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In recent years, both airborne and terrestrial laser scanning developed to a standard technique for acquiring information on terrestrial landscapes. Here forest inventory and orchard management is considered. Inventory and parameterization of individual trees in orchards and forests are of large interest in nowadays society because of the potential of economical maximization of orchard production and the sustainable nnanagement of forests. Complex objects like trees require a detailed structural analysis before an analysis of single trees is possible. Skeletonization is such a structural description that enables the extraction of length, diarneters, volumes and position of individual branches but also of trees as a whole. Ln this paper an overview of current possibilities for skeletonization algorithms on trees is given. A new method of skeletonization, especially designed for the analysis of tree data is deseribed and its applicability demonstrated on airborne and terrestrial laser scanning scenarios. The evidence reviewed in this paper leads to conclude that skeletonization is a valuable tool for forest inventory and orchard management. It will be shown that skeletonization offers the possibility of species independent measurement of trees, which make skeletonization a general tool for parameter extraction on trees that empowers also research fields different from orchard management and forest inventory.
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań laboratoryjnych nad efektywnością depresatora na obniżenie temperatury mętnienia paliwa skomponowanego z oleju napędowego i estrów metylowych wyższych kwasów tłuszczowych wytworzonych w warunkach przemysłowych, jak i przydomowych, metodami gospodarskimi. Badania wykazały zróżnicowane działanie oraz stosunkowo niską efektywność depresatora w estrach wytworzonych metodami gospodarskimi. Dodatek estrów do oleju napędowego znacząco wpływa na efektywność depresatora i na zmianę temperatury mętnienia nowopowstałej mieszaniny.
The paper presents results of laboratory research for depressor effect on lowering the cloud temperature point of fuel composed of fuel oil and methyl esters of higher fatty acids produced by industrial processes as well as at the household, using economic methods. The described research showed varying action and relatively low effectiveness of the depressor in esters produced by using the household methods. Addition of esters to the fuel oil changes the depressor effectiveness and cloud point temperature of a new mixture in a meaningful way.
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