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EN
Objective: The purpose of this article is to justify the need for interdisciplinary research on demographic change due to the need to prepare for the challenges arising from many public policies, such as family, labour market, education and social security. The identified challenges and areas imply a broad reflection, which should focus on a holistic approach to active social policy and the labour market. Design/methodology/approach: The theses presented in the article were verified using a: literature review, statistical research and comparative analysis. Findings: The changes, processes and forecasts presented in the article indicate that in order to reduce mismatches in the labour market in Jastrzębie-Zdrój, measures should be taken to build the future shape of urban policies – especially in the phase of aging of the society. Not taking this type of action may delay preparation of Jastrzębie-Zdrój for changes in the age structure of inhabitants, whichseems inevitable. Originality/value: The article enriches knowledge and develops a discussion in the area of dynamically developing demographic changes. Based on the conclusions presented in the article, it seems that the biggest contemporary challenge for the community, institutions and people creating Jastrzębie-Zdrój’s future may be maintaining the longest possible professional activity of the aging population of Jastrzębie-Zdrój while building a modern active social policy and labour market corresponding to the economic structure of cities.
EN
Purpose: the main purpose of the article is to justify the need for rational inclusion in the scientific and economic policy of scientific assessments and analyzes of the effects of demographic changes on labor resources and Poland’s educational system. Design/methodology: theses presented in the article have been verified using literature review, critical literature analysis, documentary analysis, statistical descriptive analysis. Findings: Based on the content of this article, it can be stated that the effect of regressive demographic change due to the ongoing process of aging of the society will affect the labor market and education. In this light, the main challenge facing the European Union and Poland is to ensure a properly educated and skilled society that will effectively use their potential to achieve the assumed social and economic goals. Originality: the article enriches knowledge and develops discussion in the area of need to build a modern education system that responds to contemporary and future challenges. This is a system that, in line with economic goals and megatrends, will determine the successful development of the two most important attributes of human and social capital in the modern world - the universality of ideas and a dynamic competent society.
3
Content available Science. Knowledge. Philosophy
EN
Purpose: The publication discusses the mutual relations between philosophy, science and cognition. Methodology: The main method is the analysis of the subject literature. Findings: The article discusses issues of epistemological nature, describes the mechanism that enables cognition as both an experience and an act of will. Social implications: For European culture, the concept of truth is fundamental, and can be interpreted as a practical value in life or as a never-ending search for the meaning of human existence. Originality/value: The result is recognition that science and philosophy, both cognitive categories ultimately provide the starting point for research on the status of man as a being above the biological and for research on his moral condition.
4
EN
Purpose: The publication presents the issue of philosophy understood as the creation of an ethical sense of humanity of a human being. Methodology: The main method is the analysis of the subject literature. Findings: The publication discusses issues related to the status of man as a being above biological, having the ability to identify categories of good and evil. Social implications: Considerations concerning the moral dimension of human existence may determine the future of European civilization. Originality/value: The publication indicates that exceeding utilitarian criteria builds the awareness that man is a moral entity, which is an end in itself, never a means.
EN
Purpose: the main purpose of the article is to justify need for interdisciplinary professional training of employees for challenges related to the growing importance of dynamically developing automation, which is closely related to the pace of civilization development. Design/methodology/approach: the theses presented in the article have been verified using: literature review, critical literature analysis, document research and comparative analysis. Findings: based on content of this article, a future emerges in which man, industry and surrounding reality will be shaped by automation developing with a hitherto unknown dynamics. This phenomenon may lead to the disappearance of a world dominated by the industrial age and the transition to a new era determined by technologies, dominated by data flow and its analysis. In automated economies, knowledge that is exemplified by the knowledge society that creates innovative solutions has become a key capital. It seems that automation in the context of economies' competitiveness will determine the need to raise the level of education and of competences, and to create and control new knowledge. Originality/value: the article enriches knowledge and develops discussion in the area of dynamically developing automation. Thanks to the knowledge presented in the article, it can be concluded that the decisive role in creating the development of labor market and education can be overcome by breaking social and professional barriers to automation processes - which may favor the social dimension of the individual and strengthen the sense of human life fullness.
PL
Układ nerwowy człowieka składa się z układu ośrodkowego oraz układu obwodowego. Nadrzędną funkcję nad całością organizmu pełni ośrodkowy układ nerwowy, stanowiący mózg i rdzeń kręgowy.
7
Content available Reason. Good. Evil
EN
The publication presents the issues of philosophical anthropology fundamental for Leszek Kołakowski's interests, which attempt not only at finding answers but also asking questions about the condition of human nature, the constitutive conditions for human existence in the transcendental dimension, the essence of tensions and conflicts that may pose a threat to the survival of the European civilization, and, finally, questions about whether there are orientation marks and points of support that constitute the necessary conditions for its further existence and development. This area of concern places the human being at the heart of the matter as a causal being - taking action and endowed with freedom of will which presupposes the ability to do good and evil. Understood in this dimension, exceeding the features of zoological species, participates in the moral and cognitive sphere, in the sphere of unconditional moral imperatives, which cannot be empirically determined. Humanity transcends the properties of nature and is not defined by specific determinants that distinguish it from other species. Therefore, manhood is a moral notion, an attempt to make an endless intellectual effort to marginalize the natural instincts in order to convince people that the man is a moral being, a self-contained goal, not a means.
EN
Sustainable development when understood as a process of social, economic and environmental change that ensures a balance between profit and development costs, is a kind of ethical project. The fundamental assumption behind the implementation of the idea of sustainable development is, therefore, the awareness of holding responsibility both in the context of actions of whole companies as well as individuals. The issue of responsibility covers many aspects and problems, hence, it is worth considering the concept of responsibility in its theoretical and practical dimension. The aim of this article is to present selected philosophical concepts of understanding responsibility.
EN
In the paper, in an interdisciplinary way, an attempt was made to define the term "social innovation" in the context of strengthening active social policy and community organising. It appears that multifaceted tendencies and changes in the development of technological and social innovations determine the need to take into account numerous tasks, functions, needs, determinants and systematic efforts to ensure that community inhabitants have good living and development conditions.
EN
The authors of the article, based on literature studies, notes a current significant increase in the role and importance of professional preparation of employees, which is closely related to the rate of civilizational progress, including the extremely dynamically developing automation of numerous industrial and non-industrial areas. In this light, it seems that breaking the mental barriers to the automation process in order to strengthen its acceptance could play a decisive role in creating the development of the labor market and education
EN
This paper, based on literature research, reflects upon the importance of active social policy and labour market in the social and professional development of people aged 50 years and more. It seems that in the light of the conducted research, the formula of the social policy and labour policy market related to it has been exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new policy model that will take sufficient account of the dominance in the elderly society and the need to sustain their social and professional activity as long as possible, while maintaining the idea of employment priority and education over benefits.
EN
The article proposes a phenomenological model of a passenger car. The model includes the biomechanical model of human bodies in the sitting position of Muksian and Nash acting as passengers, while the driver’s weight has been reduced to the concentrated weight of the loading seat. The research carried out in this study consisted of passing the vehicle through a transverse obstacle along the so-called speed bump. Vehicle passes through the threshold at three different speeds: 10km/h, 20km/h, and 30km/h. The purpose of the conducted experiments was to initially estimate the values of accelerations acting especially on the passenger at selected driving speeds. On the basis of conducted tests, it was possible to verify the numerical model of the vehicle overcoming the obstacle on the road. This approach allows the use of the proposed model to verify the forces and accelerations affecting the passenger, specified before any selected specific biomechanical model of the human person, for example, a model of pregnant women in this configuration allows us to estimate the forces and accelerations acting on the embryo while overcoming some obstacles on the road.
PL
Artykuł skupia się na złożonej i nieposiadającej w piśmiennictwie szerszego i głębszego opisu tematyce rozwoju i awansu zawodowego młodych kadr górniczych. Zarówno nieliczne w tym obszarze problemowym badania oraz obserwacje wskazują, że rozwój i awans zawodowy oparty o tradycyjne formy górniczej pracy i zatrudnienia będzie zanikał. Kluczową determinantą tego procesu będzie Rewolucja Przemysłowa 4.0., której skutki już się ujawniają w działaniach Kombinatu Górniczo-Hutniczego Miedź Polska S.A. i Jastrzębskiej Spółki Węglowej S.A. ukierunkowanych na powstanie e-kopalni. Można założyć, że osiągnięcie celu, jakim jest inteligentna kopalnia może całościowo zredefiniować dotychczasowy model rozwoju i awansu zawodowego młodych kadr górniczych w kierunku odejścia od tradycyjnej górniczej „szychty” do permanentnego rozwoju opartego na najnowocześniejszych i inteligentnych technologiach.
EN
The paper focuses on a complex and lacking in literature a broader and deeper description of development and promotion of young mining personnel. Both the few in this problem area research and observations indicate that professional development and promotion based on traditional forms of mining and employment will disappear. The key determinant of this process will be the Industrial Revolution 4.0, which effects are already evident in activities of Kombinat Górniczo Hutniczy Miedź Polska S.A. and Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. focused on creation of the E-mine. It can be assumed that achieving the objective of a smart mine can completely redefine current model of professional development and promotion of young mining personnel towards moving away from traditional mining “shifts” to permanent development based on the most modern and intelligent technologies.
PL
Artykuł zawiera wytyczne dotyczące prawidłowego wykonania i analizy pomiarów wpływu drgań na ludzi znajdujących się w budynkach odbierających drgania w sposób bierny. Zalecenia dotyczą zarówno wymagań sprzętowych, jak i wyboru punktów pomiarowych oraz analizy zarejestrowanego sygnału. Niezwykle ważnym aspektem pomiaru wpływu drgań na ludzi w budynkach jest wybór lokalizacji punktów pomiarowych. W różnych normach istnieją różne wytyczne, które są w artykule porównywane. Osobną kwestią jest wybór zakresu pomiarowego i wybór filtrów korekcyjnych do analizy. Podstawową sprawą natomiast jest określenie czasu trwania drgań, który należy wziąć pod uwagę w analizie. Ostatni problem metodyki pomiarowej wpływu drgań na ludzi związany z analizą danych pomiarowych to częstotliwość próbkowania zarejestrowanego sygnału.
16
Content available Pope Francis’s Proposition of Integral Ecology
EN
In spite of the fact that Pope Francis’s environmental message is not the first one to be formulated by the authorities of the Catholic Church, it is in this particular one that threads become visible which allow to see in it new, far-reaching analyses and conclusions. The aim of the present article is to indicate these elements which make it possible to draw such conclusions, both in relation to perceiving the sources of the environmental crisis and showing the ways of overcoming it. It is a realistic and coherent attitude, striving for harmony between people and nature, within human communities, between humans and God, and, finally, between science and faith. Undoubtedly, such Francis’s orientation towards peculiar environmental integralism and synergism is the most characteristic feature of his propositions of overcoming environmental threats.
PL
Pomimo tego, iż ekologiczne przesłanie papieża Franciszka nie jest pierwszym formułowanym przez władze Kościoła katolickiego, to uwidaczniają się w nim wątki zdecydowanie pozwalające dostrzec w nim nowe i daleko idące analizy i konkluzje. Celem artykułu jest wskazanie na te elementy, które pozwalają na wysuwanie takich właśnie wniosków, zarówno co do postrzegania źródeł kryzysu ekologicznego, jak i wskazywania dróg do jego przezwyciężenia. Jest to stanowisko realistyczne i koherentne, dążące do harmonii ludzi z naturą, w obrębie ludzkich społeczności, między człowiekiem a Bogiem, a wreszcie nauką i wiarą. Nie ulega wątpliwości, iż to nastawienie Franciszka na swoisty integralizm i synergizm ekologiczny, stanowi najbardziej charakterystyczny rys jego propozycji przezwyciężenia zagrożeń ekologicznych.
17
Content available remote Cyber threats and challenges targeting man versus his education
EN
Modern man strongly emphasizes the need for security in all aspects of social and individual life. The content of the article concerns the threats and challenges for men in cyberspace. The author shows the relations and relationships between security and education. He devotes a lot of space to the characteristics of threats in cyberspace. Facing dynamically changing reality, the author makes the reader pay special attention to modern ways of counteracting threats generated from cyberspace. The article shows how broadly understood prevention and education in all possible stages of the human use of cyberspace are an important aspect of human life.
PL
Współczesny człowiek mocno akcentuje potrzebę bezpieczeństwa we wszystkich aspektach życia społecznego i indywidualnego. Treść artykułu dotyczy zagrożeń i wyzwań człowieka w cyberprzestrzeni. Autor pokazuje w nim związki i zależności pomiędzy bezpieczeństwem a edukacją. Wiele miejsca poświęca charakterystyce zagrożeń w cyberprzestrzeni. Wobec dynamicznie zmieniającej się rzeczywistości, szczególną uwagę autor nakazuje zwrócić na nowoczesne sposoby przeciwdziałania zagrożeniom płynącym z cyberprzestrzeni. Teść artykułu pokazuje jak istotnym aspektem życia człowieka jest szeroko pojęta profilaktyka oraz edukacja we wszystkich możliwych etapach korzystania przez człowieka z cyberprzestrzeni.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wzrost znaczenia rysunku wraz z rozwojem człowieka i jego percepcji wzrokowej. Omówiono, jak istotnym narzędziem stał się alfabet rysunkowy wykorzystywany do rejestracji obrazu oraz jak zmieniał się na przestrzeni wieków stosunek artystów i odbiorców do rysunku. W tekście ukazano rangę tej dyscypliny na przykładach z dzisiejszych i minionych czasów. W wyniku prowadzonych obserwacji i ćwiczeń rysunkowych stwierdzono, że połączenia neuronowe wykorzystywane w akcie myślenia rysunkiem rozwijają i poszerzają pole percepcji wzrokowej. Doświadczenie zawodowe i dokonane obserwacje dowiodły, że współczesny świat, w którym żyjemy na co dzień, komunikuje poprzez różne media, jednak najsprawniejszym i najbliższym ludzkim umiejętnościom jest rysunek – graficzny sposób wyrażania myśli.
EN
The article presents the importance of drawing along with the development of man and his visual perception. It was discussed how important the drawing alphabet used to register the image became and how the attitude of artists and recipients to drawing has changed over the centuries. The text shows the rank of this discipline using examples from today and from the past. As a result of observations and drawing exercises, it was found that the neural connections used in the act of thinking by drawing develop and expand the field of visual perception. Professional experience and observations have shown that the modern world in which we live every day communicates through various media, however, the most efficient and closest to human skills is – drawing, the graphic way of expressing thoughts.
19
Content available Współczesny wymiar bezpieczeństwa
PL
Termin bezpieczeństwo doczekał się wielu definicji, jednak ich wieloznaczność jest wynikiem samego postrzegania, między innymi odmiennych perspektyw badacza. Wielość ujęć definicyjnych bezpieczeństwa sprawiła, że w literaturze wyodrębniła się oddzielna dziedzina zajmująca się jego badaniem, określana jako securitologia. Stanowi ona odrębną płaszczyznę badawczą, gdzie w centrum zainteresowania jest człowiek, a wszystkie działania jednostki ludzkiej ukierunkowane są na zapewnienie poczucia bezpieczeństwa. Termin uwzględniony w tytule opracowania systematycznie poszerzał swoje znaczenie, w wyniku rozwoju otaczającej nas rzeczywistości o nieznane dotychczas wyzwania i zagrożenia oraz nowe środki i sposoby ich eliminowania. Celem opracowania jest interpretacja współczesnego wymiaru bezpieczeństwa, jego znaczenia dla jednostki, grupy, a także państwa, również w wymiarze międzynarodowym.
EN
The term security has had a lot of definitions, however their ambiguity is the result of the perception, inter alia, of different perspectives of a researcher. The multitude of the definition approaches of security has caused that a separate field called securitology which deals with its research has been distinguished in the literature. It constitutes a separate research ground in which a human being is in the centre of attention, and all activities of an individual are directed at providing the feeling of security. The term included in the title of the study has been systematically expanded as a result of surrounding reality with unknown challenges and threats, as well as the new means and ways of eliminating them. The objective of the study is the interpretation of the modern dimension of security, both in terms of definition presented in the literature, and also for the strategic importance for the individual, the society and the state. In addition, the intention of the author is to show some contradictions in the interpretation of the security notion.
PL
Publikacja przedstawia myśl wybitnego polskiego filozofa Leszka Kołakowskiego na zagadnienie identyfikacji natury ludzkiej moralności. Twórczość Kołakowskiego to przede wszystkim poszukiwanie sposobu, w jaki człowiek staje się człowiekiem. Dwa najważniejsze wymiary pozwalające na odnalezienie istoty problemu to rozum i transcendencja. Oscylowanie między tymi poziomami czy warstwami ujawnia nie tylko drogę do moralności, jako formalnego zespołu norm i praw, ale także drogę do człowieczeństwa istoty ludzkiej jako wartości abstrakcyjnej.
EN
Leszek Kolakowski's work is revealed primarily through his interest in man, both in the social dimension and in the individual dimension. The contemporary man is a complex entity for Kolakowski, both in historical and existential sense. In the historical perspective, he witnessed the experience of banality and oppression, in the existential perspective, the indispensable tension between biology and intellect. This, according to Kołakowski, is the source of permanent human crisis as a human being.
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