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EN
The article contains an overview of the European Union’s legal regulations and provisions of the national aviation law applying to civil and military cooperation and coordination in managing air traffic, as well as operational agreements between the Polish Air Navigation Services Agency and organisational units of the Ministry of National Defence. The author conducts an analysis of the standards applicable in this scope, points out the practical consequences of certain legal instruments that are in force and suggests solutions that may contribute to improvement of the existing legal and organisational mechanisms of cooperation in the area of studies in question.
EN
The continued air traffic growth in Polish airspace requires continuous improvement of the efficiency of the air traffic management (ATM) system in order to meet the needs of all its users and to guarantee the highest level of safety of air operations. Activities in this respect undertaken by the Polish Air Navigation Services Agency (PANSA) in cooperation with military aviation authorities are in line with the objectives of the EU Single European Sky (SES) initiative. In addition to the provision of air navigation services (ANS) for civil aviation (commercial air transport and general aviation), PANSA also provides navigation services for the crews of military aircraft and other state aircraft flying in operational air traffic (OAT). The article describes in general terms flights in operational air traffic, presents the evolution of European regulations concerning this category of air traffic and discusses in detail selected procedures for planning and protecting military aviation flights in Polish airspace.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przebieg zmian, jakie dokonały się w ostatnich dwóch dekadach w sposobie organizacji i zarządzania europejską przestrzenią powietrzną oraz wskazano kierunki doskonalenia. Na podstawie krytycznej analizy aktów prawa lotniczego Unii Europejskiej oraz dokumentów normatywnych Europejskiej Organizacji ds. Bezpieczeństwa Żeglugi Powietrznej Eurocontrol scharakteryzowano działalność obu tych organizacji w zakresie implementacji koncepcji elastycznego użytkowania przestrzeni powietrznej (FUA). Zaprezentowano zasady i procedury tej koncepcji, jak również wybrane systemy techniczne wspomagające proces zarządzania przestrzenią powietrzną w Europie. W końcowej części artykułu opisano elementy składowe koncepcji zaawansowanego elastycznego użytkowania przestrzeni powietrznej (AFUA) oraz korzyści wynikające z wdrożenia jej innowacyjnych rozwiązań. Przedstawiono ponadto funkcje scentralizowanej usługi CS4 - AFUAS, która zapewnić ma skuteczne stosowanie koncepcji AFUA w państwach członkowskich Eurocontrol. W podsumowaniu zaprezentowanych treści podkreślono znaczenie cywilno-wojskowej współpracy i koordynacji w procesie doskonalenia organizacji i operacyjnego wykorzystania przestrzeni powietrznej nad Europą.
EN
The article discusses a process of changes of the organization and management of the European airspace that have been made in the last two decades and identifies ways for improvement. Based on a critical analysis of the air legislation of the European Union and the European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation Eurocontrol normative documents activities of the two organisations in implementation of the Flexible Use of Airspace (FUA) concept were also described. Rules and procedures of the concept as well as some technical systems supporting the process of the airspace management in Europe were also presented in the paper. The final section of the article describes components of the Advanced Flexible Use of Airspace (AFUA) concept and benefits of the implementation of the concept’s innovative solutions. Moreover, the section shows features of the centralised service called CS4 - AFUAS, which is to ensure the effective application of the advanced concept AFUA in the Eurocontrol Member States. Finally, the author highlights the importance of civil-military cooperation and coordination in the process of improvement of the organization and use of the European airspace.
PL
Stały wzrost ruchu lotniczego w europejskiej przestrzeni powietrznej wymaga ciągłego zwiększania wydajności systemu zarządzania ruchem lotniczym (ATM) przez wprowadzanie zmian strukturalnych oraz wdrażanie nowych technologii i procedur operacyjnych. Od 2000 roku działania w tym zakresie podejmowane są przez Komisję Europejską we współpracy z innymi organizacjami lotnictwa cywilnego i wojskowego w ramach programu jednolitej europejskiej przestrzeni powietrznej (SES) i programu badawczo-rozwojowego SESAR. Realizacja obydwu programów pozwoli na optymalizację systemu zarządzania ruchem lotniczym z uwzględnieniem wymogów wszystkich użytkowników przestrzeni powietrznej, bez względu na granice państwowe. Tak głęboka reforma organizacji ruchu lotniczego w Europie stawia wiele wyzwań przed uczestniczącymi w nich instytucjami i organizacjami, w tym władzami lotnictwa cywilnego i wojskowego oraz wieloma podmiotami branży transportu lotniczego. Ustawodawstwo SES ma zastosowanie do wszystkich lotów statków powietrznych (w tym wojskowych), wykonywanych zgodnie z zasadami ogólnego ruchu lotniczego (GAT). W przyszłości dostęp do zatłoczonych części europejskiej przestrzeni powietrznej będzie całkowicie uzależniony od przestrzegania tych przepisów i norm. Stosowanie przez lotnictwo wojskowe jednolitych reguł, norm, praktyk i procedur umożliwi bezpieczne współużytkowanie z lotnictwem cywilnym tej samej przestrzeni powietrznej na równych warunkach. Utrzymanie wymaganego poziomu zdolności bojowych w nowym środowisku operacyjnym będzie również uzależnione od wprowadzenia nowych rozwiązań organizacyjnych i technicznych, opartych na zaawansowanych technologiach CNS/ATM oraz bliskiej cywilno-wojskowej współpracy i koordynacji w zakresie zarządzania ruchem lotniczym, zarówno w skali krajowej, regionalnej (w obrębie FAB), jak i ogólnoeuropejskiej. Dalszy rozwój tej współpracy jest obecnie stymulowany ustawodawstwem SES.
EN
Steady growth in air traffic in the European sky requires a continuous increase in the ATM system’s performance by introducing structural changes and the implementation of new technologies and operational procedures. Since 2000, action has been taken by the European Commission, in cooperation with other organisations of civil aviation and the military in the SES and SESAR. The implementation of both programmes to allow optimisation of the European air traffic management system has taken into account the requirements of all airspace users, regardless of State borders. So profound reform of the organisation of air traffic in Europe poses a number of challenges before participating in its institutions and organisations, including the national civil and military aviation authorities and many players in the air transport industry. The SES legislation applies to all flights of aircraft (including military) carried out in accordance with the principles of the general air traffic (GAT). In the future, access to a crowded European airspace will be completely dependent on compliance with these provisions and standards. Use of common rules, standards, practices and procedures by military aviation will enable the secure sharing of the same airspace on equal terms with civil aviation. Maintaining the required level of combat capabilities in the new operational environment will also be conditional upon implementation of new organisational and technical solutions based on advanced technologies for CNS/ATM and close civil-military cooperation and coordination in the management of air traffic, both national, regional (within the FAB) and pan-European. The further development of this cooperation has now stimulated the SES legislation.
5
Content available remote Transformacja zarządzania europejską przestrzenią powietrzną
EN
Started in the mid-1990s and still proceeding process of the European airspace management optimization covers a complex of legislative and institutionaltechnical actions, which are initiated mainly by the ECAC, EU and Eurocontrol, and carried out by the Member States of these organizations. The effect of the actions taken so far have resulted in an increasingly effective and efficient air traffic management system, which provides increased safety and efficiency of flights, decreases delays in air traffic and contributes to the overall improvement of the air carriers functioning and the economy of the EU. Successful completion of the modernization objectives covered by the SES and SESAR programmes will make the European ATM system able to meet the future needs of airspace users.
6
Content available remote Harmonizacja operacyjnego ruchu lotniczego w Europie
EN
Provisions concerning operational air traffic (OAT) have not been yet established at national level only. In the context of the objectives of the SES programme, the lack of common rules limits the freedom and flexibility of cross-border military aviation activities of the EU/NATO Member States, both within the functional airspace blocks (FABs), and throughout European airspace. To facilitate the military aviation exercise international flights, according to the instrument flights rules (OAT-IFR), Eurocontrol has developed harmonised flight rules in controlled airspace of ECAC. The provisions of EUROAT are not only guidance for crews of military aircraft, but also enable air traffic controllers to predict actions taken by the pilots. The specificity of these provisions is that they only determine certain minimum standards, whilst leaving Member States the ability of introducing the necessary derogations or additions for better adaptation to the local organization of air traffic services. The effect of the implementation of EUROAT provisions, planned for the end of 2011, will increase safety and efficiency of military aviation operations in the space available for air navigation, without negative impact on the constantly increasing traffic of civilian aircraft.
7
Content available remote Czynnik ludzki a automatyzacja w zarządzaniu ruchem lotniczym
EN
The purpose of the article is to present selected aspects of human factors and automation in the management of air traffic and its impact on the level of safety of flight operations. In the first part of this paper the author examines various definitions and interpretations of the human factor in the general sense and in aviation and air traffic management. Then the role and functions of the human in ATM system and the characteristics of the selected elements of human factors in aviation operations are presented. In particular, these elements are discussed that have a direct impact on the safety of flights: required qualifications of air traffic controllers, human errors, safety culture, situational awareness, teamwork, and the effects of automation. The final part includes key issues of integration of the human factor in the ATM system life cycle. In summary, the author points out that modernization and development of ATM systems result in evolutionary changes to the relationship between teams of human and technical equipment, which are currently two basic and necessary components of these systems.
8
Content available remote System zarządzania ruchem lotniczym wobec wymagań lotnictwa wojskowego
EN
Lessons learned from the conflicts in the end of 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries underline that flexibility, impetus and momentum of air operations create new environment within command and control (C2), including air traffic management (ATM). The ATM system along with C2 system influence the efficiency and safety of air operations. The aim of the article is to present military aspects of the air traffic management process and to determine the military aviation requirements, which refer to A TM system comprising ongoing changes to Polish airspace. Firstly, the author analyses air traffic management in reference to system approach. Secondly, he points out all military services aviation demands, in detail, in the scope of the airspace management (ASM), air traffic services (ATS) as well as aeronautical information service (AIS). Next, he focuses on the military aspects of the European ATM system’s modernization process. Finally, general implications and conclusions concerning the Polish airspace utilisation by military aviation are presented.
EN
The subject of article is to present civil-military co-ordination of the air traffic management in the process of preparation and conducting of air exercises. This process can have a national or international character, depending on the extent, nature or command level responsible for its performance. Coordination procedures based on many years’ experience and implemented by the NATO Air Traffic Management Committee (NATMC) are now commonly used by the air forces of NATO Member States in air training practice. That means, that the representatives of civil air navigation service providers participate as early as practical during the military planning and organization of an air exercise. Experience has shown that such a close civil-military co-operation enables designation of required airspace structure, establishment of the rules of the operations carried out in the airspace and resolving any air traffic management problems. It also helps to maintain the flight safety at the high level and to conduct exercises in an effective manner by the military aviation. Moreover, application of the civil-military co-ordination procedures minimizes a negative influence of the military flights on the general air traffic (GAT) while the number of air operations in the controlled and uncontrolled European airspace is constantly growing.
EN
The article presents the basic legal, institutional and technical aspects of European CNS/ATM (Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Systems for Air Traffic Management), systems development. The author outlines major international programmes' guidelines concerning the modernization of these systems which are initiated and conducted by such organizations as ICAO, EU and EUROCONTROL. The detailed review of currently used devices and communication, navigation and surveillance systems for ATM needs was carried out. In the article were featured the newest technical solutions and technologies, which are planned to be implemented within the framework of updating the European ATM systems network. Finally, the attention was paid to the significance of civil-military co-operation as far as interoperability provision for future European CNS/ATM systems is concerned.
EN
This article focuses on the Single European Sky (SES) and the Single European Sky ATM Research Programme - two major initiatives aiming at improving the ATM system in Europe undertaken by the European Commission. The intent of the author was to analyze and assess the application of the SES regulations since they entered into force in 2004. There were five objectives of the SES set out: to enhance safety standards and the overall efficiency of general air traffic, to optimise capacity (meeting the requirements of all users), to minimize delays, and to establish a harmonised regulatory framework. However, full benefits have not been achieved so far, mainly due to lack of genuine commitment of some EU Member States, but also to a number of issues (legal, institutional) that should be urgently addressed, The author identified some of the difficulties, which still exist. This article also discusses goals, scope and operational arrangements of the SESAR. The objectives of this project are to eliminate the fragmented approach to ATM, transform the European ATM system, synchronise the plans and actions of the different partners and federate resources. SESAR programme involves the aviation players (civil and military, legislators, industry, operators, users, ground and airborne) for defining, committing to and implementing a pan-European programme, and to support the SES legislation. In order to complete the creation of the single European sky, additional measures in the form of the SES II package by the EC were adopted. The article ends with overall conclusions concerning various aspects of the progress of the Single European Sky.
EN
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles’ (UAVs) operations so far have been mainly connected with military operations and due to security reasons they have been limited to selected space or the space over a real battlefield (the Balkans, Iraq, Afghanistan). Armed forces’ constantly growing requirements concerning the use of UAVs, as well as the increased interest of their application for civil tasks cause that there is a need to ensure UAVs access to controlled and not controlled space (of all International Civil Aviation Organization’s - ICAO classes) and integrate their operations with air traffic control management systems. The problems relating to the development of UAV systems are complex - the works focus on regulations when they are fit for service (certificates), ATM procedures, various technical issues (e.g. propulsion, airframe, miniaturization of radionavigation equipment, remote control and flight control equipment) and defining requirements in relation to the UAV pilot - operator’s qualifications. Multi-sided research is conducted by numerous research and scientific institutions and international aviation organizations (e.g. ICAO, EASA, EUROCONTROL, NATO). Through legislature, it is attempted to reach an appropriate security and safety level - ensuring the UAV flights in ATS space will not create a bigger threat to people and property in the air and on the ground than manned aircraft of the same class and category. Another safety requirement is to develop transparent rules to use the same airspace by unmanned and manned aerial vehicles and complying with air traffic norms, rules and procedures by UAV users, particularly concerning separation and collision avoidance. It is assumed that the way of using UAVs in ATS space must be the same as the one currently used in relation to manned aerial vehicles, i.e. based on rules and regulations set by ICAO. It is forecasted that UAVs will become an important and rightful user of European airspace.
13
Content available remote Przestrzeń powietrzna jako obszar integracji europejskiej
EN
The article covers the genesis, goals, basic assumptions and the present realization of the program of building a Single European Airspace. This programme, started at the end of 90s. of the last century, in the shape of a legislative initiative of the European Commission, has to eliminate irregularities in the Community air transport sector and to activate development of the economy in all EU countries. The author analyzes the most important regulations from general laws, which assure the services of air navigation; and which organise and manage the common airspace including the management of the European Air Traffic net. Attention is also paid to the military aspects of the functioning of the Single European Airspace and to how further perspectives of this programme are being shaped.
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