The paper presents the impact of high temperature on cement concrete. The presented data have been selected both from the author’s most recent research and the published literature in order to provide a brief outline of the subject. The effect of a high temperature on concrete covers changes taking place in cement paste, aggregates, as well as the interaction of these two constituents, that result in changes of mechanical and physical characteristics of concrete. This paper presents the effects of a high temperature on selected physical properties of concrete, including colour change, thermal strain, thermal strains under load, and transient thermal strains. In addition, changes to mechanical properties are discussed: stress-strain relationship, compressive strength, and modulus of elasticity. Moreover, the phenomenon of explosive spalling and the main factors that affect its extent are analysed in light of the most recent research.