbouring regions: Wielkopolska and Lower Silesia. The statistical parameters of the chronology are very high and, thanks to the signature years determined, it should be an excellent tool for dating samples of mediaeval timbers from the whole region of Ziemia Lubuska, including some with relatively short dendrochronological sequences.
EN
The paper presents results of dendrochronological dating of wood encountered in abandoned mines in the eastern part of Lower Silesia. The research was carried out in gold mines in Złoty Stok, Głuchołazy, and Zlate Hory, a polymetallic-ore mine in Marcinków as well as old mines in the Sowie Mts: the Silberloch adit, an adit on the hillside of Mała Sowa, a graphite mine, and the silver and lead mine Augusta. Altogether 69 samples were taken from timbers of coniferous tree species: Pinus sylvestris, Abies alba, Picea abies and Larix decidua. The oldest wood, from the turn of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was encountered in the gold mines in Zlate Hory and Głuchołazy. In the gold mine in Złoty Stok, graphite mine in Sowie Mts and in Marcinków there was identified wood from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Generally, timbers from the nineteenth century were prevailing, and in three cases there was even encountered relatively young twentieth-century wood in the gold mine in Złoty Stok and in the Silberloch adit. The analyses carried out were only preliminary. Broader, interdisciplinary investigations, including dendrochronology, archaeology, geology, mining, and palaeobotany, would substantially contribute for learning the history of the mining in the whole region.
EN
The sequence of Weichselian sediments and processes in SW Poland is almost identical to that of central Poland. Generally, three fluvial units occur, comprising silts and sands coarsening upwards to silts, sands and gravels, with aeolian deposits on top. This suggests very uniform processes throughout the palaeogeographic zone. To the south of this zone, there was extensive loess deposition and glacial deposition to the north. Climatic conditions during the Middle and Upper Weichselian Pleniglacial in SW Poland were similar to those in central Poland and northwestern Europe, though the period of 47-43 kyrs BP was slightly milder in SW Poland (shrub tundra, forest-tundra). Climatic conditions during the periods 38-27 kyrs BP and 23-18 kyrs BP were very uniform throughout central Europe, including SW Poland, though there may have been a strong north-south climatic gradient during the former period, as data from the loessic zone indicate at least patches of boreal forest or forest-tundra conditions in SW Poland at that time. It is also possible that there was a Middle Weichselian Pleniglacial interstadial with a lower age boundary at 25,900 ą 700 years BP, characterised by Pinus-Picea forest with no heliophytes. This interstadial represents the last mild period before the advance of the late Weichselian ice sheet into SW Poland. The Weichselian fluvial deposition of SW and central Poland may have been punctuated by at least three major erosional phases, characterised by similar incision depths during the cold stages. Erosion took place, with certainty, at around 75-60 kyrs BP (Lower Pleniglacial) and 27 kyrs BP, very probably at around 23/22 kyrs and possibly at around 40 kyrs BP, and valley aggradation occurred during the milder stages. The Upper Pleniglacial was characterised by valley aggradation, associated with southward ice sheet advance and restricted fluvial outflow. However, the frequent Middle Pleniglacial Weichselian climatic oscillations did not initiate sedimentation and erosion, they controlled only river discharge and type of fluvial sedimentation and aeolian activity. The occurrence of the erosional and aggradational phases were controlled by the changes in ice volume in Scandinavia, ice sheet build-up and retreat, respectively.
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