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EN
This paper presents the concepts for an anti-collision system intended for trams. The purpose of the anti-collision system is to develop and provide information to support the driver’s decision to initiate the braking of a tram. The anti-collision system is based on the processing of data from multiple sources (obstacle detection, image processing, and visual light communication system) and an expert system. The information about the road situation is visually presented on HUD (Head-up Display) of the driver.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono koncepcje systemu antykolizyjnego przeznaczonego dla pojazdów szynowych. Zadaniem systemu jest wypracowanie informacji wspomagającej motorniczego w podjęciu decyzji o rozpoczęcie procesu hamowania. System opary jest na wykorzystaniu informacji z wielu źródeł (układu wykrywania przeszkód, układu rozpoznania obrazowego, układu komunikacji świetlnej) i na podstawie algorytmu zaimplementowanego w systemie eksperckim, zobrazowaniu informacji dla motorniczego na wyświetlaczu przeziernym.
EN
The article deals with the features and characteristics of intelligent systems for modelling business processes. Their classification was made and criteria for comparison were developed. According to the comparative analysis of existing expert systems for intelligent analysis, a reasonable choice of system for modelling business processes of a particular enterprise has been carried out. In general, it was found that the introduction of intelligent systems for modelling business processes of the enterprise and forecasting its activities for future allows management of the company to obtain relevant and necessary information for the adoption of effective management decisions and the development of a strategic plan.
PL
Celem badania jest stworzenie aplikacji wspomagającej prawidłowe żywienie koni na platformę Android. Aplikacja realizowana jest w środowisku Xamarin w programie Visual Studio z wykorzystaniem języka C#. Dane niezbędne do działania aplikacji magazynowane są w plikach XML. Model systemu ekspertowego został przygotowany w oparciu o drzewa decyzyjne, natomiast projekt aplikacji opisuje diagram przypadków użycia oraz diagram klas. System ekspertowy, który został zaimplementowany w aplikacji, wykorzystuje do wygenerowania diety bazę wiedzy pozyskaną od ekspertów oraz moduł wnioskujący. Aplikacja może służyć zarówno celom użytkowym, jak i edukacyjnym. Będzie użyteczna dla osób ze specjalistycznym doświadczeniem, jak i bez niego.
EN
The aim of the study is to create application supporting the proper nutrition horses on the Android platform. The application is created in the environment Xamarin in Visual Studio IDE using CSharp language. The data needed for the application are stored in XML files. Expert system model was developed based on decision trees and the design of the application describes the use case diagram and class diagram. Expert system used in the application generates a diet using a knowledge base gained from experts and requesting module. The application can be used both practical purposes, as well as educational. It will be useful for people with specialized experience, and without it.
EN
Bone is a nonlinear, inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. To predict the behavior of bones expert systems are employed to reduce the computational cost and to enhance the accuracy of simulations. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was used for the prediction of displacement in long bones followed by ex-vivo experiments. Three hydrated third metacarpal bones (MC3) from 3 thoroughbred horses were used in the experiments. A set of strain gauges were distributed around the midshaft of the bones. These bones were then loaded in compression in an MTS machine. The recordings of strains, load, load exposure time, and displacement were used as ANN input parameters. The ANN which was trained using 3,250 experimental data points from two bones predicted the displace-ment of the third bone (R2 ≥ 0.98). It was suggested that the ANN should be trained using noisy data points. The proposed modification in the training algorithm makes the ANN very robust against noisy inputs measurements. The performance of the ANN was evaluated in response to changes in the number of input data points and then by assuming a lack of strain data. A finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to replicate one cycle of force-displace-ment experimental data (to gain the same accuracy produced by the ANN). The comparison of FEA and ANN displacement predictions indicates that the ANN produced a satisfactory outcome within a couple of seconds, while FEA required more than 160 times as long to solve the same model (CPU time: 5 h and 30 min).
PL
Artykuł przedstawia strukturę programu informatycznego wspomagającego dobór specjalistycznego oprzyrządowania w pojazdach dla kierowców z ograniczonymi funkcjami motorycznymi. Opracowany system umożliwia automatyzację doboru adaptacji poprzez zastosowanie regułowego systemu eksperckiego. W jego budowie wykorzystano również dotychczasowe doświadczenia i wiedzę specjalistów pozyskaną w oparciu o przegląd literatury z zakresu doboru adaptacji dla osób ze specyficznymi potrzebami motorycznymi.
EN
The article presents the structure of an IT program supporting the selection of specialized equipment in vehicles for drivers with limited motor functions. The developed system enables automation of adaptation selection through the use of a rule expert system. In its construction, the previous experience and knowledge of specialists obtained on the basis of literature review in the field of selection of adaptations for people with specific motor needs were also used.
EN
Fuzzy logic is a useful tool when assessing the existing reinforced concrete structures. The introduction of expert system in assessing the technical condition of the existing structures built on the fuzzy logic represents a transition to a new and higher-quality level for the survey of constructions sites. As a result, it is seen that the assessment of the existing building with the usage of the proposed expert system complies with the estimation of the qualified experts.
EN
As one of the key techniques in the fully mechanized mining process, equipment selection and matching has a great effect on security, production and efficiency. The selection and matching of fully mechanized mining equipment in thin coal seam are restricted by many factors. In fully mechanized mining (FMM) faced in thin coal seams (TCS), to counter the problems existing in equipment selection, such as many the parameters concerned and low automation, an expert system (ES) of equipment selection for fully mechanized mining longwall face was established. A database for the equipment selection and matching expert system in thin coal seam, fully mechanized mining face has been established. Meanwhile, a decision-making software matching the ES was developed. Based on several real world examples, the reliability and technical risks of the results from the ES was discussed. Compared with the field applications, the shearer selection from the ES is reliable. However, some small deviations existed in the hydraulic support and scraper conveyor selection. Then, the ES was further improved. As a result, equipment selection in fully mechanized mining longwall face called 4301 in the Liangshuijing coal mine was carried out by the improved ES. Equipment selection results of the interface in the improved ES is consistent with the design proposal of the 4301 FMM working face. The reliability of the improved ES can meet the requirements of the engineering. It promotes the intelligent and efficient mining of coal resources in China.
PL
Dobór sprzętu, jako jedna z kluczowych technik w pełni zmechanizowanego procesu wydobycia, ma ogromny wpływ na bezpieczeństwo, produkcję i wydajność. Wybór i dopasowanie w pełni zmechanizowanego sprzętu górniczego w cienkim pokładzie węgla jest ograniczone przez wiele czynników. W przypadku całkowicie zmechanizowanej ściany wydobywczej węgla (FMM) w cienkich pokładach (TCS) przeciwdziałanie problemom związanym z wyborem sprzętu, takim jak m.in.: wielość rozpatrywanych parametrów i niska automatyzacja, ustanowiono system ekspercki (ES) doboru sprzętu do w pełni zmechanizowanej ściany wydobywczej. Utworzono bazę danych systemu doboru i dopasowania systemu eksperckiego w cienkich pokładach węgla w pełni zmechanizowanej ściany wydobywczej. Jednocześnie opracowano oprogramowanie do podejmowania decyzji, dopasowane do ES. Na podstawie kilku rzeczywistych przykładów omówiono wiarygodność i ryzyko techniczne związane z wynikami ES. W porównaniu z zastosowaniem obecnym, wybór kombajnu systemem eksperckim (ES) jest niezawodny. Wystąpiły jednak pewne niewielkie odchylenia w wyborze stojaków hydraulicznych i przenośnika zgarniającego, następnie ES został ulepszony. W rezultacie poprawiono wybór sprzętu w całkowicie zmechanizowanej ścianie wydobywczej o nazwie 4301 w kopalni Liangshuijing. Interfejs wyników wyboru sprzętu w ulepszonym ES jest zgodny z propozycją projektu 4301 FMM roboczej ściany wydobywczej. Niezawodność ulepszonego ES może spełniać wymagania inżynieryjne. Promuje inteligentne i wydajne wydobycie zasobów węgla w Chinach.
EN
Early detection of breast cancer plays crucial role in planning and result of associated treatment. The purpose of this article is threefold: (i) to investigate whether or not clinical features obtained using routine blood analysis combined with anthropometric measurements can be utilized for envisaging breast cancer using predictive machine learning techniques; (ii) to explore the role of various machine learning components such as feature selection, data division protocols and classification to determine suitable biomarkers for breast cancer prediction; and (iii) to evaluate a recent database of clinical and anthropometric measurements acquired from normal individuals and individuals suffering from breast cancer. A database consisting of anthropometric and clinical attributes is used in the experiments. Various feature selection and statistical significance analysis methods are used to determine the relevance of various features. Furthermore, popular classifiers such as kernel based support vector machine (SVM), Naïve Bayesian, linear discriminant, quadratic discriminant, logistic regression, K-nearest neighbor (K-NN) and random forest were implemented and evaluated for breast cancer risk prediction using these features. Results of feature selection techniques indicate that among the nine features considered in this study, glucose, age and resistin are found to be most relevant and effective biomarkers for breast cancer prediction. Further, when these three features are used for classification, the medium K-NN classifier achieves the highest classification accuracy of 92.105% followed by medium Gaussian SVM which achieves classification accuracy of 83.684% under hold out data division protocol.
EN
Intellectual diagnostics of linearly distributed objects using wireless sensor networks is proposed. The solution of the task of functional diagnostics is realized by the expert system on the basis of the knowledge base in the form of a neuron-fuzzy network. For a technical object the current values of the diagnostic parameters are measured by wireless sensors. As an example, an expert diagnostic system for assessing the operability of a technical object.
PL
Zaproponowano diagnostykę intelektualną obiektуw rozproszonych liniowo z wykorzystaniem bezprzewodowych sieci czujników. Rozwiązanie zadania diagnostyki funkcjonalnej realizowane jest przez system ekspercki w oparciu o bazę wiedzy w postaci sieci neuronowo-rozmytej. W przypadku obiektu technicznego aktualne wartości parametrów diagnostycznych są mierzone przez czujniki bezprzewodowe. Jako przykład można podać ekspercki system diagnostyczny do oceny funkcjonalności obiektu technicznego.
EN
The objective of the paper is to present the issue of safety management during the construction process. Threats in the form of disturbances may occur in the preparatory phase, during the execution of the construction project and also during its operational use. The article presents the concept of applying the methodology based, among others, on Learning Bayesian Networks, Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine, which can be used for building a system for diagnostic and decision-making support at each stage of the construction process. The use of expert systems when it comes to making choices related to construction issues can bring many benefits to decision-makers, as it reduces the risk of taking a wrong decision, and, thus, increases the construction process safety.
EN
Since G.E.P. Box introduced central composite designs in early fifties of 20th century, the classic design of experiments (DoE) utilizes response surface models (RSM), however usually limited to the simple form of low-degree polynomials. In the case of small size datasets, the conformity with the normal distribution has very weak reliability and it leads to very uncertain assessment of a parameter statistical significance. The bootstrap approach appears to be better solution than – theoretically proved but only asymptotically equal – t distribution based evaluation. The authors presents the comparison of the RSM model evaluated by a classic method and bootstrap approach.
EN
The design of experiment (DoE) is a methodology originated from early 1920s when Fisher’s papers created the analysis of variance and first known experimental designs: latin squares. It is focused on a construction of empirical models based on measurements obtained from specifically structured and driven experiments. Its development resulted in the constitution of four distinctive branches recognized by the industry: factorials (full or fractional), Taguchi’s robust design, Shainin’s Red-X® and a response surface methodology (RSM). On one hand, the well-known success stories of this methodology implementations promise great benefits, while on other hand, the mathematical complexity of mathematical and statistical assumptions very often lead to improper use and wrong inferences. The possible solution to avoid such mistakes is the expert system supporting the design of experiments and subsequently the analysis of obtained data. The authors propose the outline of such system and provides the general analysis of the ontology and related inference rules.
EN
This paper presents a system for locating the epileptogenic zone (EZ) using an automated analysis of electrocorticography (ECoG) signal recorded with 20 electrodes placed on the brain surface. The developed system enables automatic determination of places where anomalies connected with epilepsy are observed. The developed algorithm was tested on signals recorded for 33 patients who, after a prior neurological analysis, underwent the brain resection surgery. The results obtained with the algorithm were compared with those of medical analyses performed by the neurologist. The proposed system has a satisfactory accuracy – 87.8% – and can be used as a decision-supporting tool by the neurosurgeon during brain resection.
14
Content available remote Intelligent system for card game analysis and prediction
EN
The paper presents a system which to make proper poker decision in situations provided by end user via image of the online poker table. The system provides feedback and reasoning behind decision made. The main goal is to minimize influences of errors and unwanted factors on each step so final decision could be accurate and useful in as many cases as possible. The idea is to use softcomputing technologies as neural networks for image recognition and expert system for decision making process. The system - able to parse poker table image - could be used by poker player for self-study on example on his/her own past in-game situations. Image is screenshot of the interface that is provided by online poker room to a player, so all information available to a player will also be available for further processing. The proposed solution can be an essential tool for the monitoring and verification of card game rules systems and to point the incorrect or illegal situations based on video data.
EN
This article deals with the problems of design improvement and the process of production preparation for recreational watercrafts. An original expert system was created to facilitate the design of mechanical equipment systems and to support the production of pleasure boats. This expert system contains information about issues related to the selection of appropriate mechanical equipment used in modern yachts. An expert system is a computer program, which contains information about a specific and usually narrow field of expertise. With the help of this kind of program, it is possible to solve problems on the same level as a human expert. Like most expert systems, this program is built in such a way that the knowledge base is separated from the rest of the system. It contains two main modules: the knowledge base and the inference mechanism. This system provides conclusions in a descriptive form and in the form of numbers, and presents explanations, diagrams, drawings, photos and videos. What is unique about this expert system is that a user with specialist knowledge in the field of yacht engineering can easily modify the knowledge base. With the development of technology, it is easy to feed new information into the system. This system can become a major tool in design offices and plants producing yachts, because it can be easily expanded and adapted to individual needs.
EN
The article presents selected problems in the synthesis of the database of expert diagnostic system of gas turbine blades in the field of non-destructive testing. The source of data is optical methods and computed tomography methods. Optical tests can be carried out on the blades of the turbine built in the engine and after their disassembly. Optical tests provide diagnostic information in the form of an image of the blade surface. This makes it possible to identify damage based on changes in the attributes of the image of the blade surface. Computer tomography methods are applied on disassembled blades. Assessment of the technical condition of the blade is made on the basis of individual two-dimensional X-ray scans or on the basis of a three-dimensional image of the blade generated by the computer software from the set of X-ray scans taken during the full angle rotation. The computed tomography data set includes a small number of points on the timeline of operation; hence, the correlation of results with optical methods is difficult. Integration of diagnostic data from two or more sources into one expert system requires standardization of data. One possible approach is the use of multi-valued encoding of 2D and 3D image attributes. In this way a multivalued diagnostic model of the blade is obtained, which can be processed by information theory methods to optimize the set of attributes.
EN
The article presents a concept of an expert diagnostic system of the turbine engine’s flow path (compressor – combustion chamber – turbine) elements. The system adopts diagnostic signals obtained with the use of non-destructive methods implemented on the non-operating engine. The aim is to detect and assess early stages of damage to selected elements of the engine. The achievement of a reliable diagnosis on the condition of the elements requires the application of a set of diagnostic methods and carrying out the inference, including knowledge about the degradation processes of elements and correlation of the diagnostic (signals) tests results obtained with various methods. A convenient tool, which supports solution of such a set problem is an expert system, which on the one hand, makes it possible to organise the existing formal knowledge, and on the other hand – to use non-formal, or even uncertain, knowledge. The presented concept of the expert diagnostic system is based on PC-Shell system of AITECH Polish Company.
EN
In this paper, a fuzzy expert off-line system has been developed for fault diagnosis in the distribution network based on the structural and functional operation of the relay and circuit breakers. Functional operations (correct operation, false operation and failure to operate) of the relays and circuit breakers are described by fuzzy logic. Input data for the proposed fuzzy expert fault diagnosis system (FDS) are status and time stamps of the alarms, associated with relays and circuit breakers. The diagnostic system from a huge number of alarms sets, logically organizes and quantifies the diagnosis. FDS can diagnose correct operation, false operation and failure to operate of the relays and circuit breakers. Also, it can identify and quantify fault location based on the Hamacher’s operator of a fuzzy union. The additional contribution of this paper is in modeling unknown information using linear fuzzy membership function. Statuses of certain components may be unknown due to telemetry failures or are simply unavailable to the operator and proposed FDS can make diagnosis in such a situation. Developed fuzzy expert FDS is tested on the two examples of faults in real life distribution network.
PL
W prezentowanym artykule opracowano rozmyty system ekspercki typu off-line do diagnozowania błędów w elektroenergetycznej sieci rozdzielczej. System bazuje na strukturze i działaniu przekaźnika i wyłączników automatycznych. Działanie (prawidłowe działanie, błędne działanie i brak działania) przekaźników i wyłączników opisano za pomocą logiki rozmytej. Dane wejściowe do proponowanego rozmytego eksperckiego systemu diagnostyki błędów (FDS) stanowią stany i sygnatury czasowe alarmów, związane z przekaźnikami i wyłącznikami. System diagnostyczny logicznie porządkuje i określa ilościowo diagnozę na podstawie ogromnej liczby zestawów alarmów. FDS pozwala zdiagnozować prawidłowe działanie, błędne działanie oraz awarię (brak działania) przekaźników i wyłączników. Ponadto umożliwia identyfikację i lokalizację błędów w oparciu o sumę Hamachera. W artykule dodatkowo omówiono metodę modelowania informacji nieznanych przy użyciu liniowej funkcji przynależności dla zbiorów rozmytych. Stany niektórych elementów mogą być nieznane z powodu awarii telemetrii lub mogą być po prostu niedostępne dla operatora. Proponowany FDS umożliwia postawienie diagnozy w takich sytuacjach. Opracowany rozmyty ekspercki FDS testowano na dwóch przykładach błędów powstałych w funkcjonującej sieci rozdzielczej.
PL
W artykule omówiony został problem wpływu poziomu kompetencji załóg, w tym załóg maszynowych statku na wielkość strat eksploatacyjnych oraz występowanie awarii. Błędy popełniane na wyższym poziomie decyzyjnym, generują w wyniku błędnych decyzji w eksploatacji statku poważne konsekwencje, do utraty statku włącznie. Wyższy poziom kwalifikacji obniża prawdopodobieństwo niewłaściwej eksploatacji statku równocześnie podnosząc poziom bezpieczeństwa żeglugi, której statek jest uczestnikiem. Systemy ekspertowe są nowoczesnym narzędziem mogącym wspomóc i zautomatyzować podejmowanie decyzji na morzu jak wspomóc armatorów w doborze kompetentnych załóg pokładowych i maszynowych. W artykule, jako przykład możliwości zastosowania sztucznej inteligencji przedstawiono założenie systemu ekspertowego, mającego za zadanie wsparcie armatora przy zarządzaniu załogami maszynowymi statków w aspekcie bezpieczeństwa żeglugi.
EN
The article discusses the problem of the impact of crew competence level, including ship's engine crews on the amount of operational losses and the occurrence of failures. Errors made at a higher decision level generate serious consequences as a result of incorrect decisions in the operation of the ship, including loss of the ship. A higher level of qualification decreases the probability of improper operation of the ship while increasing the level of safety of navigation, which the ship is a participant. Expert systems are a modern tool that can help and automate decision making at sea, how to assist ship owners in the selection of competent deck and machine crews. In the article, an example of the possibility of using artificial intelligence was presented as an expert system, designed to support the shipowner in the management of ship machinery crews in the aspect of shipping safety.
PL
Podstawową funkcjonalnością systemów automatyki kolejowej jest zapewnienie sprawnego i bezpiecznego ruchu kolejowego. Współczesna technika, w szczególności elektronika i informatyka, pozwala zautomatyzować coraz więcej czynności w procesie transportowym. Niezależnie jednak od technologii, w jakiej wykonane są systemy automatyki kolejowej, muszą one spełniać określone wymagania dotyczące bezpieczeństwa. Powoduje to zaliczanie ich do grupy systemów krytycznych (ang. safety-critical systems), określanych również mianem systemów związanych z bezpieczeństwem (ang. safety-related systems). Dlatego też proces projektowania, budowania i dopuszczania do eksploatacji systemów automatyki kolejowej zawsze kończy się oceną poprawności każdego z tych etapów. Należy podkreślić, że jest to proces skomplikowany i wymagający od osób w nim uczestniczących dużego doświadczenia zawodowego. Można w tym celu zastosować specjalizowane oprogramowanie nazywane systemem ekspertowym. Autorzy artykułu, korzystając ze środowiska ExSys Corvid, zbudowali system ekspertowy do weryfikacji i walidacji systemu samoczynnej sygnalizacji przejazdowej. Przeprowadzone badania potwierdziły dużą przydatność tej technologii, a zarazem potrzebę rozszerzenia badań na inne rodzaje systemów automatyki kolejowej.
EN
The major functionality of railway traffic control system is to ensure efficient and safe railway traffic. Contemporary technique, electronics and informatics in particular, allows for automation of more and more tasks in transportation processes. Irrespective of the manufacturing technology, railway traffic control systems have to meet specific safety requirements. Because of this, these systems belong to group of safety-critical systems, also called safety-related systems. Due to these requirements, development, building and verification processes of railway traffic control systems always end with the assessment of correctness of each process. It should be pointed out that these processes are compound and require high skills level for persons involved in it. Because of this, an environment for an expert system (ExSys Corvid) can be used to automation of these processes. Authors used ExSys Corvid environment to build the expert system for verification and validation of Level Crossing Protection System (LCPS). Research conducted by authors confirmed high usefulness of this technology and showed the need for the usage of it in other railway traffic control systems.
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