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EN
From the year 2014 to July 31, 2020, setting out a building was surveying work subject to the obligation to report to the locally competent district governor (starost) before it was commenced. After completion of the building setting out, the contractor of surveying works was obliged to notify the authorities of the completion of the surveying works and to submit the results of surveying works connected with the building setting out. Since July 31, 2020, following the amended Geodesic and Cartographic Law, the obligation to report the building setting out has been repealed. Despite that, the real estate owner will still be obliged to submit an appropriate application to the starost to dis close the new land use in accordance with Article 22 of the Geodesic and Cartographic Law. The author has analysed 31 documentation sets, being the results of building setting out procedures. The analysis verified the size of a land parcel on which the buildings were set out, what land use was presented before setting out and what land use was presented after the building setting out. In addition, the current state of development of the land parcel (as of July 2020) was examined using map portals, and an orthophotomap was used to check whether the building was constructed, in order to verify whether the real estate cadastre was updated further.
EN
The real estate cadastre is the primary source of information on land use. It re cords information related to the division of land into types based on the actual way of land use or development. The distinguished types of land use depend on many geographical factors, as well as historical and economic conditions. The study presents a comparison of the detail of land use classification registered in the real estate cadastre in areas functionally related to the urban areas of 9 European countries: Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Spain, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Germany and Poland. The research concerned the determination of the degree to which the classification of land use in urbanized areas is detailed, whether the studied European countries are characterized by the same number of distinguished classes of ob jects at different levels of detail, and what percentage are the distinguished classes of land use objects in urbanized areas in relation to all of the distinguished classes of objects land use at different levels of detail of classification. The study used legal acts regulating land use issues which have been made available in national languages by government institutions.
EN
Climate, land use, and land cover change can propagate alteration to the watershed environment. The interaction between natural and human activities probably accelerates the change, a phenomenon that will generate serious environmental problems. This study aims to evaluate the change in the hydrological regime due to natural and human-induced processes. The study was conducted in Brantas watershed, Indonesia, which is the largest watershed in East Java. This area is populated by more than 8 million inhabitants and is the most urbanized area in the region. An analysis of rainfall time series use to shows the change in natural phenomena. Two land-use maps at different time intervals were used to compare the rapid development of urbanization, and the discharge from two outlets of the sub-watersheds was employed to assess hydrological changes. The indicator of hydrological alteration (IHA) method was used to perform the analysis. The daily discharge data are from 1996 to 2017. The research results show an increase in flow (monthly, 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, 30-day, and 90-day flows) in the two sub-watersheds (Ploso and Kertosono) from the pre-period (1996–2006) to the post-period (2007–2017).
EN
Perceiving the spatiotemporal relationship of land use changes and groundwater resources is crucial for the effective and sustainable management of the plains. This study aims to investigate the relationship between land use changes and groundwater depth fluctuations in the forbidden plains of northern Hamedan. In the present study, the land use maps for 1989, 1997, 2005, 2013 and 2018 were extracted and categorized from Landsat satellite images and then evaluated for accuracy. In addition, groundwater depth distribution maps were prepared by kriging method for five years from piezometric data. The correlation and relationship between land use changes and groundwater depth fluctuations were determined by REGRESS methods. The findings from kriging method indicated that the intensity of groundwater decline during the last three periods of study (2005, 2013 and 2018) becomes more severe in the study area. Land use change trends indicate a sharp decline in the orchards, pasture lands, barren lands and a relative decline in the irrigated agricultural land, and consequently, increasing in non-irrigation and residential farmland. In addition, the average annual depth of groundwater level during the past 29 years decreased to 1.57 m and 0.87 m in the Kabudrahang and Razan Plains, respectively. The r value of REGRESS method during five study periods was the minimum 0.015 and maximum 0.15 in the Kabudrahang Plain and minimum 0.06 and maximum 0.15 in the Razan Plain, respectively. The results of the study indicated that climate changes cannot be considered as the reason for declining the groundwater in the study area. However, along with the relative impacts of land use changes, the role of managerial factors, the prominent example of which is the non-expert location of the Shahid Mofatteh Hydroelectric Power Station, which supplies underground water to cool the generators, should be considered. The present study can be effective in the management, planning, and policy of groundwater resources, land use location, and spatial planning in the areas facing severe water shortages, especially in the northern plains of Hamedan because this study indicates the importance of underground water in arid and semi-arid regions.
EN
In order to ensure the territorial development of land use in the region, there is a need to change the trajectory of spatial and urban planning factors. The ways for implementation of the proposed system measures are defined in the article. For investment and environmental indicators, the integrated indicator of territorial development of land use in the region, depending on their change, is predicted. The article presents the results of forecasting the integrated indicator of land use territorial development in the region based on the growth of systemic investment factors and the results of forecasting the integrated indicator of land use territorial development based on the growth of systemic environmental factors. Practical scientific-based recommendations for ensuring the territorial development of land use in the region by applying the results of its integrated assessment and modeling are proposed. Developed recommendations made it possible to form directions and build the basis for ensuring the territorial development of land use in the region. The development of methodological recommendations for ensuring the territorial development of land use in the region is based on the results of the study of the influence of systematic spatial, urban, investment, and environmental factors on the integrated indicator of land use territorial development.
EN
The transformation processes that occur in the technical, informational, and economic spheres of the regions require the development of new conceptual approaches to the development of a full-fledged land use system based on an analysis of the problems of using underground real estate. Determination of the features of land use of underground real estate is based on a quantitative basis, which is built on a systematic, integrated approach. Indicators that determine the condition and use of underground real estate are of particular importance for the development of the approach. A method of estimating a generalized indicator of the use of underground real estate in the system of land use of regions based on an integrated approach, which includes the method of expert assessments by applying qualitative indicators characterizing the status and level of use of underground real estate, considering urban, spatial, investment and innovation legal and safety features is developed. The assessment results of the integrated indicator of underground real estate land use, as well as the results of the assessment by region, showed a low level of use of underground real estate in the land use system of the regions. It is determined that most of the lands in the regions have low levels of underground real estate use. Besides, there is a need to increase the use of underground real estate by developing appropriate methodological recommendations.
EN
This paper proposes an assessment of the links between freight trip generation (FTG) rates and accessibility. First, the paper overviews the background, sets the context and motivates the research. Second, it presents the proposed methodology, which combines an FTG model, two accessibility indicators and a linear regression analysis to assess the relationships between freight trip demand and a set of socio-demographic variables including accessibility. The FTG modelling framework, adapted from previous works, allows estimating the number of freight trips with a small amount of standard data, even when no surveyed data is available. The two gravity accessibility indexes, one potential and one exponential, are defined in the continuity of recent freight accessibility works. To those indicators, a set of socio-demographic variables, including population, area or a zone (or density), are introduced. The relationships between FTG and all those variables are assessed via standard linear regression methods completed by the verification of the corresponding linear relationship hypotheses. Third, the framework is applied to the urban area of Lyon (France), where no urban goods survey data is available. Results show that potential accessibility seems to have a better correlation to FTG and could be a good decision support indicator when combined with the population as an explanatory variable. The population can be added to accessibility as an explanatory variable, the resulting models with two variables have a slightly lower accuracy but remains close to that of models with only accessibility as an explanatory variable. This work remains exploratory and finishes by proposing practical implications and further development lines.
PL
Krajobraz wsi sąsiadujących z dużymi ośrodkami miejskimi podlega silnej presji. Problemy związane z zanikiem zróżnicowania regionalnego, rosnąca homogeniczność struktur przestrzennych i zerwanie ciągłości kulturowej to najbardziej jaskrawe przykłady niekontrolowanych przemian przestrzeni ruralistycznej. Artykuł dotyczy prezentacji problemów ochrony zabytkowego krajobrazu Żuław Gdańskich na przykładzie gminy Cedry Wielkie, należącej do Obszaru Metropolitalnego Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot. Zasady kształtowania krajobrazu osiedli wiejskich skonfrontowano z ustaleniami obowiązujących planów miejscowych, a następnie porównano ze stanem rzeczywistym, by móc zidentyfikować konsekwencje przestrzenne procesów suburbanizacji. Analizy próbują odpowiedzieć na pytanie czy instrumenty planowania przestrzennego są w stanie ochronić tereny wiejskie przed efektami niekontrolowanego rozwoju miast.
EN
The landscape of villages adjacent to large urban centres is subject to strong pressure. Problems related to the loss of regional diversity, increasing homogeneity of spatial structures and breaking of cultural continuity are the most glaring examples of uncontrolled changes in rural space. This paper presents the problems of safeguarding the heritage landscape of Żuławy Gdańskie with the example of the Cedry Wielkie commune, which belongs to the Metropolitan Area of Gdańsk-Gdynia-Sopot. The principles of shaping the landscape of rural settlements were juxtaposed with the findings of binding local zoning plans and then compared with the actual state in order to identify the spatial consequences of suburbanisation processes. The analyses aim to answer the question of whether spatial planning instruments are capable of protecting rural areas from the effects of urban sprawl.
EN
Using multiple classification approach to examine plant traits response to grazing and fencing (as without access to grazing) is rare. Here we used multiple classification approach to examine plant diversity, productivity and species traits response to grazing and fencing over a three-year period on the eastern part of the Qing-Hai Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that most common species response to the fence was poorly noticeable. The fencing meadows compared to those under long-term free grazing are characterized by significantly higher total species richness, but species richness declined with sampling years gradually, regardless of grazing or fencing. The correlation showed that species richness was negatively associated with mean annual temperature significantly, suggesting that abiotic factors (e.g. annual temperature) could also play important roles in driving species richness in this subalpine meadow. Total aboveground biomass was not associated with mean annual temperature and rainfall. The fencing meadow demonstrated higher community aboveground biomass relative to the grazing ones, especially the abundance of legume and graminoids increased, while the proportions of sedge decreased, suggested that grazing disturbance favours the increase of reproductive success of sedge (e.g. Kobresia humilis) in this subalpine meadow. Growth form-based analyses combined with canopy height categories should be recommended to reveal general rules and mechanisms relating to grazing.
EN
Spatial policy-making and implementation at the national and regional levels require, among others, long-term monitoring of socio-economic processes in the spatial and statistical dimension. The paper focuses on the issue of land-use changes for non-agricultural and non-forest purposes in individual provinces (called voivodeships). A special emphasis was put on the intensity and direction of the transformation processes. In order to compile the results in the form of a comparative analysis, a multi-indicator method was developed with the use of the data provided by Local Data Bank for the years 2003-2017. The results illustrate both variations and similarities in the spatial development between the analyzed voivodeships.
EN
The conversion of peatland from forest to non-forest causes environmental damage and increases high land dryness. Mapping of peatland based on dryness is very important to control and prevent fires. This study aims at characterizing peatland based on the level of temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI) and evaluating the correlation between TVDI value and soil moisture. The research was conducted in August 2018 during the dry season. The area of research located in peat hydrological unit of Sibumbung River – Batok River in Ogan Komering Ilir (OKI) District of South Sumatra Province covering 63,427 ha area that consists of various land uses. The result showed that extreme wet category is found in water bodies and secondary forests that have high density, moderate wet is found in paddy fields and grass, normal area is found in the area covered by low-density trees, moderate dry is found in shrubs and oil palm plantations with good management and extreme dry areas is found in grasses and oil palm with poor cultivation management. There is a correlation between the TVDI value to the soil moisture on 0–10 cm and 10–20 cm and 20–30 cm depth.
EN
The soil resources in Kosovo are facing challenges due to different human activities. Urbanization, along with economic growth, has further worsened the shortage of soil resources in Kosovo. In the last 20 years, Kosovo has undergone some social, political and economical changes which have made the population to migrate toward plains, where new settlements are formed, and other are extended. Soil resources are important for Kosovo’s inhabitants, who are mainly focused on agriculture. Most of the Kosovo’s terrain is mountainous, which means nearly half of the area is not suitable for agriculture. The Sitnica River basin lies mostly in Kosovo Plain where soils are characterized by high fertility with a great potential for agricultural development. The vicinity parts of the river basin lie in the hilly mountainous areas where soils have low fertility. Good natural conditions have made the River Basin the most densely populated area in Kosovo. Rapid extension of urban and rural settlements changed the land cover; agricultural lands were excluded from primary use, and the agricultural capacity is reduced with the increasing number of settlements on lands with high quality. Sitnica River basin was faced with uncontrolled urbanization, followed by the degradation of agricultural lands and land use changes, where floods occur in some cases or the flood risk is increased. In this case study, the Sitnica River basin will be analysed based on terrain morphology, soil and other natural resources, land use changes and will be a contribution towards sustainable urbanization of settlements in order to preserve soil resources.
EN
The agricultural land found in the Czech Republic is strongly degraded by water erosion. The main reasons for this situation are the changes in the landscape caused by large-area agricultural production in the second half of the 20th century. In the model locality Starovice – Hustopeče (223.5 ha) (South Moravia Region), we analysed the changes in the landscape structure and land use for the period 1825-2018. In 1825, the mean size of a land block was 0.4 ha. In 1968, the studied locality consisted of just one land block of a size of 223.5 ha. This period marks the beginning of massive water erosion. In 2003, the locality was proposed for land consolidation. Its goal was to reduce erosion and the risk of floods. To date, a number of protective measures have been applied in the locality. The risk of water erosion was assessed for the landscape state in 1968 and 2018 in GIS using the USLE method. The effect of the adopted measures was strongly manifested in the reduction of the erosion risk (by 44%). The transport of sediment out of the locality was assessed for 1968 and 2018 by means of the WaTEM-SEDEM model. The protective measures resulted in a decrease of sediment transport out of the locality by 111 t/year (40% reduction). The economic balance of the soil loss showed a positive impact of the applied protective measures. On the basis of the mean price of arable land in the Czech Republic and the costs of the soil relocation within the locality, the application of protective measures brought an economy of at least € 5,000 per year. This sum does not include the losses caused by a potential decrease of agricultural crop yields due to the soil degradation, reduction of ecosystem services, and other factors in the past years. The actual benefits of applying the protective measures aimed at reducing erosion and increasing water retention in the landscape are significantly higher.
EN
The article presents results of an analysis of changes to the landscape in zones directly bordering with Central European cities of medium size. Authors have designated and analysed 57 zones as buffers contained within a radius of 30 km from the administrative city boundaries. Transformations of the landscape were determined on the basis of three indicators showing the fragmentation of the land use forms, distortions of area patches with different land uses, and an increase in the diversification of functions. The data adopted for the study originated from CORINE Land Cover, determined for two points of time i.e. the years 2006 and 2012. The obtained results indicate that the changes to the landscape, identified on the basis of the selected indicators, are strongly linked to the increase in the size of urban areas. The analysis also showed a clear differentiation between cities situated in Central European countries.
EN
The need for effective and rational use of land, protection, and preservation of its qualitative state (as the agricultural land soil) is due to some negative details, namely, more than a third of the land is eroded, half of which are black soil in particular, which have an average level of nutrient supply, a lot of contaminated abandoned or overdented land. The acuteness of this problem, which has developed with regard to the protection and preservation of the land qualitative state, has become particularly relevant. The solution to this problem requires truly effective methods of influence. One of such methods is the surveillance of ecological and economic monitoring of land. The article analyzes the ecological and economic factors and factors influencing the monitoring and surveillance of land in Ukraine. Perspectives and objectives for improvements in land monitoring are highlighted. The paper discloses a theoretical synthesis and new approaches to solving the problem of environmental management, which can participate in the development of innovative economic and environmental factors of rational land use, which will contribute to enhancing the transition of Ukraine to the model of sustainable land use. The purpose of this work is a scientific analysis of the various organizational factors of monitoring and surveillance of agricultural land in relation to the current legislation in Ukraine.
PL
W celu oceny wpływu działalności człowieka na wody podziemne, analizie poddano skład chemiczny wód podziemnych występujących na obszarach o różnorodnych sposobach użytkowania terenu. Do badań wykorzystano wyniki analiz fizyczno-chemicznych wód podziemnych wykonywanych w ramach monitoringu krajowego w latach 1995–2017, w podziale na różne stopnie izolacji opróbowanych poziomów wodonośnych. Najbardziej są zanieczyszczone wody pochodzące z otworów monitoringowych zlokalizowanych na obszarach przemysłowych w poziomach o swobodnym zwierciadle wody. W wodach pobranych z punktów monitoringowych zlokalizowanych na obszarach wiejskich oraz na obszarach występowania gruntów ornych stwierdzono wysokie zawartości azotanów i siarczanów, a na obszarach miejskich podwyższone są także stężenia fosforanów i cynku. Najmniej zanieczyszczone są wody z punktów monitoringowych umiejscowionych na terenach zieleni miejskiej. Chemizm wód podziemnych w analizowanych punktach monitoringowych zależy zarówno od czynników naturalnych, jak i charakteru użytkowania terenu. Podwyższone stężenia NO3 –, HPO4 – lub SO4 2– są ewidentnie wynikiem działalności człowieka, podczas gdy podwyższone stężenia Na, Cl i NH4 + mogą być zarówno pochodzenia antropogenicznego, jak i skutkiem naturalnych procesów hydrogeochemicznych. Stężenia Ca i Mg w badanych wodach podziemnych są głównie efektem procesów naturalnych.
EN
The chemical quality of groundwater beneath the different types of land use areas was examined to evaluate the effects of human activities on groundwater. The study of the results of groundwater quality tests conducted as part of the Polish National Monitoring in 1995–2017 was performed in order to evaluate the effects of human activities on groundwater in the aquifers of different levels of isolation. The most polluted waters are those collected at monitoring points located within unconfined aquifers of industrial areas. The waters taken from monitoring points located in rural areas and arable lands show a high level of nitrates and sulphates. In urban areas, also phosphate and zinc concentrations are elevated. The least polluted waters were collected from points located in urban green areas. The groundwater chemistry in analyzed monitoring points depends on both natural factors and the nature of land use. Elevated concentrations of NO3 –, HPO4 – or SO4 2– are evidently the result of human activity, while the increased levels of Na, Cl and NH4 + come from both anthropogenic sources and natural processes. Ca and Mg concentrations in the studied waters are mainly the result of natural processes.
17
Content available remote Determinants of land developers’ activity in Poland
EN
The proper use of space, particularly in urban areas, has become very important. Land developers are focused on activities which increase the value of land by preparing it for investment (the purchase of land, transforming it into the building area, merging or division of land into smaller parcels, utilities, and the final sale to other developers). In this article, land development activity is also considered as part of the development process. The aim of this study is to identify the factors that determine the manner of activities related to the procurement and preparation of land for construction by developers. The research is an important step towards the creation of the concept of land developers’ activity in Poland.
PL
Obserwując zmiany zachodzące w zagospodarowaniu terenów w Polsce, można stwierdzić, że duży udział tych przemian wynika z działalności deweloperskiej. W długim okresie działania deweloperów wymuszają istotne przeobrażenia gruntów. Z kolei grunty jako kapitał stanowią zasadniczy element gospodarki rynkowej I, co najważniejsze, są zasobem ograniczonym. W Polsce aktywność deweloperów obserwowana jest głównie na rynku nieruchomości mieszkaniowych. To powoduje, że często przez pryzmat tej działalności definiuje się dewelopera, traktując go jako przedsiębiorstwo budujące mieszkania na sprzedaż. Rozwinięte rynki nieruchomości wyróżniają deweloperów działających zarówno w segmencie nieruchomości mieszkaniowych, jak i komercyjnych (biurowe, handlowe, magazynowe itp.), ale także zajmujących się tylko przygotowaniem gruntów pod przyszłą zabudowę. W Polsce dotychczasowe czynniki rynkowe nie wymusiły aż tak daleko idącej specjalizacji działalności deweloperskiej. Dlatego wachlarz usług świadczonych przez deweloperów jest dość szeroki. Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja czynników mających wpływ na przeobrażanie i przygotowanie gruntów przez deweloperów. Przeprowadzone badania są częścią tworzenia koncepcji działalności land deweloperskiej.
EN
Land use change in the upstream of Rawa Pening watershed which is more and more dominated by residence and industry causes the increasing of surface flow discharge on the rainy season. In addition, the decreasing of Rawa Pening ability in storing flood discharge also influences to the cropping area in surrounded Rawa Pening. Water surpluses occurring downstream are related to the land use change in the upstream which gives impact in the downstream. However, it is as an important reason to carry out the optimization of water economic value in this region. The disruption of water availability causes the decreasing of any production like hydroelectrical power, fresh water, and rice production, so the optimal water economy is decreasing. This research intends to: 1) analyse the effect of land use change to the water availability; 2) analyse the land use change to the water balance; and 3) build and analyse the optimization model of water economic value due to the land use change. Results show that there is the different influence of land use change during the years to the results of water value optimization.
PL
Zmiana użytkowania ziemi w górnej zlewni Rawa Pening coraz bardziej zdominowanej przez zabudowę mieszkalną i przemysłową powoduje wzrost odpływu powierzchniowego w porze deszczowej. Malejąca zdolność Rawa Pening do retencji wód powodziowych wpływa na okoliczne tereny uprawne. Nadmiary wody występujące w dolnej części zlewni są powiązane ze zmianami użytkowania ziemi w górnej części zlewni. Ta zależność jest ważnym powodem podjęcia optymalizacji gospodarki wodnej regionu. Zakłócenia w dostępności wody powodują zmniejszenie produkcji energii elektrycznej wytwarzanej w hydroelektrowniach, wody słodkiej i ryżu, skutkiem czego maleje optymalne wykorzystanie wody. Badania miały na celu: 1) analizę wpływu zmian użytkowania ziemi na dostępność wody; 2) analizę wpływu tych zmian na bilans wodny; 3) skonstruowanie i analizę modelu optymalizacji gospodarczej wartości wody w związku ze zmianami użytkowania ziemi. Wyniki dowodzą różnego wpływu zmian w czasie na optymalizację wartości wody.
EN
The aims of this study were to evaluate five infiltration models for mineral soils in the tropics with different land use types, such as settlements, plantations, rice fields, and forests. The infiltration models evaluated were Green–Ampt, Kostiakov, Kostiakov–Lewis, Philip, and Horton. The research was conducted at the Amprong watershed, Malang, Indonesia. The infiltration rate of the thirteen soil samples was analysed. The infiltration was tested using Turf-Tech infiltrometer. Moreover, each soil sample was tested in terms of the bulk density, specific gravity, porosity, soil moisture, and soil texture. The results of the study indicate that there is no significant difference (α = 5%) in the infiltration rate among the five models of infiltration. The infiltration rate in the study site was considered fast. Three models exhibiting the best performance are Kostiakov, Kostiakov–Lewis, and Horton model, respectively. The highest infiltration rate occurred in the forest land use while the lowest occurred in the rice field land use. The results of this study suggest that the infiltration model parameters correlate closely with the initial infiltration rate (fo) and the final infiltration rate (fc). In other words there is a correlation between the soil's ability to absorb water (representing the capillary force or horizontal flow) at the beginning of the infiltration (fo) and the gravity or the vertical flow upon reaching the final infiltration rate (fc).
PL
Celem badań prezentowanych w niniejszej pracy była ocena pięciu modeli infiltracji opracowanych dla gleb mineralnych o różnym typie użytkowania w tropikach, takich jak: obszary zabudowane, plantacje, pola ryżowe i lasy. Oceniano modele Greena–Ampta, Kostiakova, Kostiakova–Lewisa, Philipa i Hortona. Badania prowadzono w zlewni Amprong, Malang w Indonezji. Analizowano tempo infiltracji w trzynastu próbkach glebowych z użyciem infiltrometru Turf-Tech. Ponadto w każdej próbce gleby analizowano gęstość objętościową, ciężar właściwy, porowatość, wilgotność gleby i skład granulometryczny. Wyniki badań dowiodły, że nie ma istotnej różnicy w tempie infiltracji (α = 5%) obliczonej za pomocą wymienionych pięciu modeli. Uznano, że tempo infiltracji było duże. Trzy modele, kolejno: Kostiakova, Kostiakova–Lewisa i Hortona okazały się najbardziej odpowiednie. Największe tempo infiltracji stwierdzono w glebach leśnych, a najmniejsze w glebach pod polami ryżowymi. Wyniki badań sugerują, że parametry modelu infiltracji są ściśle skorelowane z początkowym (fo) i końcowym (fc) tempem infiltracji. Innymi słowy, istnieje korelacja między zdolnością gleby do absorbowania wody (reprezentowana przez siły kapilarne i przepływ poziomy) na początku infiltracji (fo) oraz siłą ciążenia i przepływem pionowym po osiągnięciu końcowego tempa infiltracji (fc).
EN
Land use and the landscape of the suburban area are strongly affected by the impact of a large city, which is an important factor determining their development. The paper presents the results of analyses of the functional and spatial transformations depending on the distance from city limits and main access roads. The analyses were based on CORINE data for the years: 1990, 2000 and 2006. The spatial transformations in the specified distance buffers were described with use of the indicator of the share of specific land use areas in the total surface area and the indicator of the average landscape patch surface area. The conducted analyses confirm that the spatial patterns characteristic for suburbanisation exist in the vicinity of large cities and along access roads. The phenomena noticed in the suburban zone of Wrocław include, among others, an increased share of surface area used for residential purposes, a decreased area of arable lands, and an increased concentration of commercial and industrial areas in the direct proximity of the city and access roads.
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