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EN
The purpose and scope of this paper is to present the demand of Polish waters for the boat MoB MEDS the Mobile Base of the Marine Emergency Diving Service, which would enable necessary underwater works (repairs and inspections) for ships requiring immediate assistance. The MoB MEDS boat could also protect sensitive sea areas against potential oil and / or chemical spills from the ship, which could seriously threaten the safety of human life, the safety of navigation and the protection of the natural environment with its unique ecological values. Mentioned demand is supported by the analysis of selected statistical data on maritime accidents in Polish waters and planned maritime investments.
EN
Climate change provides for improved conditions for maritime navigation and results in increased activity in the Arctic. Those increased activities influence the safety at sea and risk of accidents. A disaster as the Costa Concordia incident would have far more serious consequences in Greenlandic waters than it had in Italy, therefore the question of prevention and disaster-preparedness is crucial. One approach to avoid risks is to create specific legislation. The legal system guiding safe navigation of cruise ships in/around Greenlandic waters is complex: the legal regime for navigation is set in different general and specific international, regional and national legal acts, partly non-binding, therefore issues of effectiveness arise. Safety is also influenced by practical issues, e.g. the lack of sufficient nautical charts for Greenlandic waters and “preparedness” at land to handle potential disasters, such as the SAR-system and preparedness of different actors, for example hospitals.
EN
Officially, at the end of 2019, a correction of the Baltic Sea Location was published in the Sailing News, which at the same time informed about the change of the operator of the Polish GMDSS Responsibility Zone, excluding Witowo Radio so far and transferring the Polish Rescue Radio (SPL) service. Starting from 2020. PSL began operational service of GMDSS in Poland. This article is the first presentation of the experience from the implementation of this project “Construction of maritime communication system in danger, GMDSS-PL”. mainly focusing on the OpenEye_ GMDSS operating system. In addition to the technological layer of the project, the procedural and organizational part of the GMDSS service has been equally important. The maritime emergency response system can be compared to the operation of 112 on land. The operation and efficiency of this system directly translates into human health and life as well as the quality of the marine environment around us. The technical means provide a high quality and certainty of business continuity. Communication in danger is one of the basic and most important tasks of the Polish maritime service. At this point, all operators and GMDSS services in the Maritime Office in Gdynia and Szczecin deserve praise.
EN
People responsible for crisis management, especially in coastal voivodships (Pomeranian, West Pomeranian and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship) must be aware and prepared to take effective action in the event of emergencies in maritime waters. The geographical, hydro meteorological conditions and geographical conditions of the Baltic Sea of the Baltic Sea and the increasing intensity of Baltic shipping, and in particular the increase in oil transport, mean that the likelihood of maritime accidents that can generate crises in sea areas increases significantly. There are about 2000 ships in the Baltic marine area at any given moment and about 3500 - 5500 ships navigate through the Baltic Sea per month. Approximately 20% of the ships in the Baltic Sea are tankers. Despite different uncertainties some trends in the Baltic shipping can be expected. For example ship traffic is likely to increase yearly and it is expected that vessel size will increase because the maritime transport must be more efficient and cost-saving. Such trends create serious threats for Baltic States. The maritime administrations of the Baltic States and international maritime organizations undertake a number of actions to increase maritime safety in the Baltic Sea. The publication characterizes Baltic shipping and analyzes the scale of threats generated by maritime accidents, as well as ways of responding and minimizing the probability of emergencies in the Baltic Sea. Activities including: legislative and organizational activity were also characterized; practical use of modern technology both on vessels and in land navigation monitoring systems; marine traffic engineering and shipbuilding, which aim is to minimize the likelihood of maritime accidents in the Baltic Sea and analyses of Baltic states capacity to oil spill response. In addition, the publication proposes a definition of a crisis situation in relation to sea areas and presents when a maritime accident or incident can generate a crisis situation in sea areas. The result of the research process is proposals for actions that, in the author's opinion, should be taken to reduce the number of maritime accidents in the Baltic Sea.
EN
While a system-theoretic approach to the safety analysis of innovative socio-technical systems gains a growing acceptance among academia, safety issues of Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASS) remain largely unexplored. Therefore, we applied a System-Theoretic Process Analysis to develop and analyze a preliminary model of the unmanned shipping system in order to elaborate safety recommendations for future developers of the actual system. Results indicate that certain advancements shall be undertaken in relation to MASS’ software solutions in particular.
EN
Safety, along with the issue of security, is the most substantial and critical issue to any society and nation of the mankind. The fact that human elements contribute dominantly, in particular, to the transportation – marine, air and road traffic – accidents requires not only the technical approaches, but also cultural configuration inherent to the accidents. This paper tries to incorporate Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture to identify possible interaction with accidents. It will be of help to figure out the need to consider the aspect of national culture to be efficient in dealing with policies for safer communities and nations.
7
Content available How to improve safety on the offshore installations
EN
Reviving is noticeable in the field of oil and gas production located under the seabed. The off-shore projects are being implemented. Due to this, the risk of accidents at each stage of production should be considered continually. The offshore market, both oil and gas as well as renewable energy, is estimated to increase steadily in the coming years. Therefore, the operations on the production oil field must be suitably protected at every stage of performing work. The paper describes how important Job Safety Analyses are for proper operations. The main aim of the article is to indicate steps and the best way of performing JSA on board of the offshore installation to reduce the risk of emergency. The selected disasters and major accidents indicate that the conducted activity is exposed to the risk of hazards to the natural environment and to people at every stage of the reservoir exploitation. The authors use the analysis of available international reports, the experience gained while working on different types of the offshore vessels and installations as well as in the Polish offshore company.
EN
One of the primary factors that affect the safe maritime navigation is the insufficient experience and skill of an apprentice officer, which may be improved using simulation-based training by ensuring operational efficiency. This study aims to determine appropriate factors for achieving effective and intensive simulation-based training of apprentice officers and present the guidelines for such a training scheme. Initially, a marine traffic risk model, which interprets and accurately measures the risk of collision with other vessels, is analyzed to derive the most influential factors in safe navigation. Subsequently, simulation experiments are conducted by applying machine learning to verify the required safe navigation factors for effectively training the apprentice officers. As a result of the above analysis, it was confirmed that the factor affecting safe maritime navigation was the distance from other vessels. Finally, the differences between these distances in the simulations are analyzed for both the apprentice officers and the experienced officers, and the guidelines corresponding to both these cases are presented. This study has the limitation because of the difference between the ship maneuver simulation and the actual ship navigation. This can be resolved based on the results of this study, in combination with the actual navigation data.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy potencjału instytucjonalnego i prawnego, którym dysponuje Unia Europejska w zakresie budowania bezpieczeństwa morskiego. Autorka poddała analizie dotychczasowe osiągnięcia UE w tym obszarze, stawiając pytania: w jaki sposób i za pomocą jakich narzędzi prawnych i instytucjonalnych UE stara się wpływać na proces kształtowania bezpieczeństwa morskiego, zarówno w wymiarze regionalnym, jak również globalnym?
EN
The article is related with the institutional and legal potential which the European Union has in the field of building maritime safety. The author analyzed the EU's achievements to date in this area, asking the questions: how and with what legal and institutional tools does the EU try to influence the process of shaping maritime security, both on its territory and globally?
PL
Przedstawiono koncepcje i podstawowe funkcje Światowego morskiego systemu łączności alarmowej i bezpieczeństwa (GMDSS). Omówiono zmiany systemu od momentu jego powstawania z zakresie technicznym oraz wybranych aspektów regulacyjnych. Przedstawiono również perspektywy rozwoju systemu GMDSS.
EN
The general concept and main functions of Global Maritime Distress and Safety System (GMDSS) have been presented. The modification of the system since it’s implementation in technical and selected regulatory aspects. have been described. The future of the GMDSS system have been presented as well.
EN
This paper presents the consequences resulting from the guidelines on the display of navigation-related information elaborated by the IMO, related to ECDIS, as part of S-Mode proposal in the implementation process of e-Navigation concept. The idea to develop standard icons to control the chart display functions in ECDIS is discussed. The use of these icons will ensure that navigation information presented on ECDIS screen will be displayed in a harmonized manner on the ships’ navigational bridge. Today many function-related icons vary across different electronic chart systems and between producers. The paper provides information on icons, symbols and abbreviations that required standardization. It was necessary to develop standard icons whose consistency will allow easy and intuitive use of user interfaces of different navigation systems.
EN
Navigational charts are a basic source of information for seafarers. But how accurate and reliable are they? How much trust and confidence can be put in them? Unfortunately, the answer is not so simple; it is far more complicated than merely saying that one chart is accurate and reliable while another is not. However, any seafarer navigating in unfamiliar waters should have the necessary skills. It is a great challenge – some may say an impossibility – to keep the thousands of navigational charts up to date. But exactly how out of date, how inaccurate, are the chart data? Chart users will have a better idea now that the Hydrographic Office is gradually implementing a new chart feature called the Zone of Confidence (ZOC) box which replaces the Source Diagram that is currently in use on large-scale charts. Source Diagrams, and now the improved ZOCs, assist seafarers in assessing hydrographic survey data and the associated levels of risk of navigating in a particular area. According to the new edition of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) specifications, S-4 navigational charts will provide more information on ZOCs. The current paper discusses these new regulations.
EN
Navigational charts are essential tools for marine navigation. But how accurate are the navigational charts that we use when going sailing? Do we really know how much faith can be placed in them? All charts, whether paper or electronic, contain data, which varies in quality due to the age and accuracy of individual surveys. In general, remote areas away from shipping routes tend to be less well surveyed, and less frequently, while areas of high commercial traffic are re-surveyed frequently to very high levels of accuracy, particularly where under-keel clearances are small. It is quite accurate to consider a chart as a jigsaw of individual surveys pieced together to form a single image. Having the necessary skills to determine how much confidence should be placed in the surveys, which combine to form a chart, should be a requirement for any sailor venturing into unfamiliar waters. When the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) developed the S-57 standard for Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs), this problem was recognized and it was decided that the quality of survey data used to compile ENCs had to be encoded within a composite data quality indicator ‘Category of Zone of Confidence’ (CATZOC) to assist seafarers in assessing hydrographic survey data and the associated level of risk of navigating in a particular area. According to IHO S-67, the accuracy of Electronic Navigational Charts is not impressive and leaves much to be desired. The author discusses these apparent shortcomings of ENCs and present erroneous approaches to this problem, so common in the seafaring community.
EN
In this paper radio link system solutions operating in 300 MHz—3000 MHz range and sea environment were described. Solutions with more than one frequency and wave propagation models for horizontal not more than 50 km and far range were described. In the paper the results of actions taken design and construction solutions adopted were presented, aimed to contribute to ensure the reliability of the system, among other things, by implementing mechanisms for collecting and processing information. This solutions allow resources management to automatically adjust the transmission parameters configuration to the bitrate and range requirements. Available configurations can be extended with active part and electronic beam steering with one or more beams. The paper describes antenna systems ability of transmission parameters adaptation to get the range required.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rozwiązania systemowe mobilnych łączy radiowych pracujących w zakresie częstotliwości 300 MHz—3000 MHz w środowisku morskim. Zaprezentowano rozwiązania dla wybranych częstotliwości z uwzględnieniem modeli propagacyjnych sygnałów dla zasięgów horyzontalnych do 50 km oraz dalekich. Przedstawiono szereg działań projektowych oraz przyjętych rozwiązań konstrukcyjnych zapewniających niezawodność systemu, między innymi mechanizm zbierania i przetwarzania informacji. Rozwiązania te pozwalają na zarządzanie zasobami w sposób automatyczny oraz w pewnym zakresie autonomiczny, dostosowując konfigurację parametrów transmisyjnych do aktualnych wymagań na przepływność i zasięg. Konfiguracje mogą zostać rozszerzone między innymi o część aktywną oraz sterowanie jedną lub kilkoma wiązkami.
EN
Security mechanisms of a telematics system are exceedingly intersecting as they could pretend the ordinary influence of the vehicle and perhaps terminate in accidents. This paper includes a new look at automotive and telematics transportation systems, also refers to methods in modelling, facility location, data processing and assessment of risk in telematics networks.
EN
The paper describes new directions in which the safety of navigation in Pomeranian Bay (Poland) became into a new era since the LNG Terminal in port of Świnoujście begun to attend to a large gas tankers at around 320 meters length, 50 meters breadth, and draught of 12.5 meters. For the safety of naviga-tion in Pomeranian Bay, the Maritime Administration has modified the traffic regulations, directing the ship's traffic to the zones outside the main approaching channel. For some of the ships navigating in to Świnoujście the new regulations mean the necessity of passing the shallow waters, with all consequences of that. The most important effect, being predominating in shallow waters, it is the squat effect. This effect is causing the ship's speed reduction and the increase of fuel consumption. It is very difficult to select the influence of the squat effect from others, like weather conditions, waves high and direction, and sea keeping qualities for ships of different type. This paper is giving the contribution to deep analysis of the above, and is presenting the test results done for passenger/cargo Ferries, travelling as per regular service to the port of Świnoujście: M/F "Gryf" and M/F "Wolin".
17
Content available Situation Awareness for Navigation Safety Control
EN
Situation awareness is the key element of the decision-making process. In navigation safety domain, monitoring, control, assessment of dangerous situations, support of operators of decision-making support system should be implemented in real time. In this paper we present the problem of situation awareness applied to navigation safety control. The paper considers existing models of situation awareness and ontology-based approach for maritime situation awareness. We introduce the situation concept using infons. Finally, we give an example how use these methods for design and creation of decision-support system for navigation safety control.
EN
Ship navigation safety in restricted water areas is of great concern to crew members, because ships sailing in close proximity to banks are significantly affected by the so-called ship-bank interaction. The purpose of this paper is to apply the optimal control theory to help helmsmen adjust ships’ course and maintain the target course in restricted waters. To achieve this objective, the motion of a very large crude carrier (VLCC) close to a bank is modeled with the linear equations of manoeuvring and the influence of bank effect on the ship hydrodynamic force is considered in the model. State-space framework is cast in a Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) system, where the offset-free model predictive control (MPC) is designed for course following and the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) is used for course keeping. Simulation results show that the control methods effectively work in ship course following and course keeping with varying ship-bank distances and water depths. The advantage of adopting speed variation as the second control input is obvious.
EN
Since ship-bank interaction affects the manoeuvrability of a ship navigating close to a bank, the determination of hydrodynamic derivatives is of great importance to assess the ship manoeuvrability. To obtain the hydrodynamic derivatives of the KVLCC2 model ship with different water depths and ship-bank distances, the simulation of PMM tests are carried out using an unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) based solver. Hybrid dynamic mesh technique is proposed to realize the simulation of pure yaw tests in confined water. Studies on the grid convergence and time-step-size convergence are firstly performed. Hydrodynamic derivatives for the ship in different water depths and ship-bank distances are compared. The course stability is investigated based on time-domain simulations and eigenvalue analysis, and the results show that the ship-bank interaction and shallow water effect have a remarkable influence on the course stability.
EN
This study was determined the evaluation of the safety, security, and protection of the navigational trip in terms of safety among marine engineering students as an entire group and when they were classified according to section such as Polaris 3-A, Polaris 3-B, and Polaris 3-C. Respondents of the study were the one hundred twenty (120) Polaris marine engineering students who are currently enrolled in the College of Maritime Education of JBLFMU-Molo for School Year 2017-2018 who were on board or have undertaken the navigational trip and have observed some of the safety and security services on board. The researchers employed quantitative-qualitative research design by Creswell (2013) to determine the navigational trip and observations of the safety and security services on board. Results revealed that the respondents had “excellent evaluation” about the safety, protection, and security of the navigational trip vessel. There were no significant differences in the evaluation of the respondents as to the different sections; no relationships were observed when the respondents’ evaluation results were compared according to sections. The observations and comments cited in this study signify that the navigational trip vessel exhibited safety and security, maintain clean and safe environment, and followed the strict implementation of safety as prescribed by the international standards. The respondents’ comments attested that the navigational ship has implemented the international standard of safety and procedure on board.
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