As a chip-free and high-efficiency three-dimensional forming technology, laser cladding has been successfully applied in the green manufacturing and remanufacturing of some high-end engineering parts/components. However, in most cases, cladding coatings need to be machined due to the poor surface finishing by sole laser cladding technique. The study aims to explore an effective way to replace the current machining process after laser cladding, which is supposed to be incapable of satisfying the various technical requirements of some high-demand engineering parts/components. With this purpose, three new surface strengthening processes, i.e. ultrasonic roller burnishing at ambient temperature (URB), ultrasonic roller burnishing at warm temperature (UWB), and UWB coupled with continuous heat treatment (UWB/HT), were proposed and comparatively explored. The contact stresses between the contact pairs in URB were calculated and analyzed in theory. A set of ultrasonic roller burnishing equipment was self-manufactured to perform the experiment. Comparing with the conventional process, the three new processes were evaluated mainly from aspects of surface finishing, the adhesion behavior and corrosion resistance of the finished surface. Summarily, ultrasonic warm burnishing coupled with continuous heat treatment (UWB/HT) is considered to have the greatest potential to achieve the effective machining after laser cladding with excellent surface finishing over the other two strategies, which is expected to further advance the application of laser cladding technique particularly in the fabrication of some high-demand products serving in harsh conditions.