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PL
Zanieczyszczenie powietrza ma znaczący wpływ na zdrowie i aktywność człowieka. Przyczyną złej jakości powietrza są uwalnianie do atmosfery antropogeniczne i naturalne zanieczyszczenia. Jednak warunki meteorologiczne, takie jak: brak wiatru, pionowe ruchy atmosfery czy brak opadów atmosferycznych, powodują długotrwałe wysokie stężenie zanieczyszczeń. Wpływa to bezpośrednio na jakość życia i zdrowie mieszkańców. Wymuszenie ruchów atmosferycznych może spowodować znaczną i szybką redukcję koncentracji zanieczyszczeń na stosunkowo dużym obszarze, np. obejmującym takie miasto jak Kraków. W pracy opisano działanie wynalazku zmniejszającego stężenia pyłów w atmosferze oraz przedstawiono wstępną analizę uzyskanych wyników. Wynalazek tworzy cykl fal uderzeniowych poprzez eksplozję mieszaniny gazów palnych i powietrza. Skutkiem działania fali uderzeniowej jest zniszczenie struktury warstwy inwersji temperaturowej atmosfery, co umożliwia powstawanie pionowych ruchów powietrza, prowadzących do naturalnego rozpraszania smogu. Wstępne wyniki wskazują na średnią redukcję stężenia pyłu zawieszonego PM10 o blisko 20% w warstwie atmosfery na wysokości do 100 m w pojedynczym, 11-minutowym cyklu generatora, składającym się na 110 wybuchów.
EN
Ambient air pollution affects human health and activity significantly. The causes of poor air quality ore anthropogenic and natural emissions of pollutants released to the atmosphere. However, meteorological conditions such as lack of wind, vertical movement of the atmosphere, or absence of precipitation cause high and long-lasting pollution concentrations, which directly affect the quality of life and health of the population. The unnatural enforcement of atmospheric movement may induce a significant and rapid reduction in the concentration of pollution in a relatively large area, i.e. covering a city such as Kraków. This paper describes the operation of an invention reducing PM concentrations in the atmosphere and presents a preliminary analysis of the results of its operation. The invention creates a cycle of shock waves by exploding a mixture of combustible gases and air. The result of shock wave is the destruction of the structure of the atmospheric temperature inversion layer, which enables the formation of vertical movement of the atmosphere, leading to a reduction in air pollution concentration. The initial results of the device operation demonstrate an average reduction of PM10 concentration of almost 20% in the atmosphere layer at the height of up to 100 m in a single cycle of 11 minutes consisting of 110 explosions.
EN
At present, monitoring of air pollution near industrial facilities is one of the most urgent tasks. Its implementation is a requirement of Article 42 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the basis for the ecological well-being of the population. This problem is especially critical for the production facilities located within residential areas or in close proximity to them. The scientific article presents the results of a monitoring study of the air pollution in a residential area exposed to the negative impact of the storage of primary oil refining waste. Within the frames of the scientific research, the analysis of the stock materials of the enterprise was conducted; field observation was performed on the territory of the considered enterprise and the construction of ecological cartographic models was carried out, reflecting the level of the air pollution in the territory under consideration. The study also carried out a literary review and presented a list of the main existing technologies for the utilization of oil sludge to improve the quality of the air in the region under consideration.
EN
This paper presents a study on the architecture created for the needs of Maggie's, a charity organisation, whose main aim since 1995 has been the creation of facilities (centres) for the short-term stay of cancer patients and their families without accommodation options. The main purpose of Maggie's facilities is to provide patients and their loved ones with a sense of home security and peace during hospital therapies. This paper discusses several centres, located all over the world, as well as the features of shaping space common to the presented examples as determined. Their architectural layouts were analysed with a focus on patient needs and activity. Based on the designs of Maggie's Centres, we identified basic principles of design and interior arrangement that can be used in other medical buildings and those that require their patients to maintain a high degree of psychophysical comfort. This paper presents evidence of the importance of a homely atmosphere in healthcare settings.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono badania prowadzone nad architekturą zaprojektowaną dla potrzeb organizacji Maggie’s Center, której głównym celem od 1995 roku jest tworzenie obiektów (ośrodków) służących do krótkotrwałego pobytu osób cierpiących na choroby nowotworowe i ich rodzin bez możliwości noclegowych. Maggie’s Center mają przede wszystkim zapewnić pacjentom, a także ich najbliższym poczucie domowego bezpieczeństwa oraz spokoju, kiedy są w trakcie szpitalnych terapii. Omówiono kilka z nich, zlokalizowanych w różnych miejscach świata, a następnie określono wspólne dla przedstawionych przykładów cechy kształtowania przestrzeni. W szczególny sposób przeanalizowano układ architektoniczny w stosunku do potrzeb i sposobu funkcjonowania osób chorych. Na podstawie projektów Maggie’s Center wskazano podstawowe zasady projektowania oraz aranżacji wnętrz, które mogłyby być w przyszłości wykorzystywane w innych budynkach funkcji medycznej, a wymagających wysokiego komfortu psychofizycznego pacjentów. W artykule prezentuje się dowody na znaczenie domowej atmosfery w ośrodkach służby zdrowia.
4
Content available remote Atmosfera architektury w humanizacji teorii i metod projektowych
PL
W artykule omówiono badania nad atmosferą architektury, stawiające w centrum ludzki odbiór przestrzeni, a przez to poszerzające humanistyczny aspekt teorii i projektowania architektonicznego oraz urbanistycznego. Odnosząc badania własne do aktualnej wiedzy autorka przedstawia różne definicje atmosfery i metodologie jej opisu, które coraz mocniej wchodzą w obszar neurofizjologii i psychologii, ale też w nowym świetle wartościują kontemplację, opisy literackie, zdjęcia, scenografię.
EN
This paper discusses the study of the atmosphere of architecture, which places human perception of space at the centre, and thus expands the humanist aspect of architectural and urban theory and design. Referring her own research to the current state of the art, the author presents various definitions of atmosphere and methodologies of its description, which considerably encroach into the field of neurophysiology and psychology, but also value contemplation, literary descriptions, photographs and stage design in a new light.
EN
The results of the research on energy usage of the fatty acids distillation residue are presented. Distillation residue constitutes a material of biogenic origin, which is created only as a result of physical processing of animal fats without using additional chemicals. This material exhibits similar physicochemical properties as the heavy heating oil and may be its substitute. Industrial comparative tests of combusting of distillation residue and also of the heavy heating oil in an oil boiler were conducted. The research was conducted at the rated and minimum capacities of the boiler. It has been stated that combusting of the distillation residue of the fatty acids in a tested oil boiler does not bring about any technological difficulties. No threat of the elevated emission of pollutants into the atmosphere was exhibited. Installation of the boiler fulfill all emission standards required for combustion of the liquid fuels. Combustion of fatty acids distillation residue contributes to the reduction of the previous emission of pollutants from burning of the heavy fuel oil, significantly in scope of SO2.
PL
Opisano autorski pomysł dynamicznego działania na warstwę przyziemną atmosfery jako efektywną metodę wentylacji i redukcji smogu obszarów zurbanizowanych. Przeprowadzone badania dotyczyły efektywności wież wentylacyjnych i komina wentylacyjnego oraz współpracy koncentrycznego wentylatorów systemu z kominem wentylacyjnym. Wyniki potwierdziły, że sprawność systemu jest wystarczająca.
EN
This paper describes the original ideas about dynamic action on atmospheric boundary layer as an effective method of urban ventilation and smog reduction. The performed tests focuses on efficiency of ventilation towers and vertical exhaust (ventilation chimney) and cooperation between a concentric system of ventilation towers and a ventilation chimney. The results confirmed a sufficient level of efficiency of cleaning an area where the system is located.
EN
The problem of harmful casting resins has been present in foundries for many years. Manufacturers are introducing new products that contain in their composition environmentally and eco-friendly ingredients. Unfortunately, not all types of technology can be used, sometimes environmental benefits are disproportionate to the quality of castings and their price. In the foundry industry, the most popular binders are based on organic compounds (often carcinogenic) and other harmful substances. Due to strict legal regulations regarding environmental protection, as well as care for the foundry's workers' comfort - their occurrence should be reduce to a minimum. These compounds often behave also depending on the conditions of use (temperature, atmosphere). The application of various methods of thermal analysis and spectroscopic methods allows to verify the mechanism of resin decomposition process in relation to conditions in the form in both inert and oxidizing atmosphere. For analysis the resins from cold-box technology, were used TG–DTG–DSC, Py-GC/MS methods and specified the course of changes occurring in combination of different atmosphere.
8
PL
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) jest światową siecią radarów koherentnego rozpraszania w paśmie wysokich częstotliwości HF (High Frequency) do badań górnych warstw atmosfery, mezosfery, jonosfery, termosfery oraz ich sprzężenia z magnetosferą i wiatrem słonecznym. Do głównych tematów badawczych SuperDARN z dziedziny fizyki atmosfery należą echa mezosferyczne, fale planetarne i związane z nimi przemieszczające się zaburzenia jonosferyczne oraz inne przejawy oddziaływania atmosfery neutralnej ze zjonizowaną. W artykule przedstawiamy perspektywy dla rozwoju badań atmosfery z użyciem radarów SuperDARN w kraju, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem badań z dziedziny elektryczności atmosferycznej.
EN
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) is a global network of coherent scatter radars in the HF (High Frequency) band for studying the upper atmosphere, mesosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and their coupling with the magnetosphere and solar wind. SuperDARN research topics in the field of atmospheric physics include mesospheric echoes, planetary waves and associated travelling ionospheric disturbances, and other manifestations of the interaction of neutral and ionised atmosphere. In the article we present prospects for the development of atmospheric research in Poland using SuperDARN radars, with particular emphasis on research studies in the field of atmospheric electricity.
9
Content available SuperDARN w Polsce – perspektywy
PL
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) jest światową siecią radarów do badania górnych warstw atmosfery, jonosfery i ich sprzężenia z magnetosferą i wiatrem słonecznym (Greenwald i in. 1995; Chisham i in. 2007; Lester 2008, 2013, Nishitani i in. 2019). W artykule przybliżamy szczegóły techniczne, tematy badawcze i publikacje związane z działalnością SuperDARN oraz korzyści płynące z polskiego w nim udziału, który mógłby wzmocnić badania krajowe, jak i współpracę międzynarodową oraz otworzyć nowe tematy badawcze. Zanim to będzie możliwe, należy rozwiązać kilka technicznych kwestii, których tło i perspektywy nakreślamy.
EN
SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) is a global radar network for studying the upper atmosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere and mesosphere and their coupling with the magnetosphere and solar wind (Greenwald et al. 1995; Chisham et al. 2007; Lester 2008, 2013, Nishitani et al. 2019). In the article we bring closer to national readers the SuperDARN network through describing its technical details, projects and publications. In addition to strengthening present research Polish participation in SuperDARN could result in development of new topics in national research and in international cooperation. Before it is possible, several technical issues should be solved, the background and perspectives of which we outline in the article.
EN
The present manuscript presents the view point of the author for providing a course on environmental history for chemistry students and secondary school pupils. Special attention is paid on the societal developments in the twentieth century when the anthropogenic impacts on the environment have become especially deep and devastating. The course of lectures is focused on the environmental changes in each environmental phase (lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere) as well as in the society as a whole. The process of environmental changes is illustrated by various examples from each natural system in consideration and the anthropogenic factor for each one of them is defined and discussed. The presented material is an example for organization of an environmental history course of lecture which could be subject of additional information and conclusions related to the social attitude to the problem of environmental pollution and environmental risk assessment.
EN
This article presents measurement of solar radiation properties and thermal energy of the atmosphere in Rzeszów (φ = 50°02’N, λ = 22°17’E). The measurements include direct, diffuse and global solar radiation as well as thermal radiation from the atmosphere. Weather station provides six of the most important weather parameters: air pressure, temperature, humidity, rainfall, speed and direction. Sky radiometer with dedicated sun tracker provides multiband measurement of direct and diffuse solar radiation. Measurement results from over 4 years have been collected so far and may be used to estimate energy yields from solar systems. The article presents selected results of solar radiation and weather parameters in 2017.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano pomiary właściwości promieniowania słonecznego i energii cieplnej otoczenia w Rzeszowie (φ = 50°02'N, λ = 22°17'E). Pomiary obejmują promieniowanie słoneczne bezpośrednie, rozproszone i całkowite, dodatkowo mierzone jest promieniowanie cieplne atmosfery. Kompaktowa stacja pogodowa umożliwia pomiar sześciu najważniejszych parametrów pogodowych: ciśnienia powietrza, temperatury, wilgotności, opadów oraz prędkości i kierunku wiatru. SkyRadiometr z dedykowanym układem śledzenia słońca zapewnia wielopasmowe i spektralne pomiary bezpośredniego promieniowania słonecznego i wielopasmowe pomiary rozproszonego promieniowania słonecznego. Obecnie pomiary obejmują okres ponad 4 lat, które można wykorzystać do oszacowania uzysku energii z systemów słonecznych.
PL
W przeciwieństwie do dwutlenku węgla, monitorowanego na różne sposoby, emisja metanu jest słabo poznana i przedstawia sobą zagrożenie, którego wcześniej nie brano pod uwagę. W publikacji omówiono zmiany emisji tego gazu do atmosfery w czasie oraz w zależności od źródła jego pochodzenia. Przedstawiono wpływ metanu na globalny efekt cieplarniany, zwracając uwagę na trudności z identyfikacją rzeczywistej jego emisji. Wskazano znaczenie badań dotyczących niekontrolowanej jego emisji, w celu podjęcia stosownych działań zmierzających do ograniczenia emisji gazów cieplarnianych do atmosfery, a pochodzących m.in. z rolnictwa. Autorki stwierdzają, że obecnie metan powinien stać się głównym obiektem troski w sferze kontrolowania zmian klimatycznych, co wynika z gwałtownego wzrostu jego ilości w atmosferze.
EN
There are different methods for carbon dioxide emissions monitoring, but the problem of methane emissions is still not well known and not taken into account. In the paper fluctuations of methane emissions depending on time and sources are described. The influence of methane on the global warming effect is discussed and the problem of real emissions identification is pointed. The need of proper investigations and emissions reduction is stated. Since the amount of methane in atmosphere is dramatically rising special attention should be paid here for climate changes monitoring.
EN
The number of patients sensitive to the allergenic pollen from different plant species has been constantly increasing. The severe cases of pollen allergy (pollinosis) can lead to the asthma development. The bronchial asthma is common pollinosis aggravation. It is one of the most widely spread chronic diseases typical both of children and of adults [4,8,9]. So, it is very important to analyze the pollen obtained from the allergic plants and to study the time changes in the levels of its concentration in the atmospheric air. To solve the above task, we should monitor the factors that influence the pollen emission and its spread in the air. On the bases of the study we can build the regression model for conducting such an analysis and for forming the prognosis.
PL
Liczba pacjentów wrażliwych na alergeny pyłku z różnych gatunków roślin, stale wzrasta. Poważne przypadki alergii na pyłki (Pyłkowica) może prowadzić do rozwoju astmy. Astma oskrzelowa jest najczęstszym ostrym następstwem pyłkowicy. Jest to jedna z najbardziej rozpowszechnionych chorób przewlekłych typowych zarówno dla dzieci i dorosłych. Jest więc bardzo ważne, aby analizować pyłek otrzymany z roślin alergennych i badać zmiany jego stężenia w czasie w powietrzu atmosferycznym. W celu rozwiązania powyższego zadania należy monitorować czynniki mające wpływ na emisję pyłku i jego rozprzestrzenianie się w powietrzu. Na bazie badań możemy zbudować model regresji dla przeprowadzenia takiej analizy i formowania prognoz.
EN
Ten water-soluble ions (F–, Cl–, NO3–, PO43–, SO42–, Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+), distributed among four fractions of particulate matter, PM, were investigated in an urban background site. The PM was sampled twice a week during a two-year sampling period. Mass distribution among the PM fractions and ambient concentrations of the ten PM-bound ions in the heating and non-heating periods, the seasonal effects in the PM fraction-bound ion concentrations (generalized regression model), and the principal components of all the resulting sets of ambient concentrations (principal component analysis) were determined, discussed, and interpreted in the terms of source apportionment of PM emissions. The formation of secondary inorganic aerosol in transformations of gaseous precursors (e.g., SOx, NOx, NH3) appeared to be most probable and significant source of PM2.5, especially of its sub-fraction PM1–2.5, in the non-heating period. In the heating period, PM and PM2.5 bound water-soluble ions originated mainly from combustion of coal and other solid fuels, or waste. Coarse particles (PM2.5–10 and PM10–40) and some PM2.5–40-bound ions (e.g. Na+, K+, Mg2+) may come from re-suspension of mineral matter and road dust. In some part, coarse PM may consist of mineral and salt particles containing gaseous and semi-volatile compounds.
EN
Methane emissions associated with the hydrocarbon-generation process occurring in sedimentary basins are considered to be one of two types of geologic sources of methane emissions to the atmosphere. Current methane emissions releasing from geological sources amount 45–60 Tg CH 4 yr –1. The measured values of flux migrating from soil into the atmosphere are influenced by a series of factors, e.g. porosity and permeability of overlying layers, occurrence of cracks and faults, atmospheric pressure, seasonal temperature fluctuations and presence of methanotrophic bacteria. The latter, as a result of methane consumption, may trigger negative flux values (Etiope 2015). Previously, the methane emission measurements in the Polish Outer Carpathians were carried out with a method of static chambers (Sechman & Dzieniewicz 2009). The studies presented in the paper consisted in initial methane emission measurements by flux meter. Their purpose was to examine distribution of methane fluxes on the land surface, as well as change in emission along with depth, omitting the ‘screening’ near-surface zone. The studies were carried out in a small area of the Carpathian petroleum oil region, nearby Rymanów, between October and December 2015. Measurement of the methane fluxes were performed with application of a portable flux meter (West System 2012). The device performs one measurement per second on average, recording concentration changes in time (ppm/s). Average measurement time was 360 seconds. When a high methane concentration was registered, gas samples were collected from the accumulation chamber and directed to a detailed chromatographic analysis (field sampling and analytical procedure – see Sechman & Dzieniewicz 2009). There were 137 measurements taken on 87 stands in total, recording emission from the land surface, and emission with application of 1-m deep holes – in order to omit the “screening” near-surface zone (Sechman & Dzieniewicz 2009). The emission was recorded along the 1000- m long profile, where samples of soil gas were collected previously, and around the drill holes covered with soil. Furthermore, during the process of drilling 4 boreholes, there were CH 4 test emission measurements taken examining change in methane flux with depth (to 10 m). In case of the KB-7 borehole, measurements were taken 1 and 22 days after the drilling. The natural emission was recorded on 70 measuring stations. The flux was identified only in 30% of the performed measurements. Negative emission was predominant within the examined area (68% of all measurements), with an average value of −3.8 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1. Average value of the positive flux reached 3 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1. Range of the measured flux values is comprised within the scope from −5.2 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1 to 14.9 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1. Emission measurements with the additional holes were carried out at 37 positions. Fluxes with positive values were identified in 6 of them, while the negative values were recorded in 4. Range of the measured flux values with the additional hole was from −6.4 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1 to 2 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1 ; average negative and positive flux values are as follows, respectively: −2.3 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1 and 1.3 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1. Within the examined area, methane emission from the land surface, and to the depth of 1 m, was identified only in 30% of measurements. The measurements are characterized by low values, from −6.4 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1 to 14.9 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1. Results of test emission measurements recorded in subsequently drilled depth intervals, performed for 4 drilling boreholes. For the KB-6, KB-7, KB-8 and KB-10 boreholes, average values of methane emission from subsequent depth intervals were as follows, respectively: 49.2, 68.6, 3.5 and 1.5 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1. These results are higher than values of natural emission measured on the land surface or with application of holes to 1 m. The highest emission values were recorded for the KB-7 borehole. A detailed distribution of CH 4 flux values was correlated with a lithology and molecular composition of gas collected from the accumulation chamber in three depth intervals (3.5 m, 5.5 m and 10 m). Results of the gas molecular analysis prove that the source of methane emission is characterized by both microbial and endogenous origin. It is assumed that occurrence of components heavier than methane in the samples, arises from their depth origin (Saunders et al. 1991). An increase of methane concentration in intervals related to occurrence of shales – may suggest its recent origin. It also needs to be noticed that C 1 /C 2 ratio values (from 207 to 807) increase along with depth, what may prove prevailing share of microbial methane. When 24 hours passed after drilling the KB-7 borehole, the emission value dropped to 0.6 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1, and after about three weeks, during an hourly emission measurement, a positive flux of 0.1 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1 was observed in time 0–470 second and a negative flux of −0.05 mg∙m −2 ∙d −1 was observed in time 480–2660 second. Furthermore, small concentrations of ethane (0.006 ppm) and ethylene (0.005 ppm) were identified in gas sample collected after 22 days. The emissions study conducted in the Rymanów area (Outer Carpathians) indicates the mixed source of methane. In order to determine the detailed methane source, it would be necessary to perform an analysis of the carbon isotopic composition in the samples taken. The low emission values measured on the land surface results from the fact that the emissions were suppressed by the sealing overburden layer. The measurements taken 1 day and then 22 days after drilling – in the KB-7 stabilized borehole, show a decline in emissions value. This may result from an insignificant inflow of hydrocarbons from the depth, bacterial oxidation of these hydrocarbons, and from the influx of air to the borehole.
Logistyka
|
2015
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nr 3
3020--3029, CD 1
PL
Artykuł zawiera analizę możliwości zwiększenia konkurencyjności i wydajności przedsiębiorstwa zajmującego się wykonywaniem analiz i obliczeń związanych z symulacjami rozprzestrzeniania się zanieczyszczeń w atmosferze poprzez zastosowanie komputerów klastrowych, jako narzędzia minimalizującego czas obliczeń. Autor opisuje również zagadnienia związane z podstawami modelowania systemów monitorujących rozprzestrzenianie się zanieczyszczeń w powietrzu atmosferycznym. Opisane zostały również podstawowe podziały zanieczyszczeń, typy źródeł zanieczyszczeń i rodzaje emiterów. W dalszej części artykułu opisano podstawowe typy opisywanych modeli, jak również możliwe ich implementacje programistyczne, a także sposoby optymalizacji i usprawnienia ich działania poprzez zastosowanie klastrów komputerowych podczas wykonywania obliczeń.
EN
This article contains information about modeling of pollutants dispersion systems in the atmosphere. It also describes main types of pollutants, emission points and analysis of typical atmosphere pollutant dispersion models. It shows a way of using computer cluster systems in modeling process and a proper programming libraries for parallel computing. It also contains information about computational efficiency’s increase possibilities and computer cluster systems using profits for computational industries.
EN
A distance education system is designed based on fuzzy inference, where visualized atmosphere information is shared by all learners in a virtual classroom. It provides high aspirations, low isolated feeling, low stress, and high affinity to learners, and offers learner’s psychological information, individual difference information, and hints of system improvement to the system manager. The effect of visualized atmosphere information in the learner’s psychological states is confirmed by T score of POMS test for 15 graduate students using CAI contents, and comparison experiment with traditional distance education. The proposal of atmosphere information presentation of virtual classroom provides a first step in establishing Education Academy beyond Space Time (EAST).
EN
An original model of atmospheric wave propagation from ground sources to the ionosphere in the atmosphere with a realistic high-altitude temperature profile is analyzed. Shaping of a narrow domain with elevated pressure in the resonance region where the horizontal phase wave velocity is equal to the sound velocity is examined theoretically within the framework of linearized Eq.s. Numerical simulations for the model profiles of atmospheric temperature and viscosity confirm analytical result for the special feature of wave fields. The formation of the narrow domain with plasma irregularities in the D and low E ionospheric layers caused by the acoustic gravity wave singularity is discussed.
PL
Badano konwersję siarki w trakcie spalania komunalnych osadów ściekowych oraz mieszanek węglowo-osadowych na stanowisku doświadczalnym z cyrkulacyjną warstwą fluidalną w atmosferze O2/CO2 zawierającej 21-35% tlenu.
EN
Sewage sludge and fuel mixts. compounded by addn. of sewage sludge (10-50%) to bituminous coal were combusted in a fluidized bed boiler with O2 (21-35% by volume) in CO2 atm. The conversion of S to SO2 increased up to 94% with increasing O2 content in CO2 atm. The conversion of S to SO3 was low (2-6%) and to H2S was negligible (below 0.5%).
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy jest przedstawienie aktualnych działań Zakładu Technologii Kosmicznych Instytutu Lotnictwa na drodze rozwoju komputowych symulacji lotu rakiet. W pierwszej części publikacji wyjaśniono potrzebę tworzenia omawianego oprogramowania i dotychczasowe osiągnięcia pracowników w tej dziedzinie. Główną część artykułu poświęcono zaawansowanym metodom symulacji lotu rakiet watmosferze ziemskiej, czyli algorytmom obecnie rozwijanym przez autora niniejszego tekstu. Oprócz informacji dotyczących przyjętych założeń przedstawiono aktualne możliwości tworzonego oprogramowania. W krótkim podsumowaniu określono dalsze kierunki rozwoju projektu.
EN
The paper presents current efforts undertaken at the Institute of Aviation to develop computer program for simulation of rocket flight in the atmosphere as well as for satellite’s launcher. The main content of this work includes a description of advanced algorithms for 6 degrees of freedom rocket flight modelling in the atmosphere. The initial results of exemplary calculations of flight of the single stage rocket in atmosphere and two stage satellite launcher are presented in the paper. Further planes of improvements of the developed program are also presented.
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