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PL
W artykule przedstawiono krótko wybrane proekologiczne metody chłodzenia i smarowania strefy szlifowania (metodę zminimalizowanego smarowania MQL oraz chłodzenie strumieniem schłodzonego sprężonego powietrza). Opisano istotę hybrydowej metody chłodzenia i smarowania strefy szlifowania otworów, integrującej odśrodkowe podawanie aerozolu powietrzno-olejowego (MQL) przy jednoczesnym podawaniu schłodzonego sprężonego powietrza (SSP).
EN
The article presents briefly selected pro-ecological methods of cooling and lubrication of the grinding zone (minimum quantity lubrication and cooling with a stream of cooled compressed air). The essence of the hybrid method of cooling and lubrication of the grinding zone of internal cylindrical grinding process has been described, which integrates the centrifugal supply of air-oil aerosol (MQL) with a simultaneous supply of cooled compressed air. A numerical simulation model has been characterized. It was used to carry out simulation studies on the flow of cooling and lubricating agents in the grinding zone for conditions corresponding to the assumptions of the proposed hybrid method. The final part of the article presents the results of simulation tests and specifies the most favourable conditions for the application of the hybrid method of cooling and lubricating the grinding zone.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono krótko funkcje mediów chłodząco-smarujących w procesach szlifowania. Opisano najistotniejsze ograniczenia w skutecznym chłodzeniu i smarowaniu strefy obróbki w procesie szlifowania walcowych powierzchni wewnętrznych (głównie otworów). Na podstawie zdefiniowanych ograniczeń scharakteryzowano wybrane innowacyjne metody zapewniające zwiększenie efektywności chłodzenia i smarowania strefy szlifowania i w efekcie umożliwiające ograniczenie ich użycia przy jednoczesnym wydłużeniu okresu trwałości narzędzi.
EN
The article briefly presents the functions of cooling lubricants in grinding processes. The most important limitations of the effective cooling and lubrication of the machining zone in the internal cylindrical grinding process are described. On the basis of the defined limitations, selected innovative methods of increasing the efficiency of the cooling and lubrication of the grinding zone are characterized. These methods enable reducing the use of coolants and at the same time extending the life of tools.
EN
The shape and type of chip give general information about the cutting process. This paper presents the results of testing the shape and type of chips of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy after it finishes turning. The process was carried out under dry, wet and MQL (Minimum Quantity Lubrication) conditions at variable cutting speeds and feed rates and a constant depth of cutting. For planning the tests, the PSI (Parameter Space Investigation) method was used, which allows the experiment to be carried out while minimizing the number of experience points. It was found that the cutting speed and feed affect the type and shape of the chip, and clear differences were observed between dry and wet cooling conditions, and MQL conditions. During turning, the intensity of the cutting speed and feed influence on the chip compression ratio was changed. It was similar for dry and wet cooling conditions but smaller for MQL conditions. The purpose of this research is to analyze the chip shaping when Ti6Al4V titanium alloy finishes turning under dry, wet and MQL cooling conditions.
EN
The article describes the role and types of cooling lubricants used in grinding processes. Conventional methods of coolants delivery into the grinding zone were described, such as: flood method, high-pressure jet method, centrifugal coolant provision method as well as methods method to minimize coolant flow rate: minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), minimum quantity cooling (MQC) and minimum quantity cooling lubrication (MQCL). Against this background, a methods were presented to completely eliminate grinding fluid from the grinding process (dry grinding) like: impregnated grinding wheels and cold air guns (CAG).
EN
In the paper, the experimental investigations on hobbing cutting of the gears with the use of cooling fluids with minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) has been presented. The experiments were prepared during milling of 42CrMo4 alloy steel at of 32 ± 2 HRC hardness using high speed steel HS6-5-2 hobs without coating. Gears have been generated made in one single pass, to the full depth of the cut. As a cooling fluid in the MQL method, the vegetable oil and synthetic mineral oil MICRO 3000 was used. During the experiment, the size of the clamping was measured on the worm blade application surface, thus determining the direct VBC wear indicator and the FC cutting force value was recorded. Based on the obtained results, the influence of the type of used oil with MQL on the wear of the tool was assessed. The carried out analysis revealed that the use of vegetable oil in the field of assessed conditions gave better results than dry milling.
EN
The paper presents the use of the PIV method in experimental studies on the speed distribution of oil particles contained in oil mist delivered into a cutting zone with minimum quantity (MQL). During investigations an orthogonal sample was of an aluminum alloy PA7N was machined using HS18-0-1 high-speed steel cutter. The oil mist was delivered into the cutting zone by a single spray nozzle directed at the tool rake surface. Two angular settings of the spray nozzle were applied in relation to the surface of the machined sample. Based on the images obtained by the PIV method, the distribution of the oil particles in the cutting area was determined according to the setting the spray nozzle. Studies have indicated more favorable conditions for the delivery of oil mist at the angle of spray nozzle at 85°. These conclusions were confirmed by measuring the cutting force in tangential direction to the machined surface.
7
Content available remote Wysoko wydajna obróbka stopów aluminium z wykorzystaniem chłodzenia MQL
PL
Przedstawiono wybrane aspekty dotyczące wielkoseryjnej obróbki głowicy silnika spalinowego z wykorzystaniem chłodzenia mgłą olejową MQL. Omówiono wytyczne projektowania narzędzi i oprawek narzędziowych w odniesieniu do zastosowanego systemu chłodzenia i smarowania oraz właściwości materiału obrabianego. Omówiono wyniki uzyskiwane dla wybranych rodzajów obróbki na bazie doświadczeń produkcyjnych zakładu Volkswagen Motor Polska w Polkowicach.
EN
The paper describes aspects occur during mass production of cylinder head of diesel engine with oil mist cooling (MQL). It demonstrate special tool and tool’s chucks design in reference to used coolant system as well as machining material. The paper describes results of selected types of machining based on experience from VWMP plant in Polkowice.
8
Content available remote Wpływ warunków chłodzenia na chropowatość powierzchni po frezowaniu
PL
W artykule przedstawiono badania porównawcze chropowatości powierzchni po frezowaniu – na sucho, z MQL i emulsją – stali węglowej C45 i stopu aluminium PA4, w zakresie wysokich prędkości skrawania.
EN
The article presents a comparative study of surface roughness after dry milling, with the MQL and emulsion of C45 carbon steel and aluminum alloy PA4 at high cutting speeds.
PL
W niniejszym artykule przedstawiona została nowa metoda chłodząco-smarująca strefę szlifowania jako alternatywa dla tradycyjnie używanej metody zalewowej. Przedstawiono porównanie topografii powierzchni uzyskanej po obróbce z hybrydową metodą smarowania strefy szlifowania (MQL + SSP) z topografią powierzchni uzyskanej po smarowaniu tradycyjną metodą zalewową.
EN
In this article presented is a new method of cooling and lubricating the grinding zone as an alternative to the traditionally used flood method. It presents a comparison of surface topography obtained after treatment with the hybrid method of lubrication grinding zone (MQL + SSP) to the surface topography obtained after lubrication by traditional flood method.
10
Content available remote Obróbka stopu miedzi CuZn40Pb2 w warunkach minimalnego smarowania
PL
Zaprezentowano wyniki badań toczenia stopu miedzi o oznaczeniu CuZn40Pb2 z wykorzystaniem minimalnego smarowania. Ukazują one wpływ zastosowania MQL na chropowatość powierzchni stopu miedzi przy obróbce rombowymi płytkami powlekanymi i niepowlekanymi. Ponadto określono efektywne zakresy stosowania MQL w toczeniu wzdłużnym stopu miedzi ze względu na otrzymaną chropowatość powierzchni.
EN
The article presents the results of use the minimum quantity lubrication in the copper alloy turning. The results show the effects of applying an MQL on the surface roughness CuZn40Pb2 material with the use of the uncoated and coated diamond cutting edge. In addition, the article sets the effective fields of application MQL in longitudinal turning of a copper alloy, due to the resulting of surface roughness.
EN
In the paper the method of determining the mathematical relationship for calculating the flank wear VBc of the most worn hob tooth is discussed. The relationship, in the form of a multiple regression function, was determined based on the acceptance and rejection method. The data for the calculations was obtained from experiments carried out for hobbing of carbon steel C45 with the use of a cutting fluid supplied in flood mode (WM) and with a minimum quantity lubrication mode (MQL). Based on the developed equations the impact of the selected machining parameters the course of the hob wear was assessed. In the final part of the paper, the obtained mathematical relationships were analysed and verified.
PL
W artykule omówiono metodę wyznaczania zależności matematycznej do obliczania wielkości starcia VBc najbardziej zużytego ostrza frezu ślimakowego. Zależność w postaci funkcji regresji wielorakiej wyznaczono metodą dołączania i odrzucania. Dane do obliczeń uzyskano przeprowadzając badania eksperymentalne frezowania stali węglowej C45 z udziałem cieczy obróbkowej podawanej w trybie obfitym oraz z minimalnym wydatkiem (MQL). W oparciu o wyznaczone równania dokonano oceny wpływu wybranych warunków obróbki na przebieg zużycia frezów ślimakowych. W końcowej części artykułu dokonano analizy uzyskanych zależności matematycznych oraz przeprowadzono ich weryfikację.
EN
In the article the state of knowledge regarding the functions and supply methods of the cooling liquid into the grinding zone were presented. The new system for centrifugal supply of oil mist was described. The results of experimental investigations conducted into the internal cylindrical grinding process were given. The life of the wheel, machined surface roughness, grinding power and temperature in the machining zone were analyzed. Experimental results showed that compared to flood cooling, this new system provides double the lifespan of the wheel, significantly reducing the volume of wheel wear and enabling the slightly reduced roughness of machined surface and grinding power. Using a new coolant supply method caused an increase in the workpiece temperature, compared to the flood cooling.
13
Content available remote Wybór medium obróbkowego dla MQL a efekty szlifowania stopu tytanu Ti6Al4V
PL
Stopy tytanu o strukturze α+β, np. Ti-6Al-4V, są obecnie najczęściej używane w przemyśle lotniczym, kosmicznym, biomedycynie i urządzeniach ogólnego przeznaczenia. Stopy tytanu zalicza się do materiałów trudno obrabialnych metodami obróbki skrawaniem. W porównaniu ze stalą stopy tytanu cechują: trzykrotnie mniejszy współczynnik przewodzenia ciepła, o 50% mniejszy współczynnik rozszerzalności cieplnej, wysoka odporność na korozję, przy zachowaniu wytrzymałości 60% ciężaru właściwego stali.
EN
The results of the research of the influence of a processing liquid on the selected parameters of grinding the titanium alloy Ti6Al4V have been described. The processing liquid was passed with the minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) into the zone of grinding. The influence of the used processing liquid on cutting force, the roughness of the surface and the deformation of a thin-walled piece after grinding has been analysed.
14
Content available remote Cutting forces in dry and near dry cutting off machining
EN
The article presents research results on the effect of cooling and lubrication on the cutting force in cutting off process of A11and C45 steel rods using different rake face shapes and cutting parameters. The aim of the investigation was to determine outcomes of elimination (dry cutting) or reduction (minimum quantity lubrication – MQL) of a cooling and lubricating fluid in the cutting off process. It has been concluded that the minimum quantity lubrication allowed decreasing the cutting force compared to dry cutting. The impact of eliminating or reducing the quantity of the cooling and lubricating medium on the cutting force in the cutting off process of both types of steel depend on the applied feed rate and cutting speed. Taking into account environmental reasons, the dry and MQL cutting off is advisable and highly justifiable.
19
Content available remote Application of Minimal Quantity Lubrication in Gear Hobbing
EN
The results of investigations on application of Minimal Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in gear hobbing are presented in the paper. The experimental stand which allows measurements of cutting forces, Fc, is described. Experiments were carried out for MQL and flood cooling. The influence of the fluid supply methods on tool wear and cutting forces is presented in the paper. The influence of the different workpiece materials is presented, too. The investigations have proved that the using of the MQL method is by all means justified. The results indicate that the hob wear rate is similar for the MQL and for conventional flood cooling. This is also confirmed by the measurements of cutting forces, which values are comparable for both methods.
EN
The cooling and lubricating liquids widely used in metal machining are more and more often considered to be harmful to the natural environment and human health. For economic and ecological reasons the industry and research institutions are searching for methods and measures to limit or eliminate them. This is naturally determined by the conditions that the quality of machined surfaces has to be the same or at least comparable to that obtained with conventional cooling methods. The article presents the results of research into the influence of cooling and lubrication on surface layer physical properties -microhardness and microstructure changes, after turning the C45 and X2CrNiMo 17-12-2 steel dry, with minimal quantity lubrication (MQL) and emulsion in a wide range of cutting parameters. Significant differences in the microhardness parameter HV0,02 and surface layer microstructure depending on the cutting zone cooling and lubrication conditions have been observed. The research has also shown that despite difficulty in turning X2CrNiMo 17-12-2 steel, properly selected cutting parameters help to limit or eliminate fluids used in conventional cooling and lubrication and still obtain comparable or even better surface layer quality.
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