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EN
The adsorption of copper ions from synthetic aqueous solutions on natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) was examined. In order to determine the rate of adsorption and the copper uptake at equilibrium, a series of experiments were performed under batch conditions from single ion solutions. Equilibrium data were evaluated based on adsorption (Langmuir and Freundlich) isotherms. The adsorption kinetics is reasonably fast. In the first 20 min of the experiment, approximately 80% of Cu2+ ions is adsorbed from the solutions. Data obtained from the kinetic experiments have been described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model as well as by the Weber–Morris and Furusawa–Smith models.
2
Content available remote Light Conversion and Scattering in UV Protective Textiles
EN
The primary cause of skin cancer is believed to be a long exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UV-R) crossed with the amount of skin pigmentation in the population. It is believed that in childhood and adolescence 80% of UV-R gets absorbed, whilst in the remaining 20% gets absorbed later in the lifetime. This suggests that proper and early photoprotection may reduce the risk of subsequent occurrence of skin cancer. Textile and clothing are the most suitable interface between environment and human body. It can show UV protection, but in most cases it does not provide full sun screening properties. UV protection ability highly depends on large number of factors such as type of fibre, fabric surface and construction, type and concentration of dyestuff, fluorescent whitening agent (FWA), UV-B protective agents, as well as nanoparticles, if applied. Based on electronically excited state by energy of UV-R (usually 340-370 nm), the molecules of FWAs show the phenomenon of fluorescence giving to white textiles high whiteness of outstanding brightness by reemitting the energy at the blue region (typically 420-470 nm) of the spectrum. By absorbing UV-A radiation, optical brightened fabrics transform this radiation into blue fluorescence, which leads to better UV protection. Natural zeolites are rock-forming, microporous silicate minerals. Applied as nanoparticles to textile surface, it scatters the UV-R resulting in lower UV-A and UV-B transmission. If applied with other UV absorbing agents, e.g. FWAs, synergistic effect occurs. Silicones are inert, synthetic compounds with a variety of forms and uses. It provides a unique soft touch, is very resistant to washing and improves the property of fabric to protect against UV radiation. Therefore, the UV protective properties of cotton fabric achieved by light conversion and scattering was researched in this paper. For that purpose, the stilbene-derived FWAs were applied on cotton fabric in wide concentration range without/with the addition of natural zeolite or silicone- polydimethylsiloxane. UV protection was determined in vitro through ultraviolet protection factor. Additionally, the influence to fabric whiteness and hand was researched.
PL
W dobie wzrastającego zanieczyszczenia środowiska naturalnego istotne jest poszu-kiwanie coraz efektywniejszych metod ich usuwania. W szczególności zastosowanie tanich i łatwo dostępnych katalizatorów "proekologicznych" - naturalnych zeolitów, pozwala na intensyfikację wielu procesów, a ponadto nie są wnoszone do środowiska dodatkowe zanieczyszczenia. Szerokie zastosowanie naturalnych zeolitów - uwodnionych glinokrzemianów, wynika z ich wyjątkowej struktury przestrzennej, nadającej im właściwości molekularno-sitowe, jonowymienne i sorpcyjne oraz dużą aktywność katalityczną. Ich powierzchnię można łatwo modyfikować jonami metali. Stąd mogą one być z powodzeniem stosowane jako heterogeniczny katalizator w procesie Fentona, do utleniania zanieczyszczeń organicznych w wodzie i ściekach. W pracy opisano właściwości fizykochemiczne zeolitu naturalnego modyfikowanego jonami żelaza (II), który następnie poddano prażeniu w temperaturze 450°C. W wyniku modyfikacji ziarna zeolitu pokryte zostały czerwonobrunatnymi tlenkami żelaza (III), które stanowiły ok. 5% masy zeolitu. Powstała powłoka była stabilna mechanicznie i chemicznie - do roztworu przechodziły niewielkie ilości Fe, nie przekraczające 70 /
EN
Currently, when the pollution of natural environment increases, the search for more effective methods of pollutant removal is essential. Application of cheap and easy to get pro-ecological catalysts - natural zeolites - allows to intensify many processes. These minerals do not bring any additional pollutant to the environment. Wide application of natural zeolites, the hydrated alumino-silicates results from their unique spatial structure. Such structure of zeolites gives them molecular sieve properties, ionic exchange and sorption properties, and high catalytic activity. The surface of zeolites can be easily modified with metal ions, therefore they can be used as heterogeneous catalyst in the Fenton process. In this paper physicochemical properties of natural zeolites modified with Fe(II) ions, calcinated at 450°C are presented. As a result of modification, zeolite grains were covered by red-seal iron (III) oxides, which were about 5% of zeolite mass. Coating was mechanically and chemically stable -from zeolite to solution leached only small amounts of Fe, not exceeding 70 /
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