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PL
W artykule zaprezentowano nowe sposoby i rozwiązania w diagnozowaniu funkcjonowania kotłów w instalacjach przemysłowych. Referował je Adam Ossera podczas specjalistycznego seminarium pn. "Szkolenie dla użytkowników i sympatyków technologii Valmet DNA" (PP 12/2019 s. 744-746). Skoncentrowano się na systemie diagnostycznym "Boiler Diagnostic Systems", który znacznie podnosi bezpieczeństwo użytkowania oraz zwiększa efektywność spalania paliwa w kotłach.
PL
W artykule w skróconej formie omówiono obecny stan techniki monitoringu maszyn wirujących. Pokazano rozwiązania stosowane w Instytucie Automatyki Systemów Energetycznych. Wykazano potrzebę opracowywania nowych rozwiązań systemowych. Przedstawiono założenia nowej koncepcji systemu monitoringu maszyn wirujących.
EN
Discussed is – in a shortened form – the present condition of rotating machines monitoring technology. Shown are solutions applied in the Instytut Automatyki Systemów Energetycznych. Proved is the need of constant elaboration of new systems' solutions. Presented are assumptions for a new concept of the rotating machines monitoring system.
EN
The article describes standard safety-protection layers according to EN 61511 standard. Their aim is to reduce risk, thus to decrease the frequency of occurrence of threatening incidents and/or consequences of such incidents. The aim of the article was to present currently developed means of increasing process safety, which are not included in the standards. There are described: advisory diagnostic systems, fault tolerant control systems, process simulators for operators training and IT systems supporting safety. Such components can be treated as additional layers of process protection. A simple example comparing the operation of alarm and diagnostic systems as well as the example of the fault tolerant control system of the level in the drum boiler in sugar factory are given.
EN
In the article, the problems of selected failures that may occur during operation of positive displacement compressors and possible reasons for their occurrence were described. It also included methods for checking performance and diagnostics, with particular emphasis on research using an electronic indicator. Possible mechanical damages of air compressors for various applications have also been characterized. Non-destructive diagnostic methods were described to detect and diagnose damage, taking into account their suitability and limitations in their application. In the further part of the article selected tests results of air compressor, specially adapted to simulation of failures were presented. The test stand has been equipped with sensors for measuring the pressure and temperature of the compressed gas and the sensor of the angular position of the compressor shaft, allowing examining the impact of damage on compressor working parameters. The result of the research was to compare the compressor indicator diagrams in the operational condition, with the simulated failure, and between different failures and to learn the changes of processes taking place inside the cylinder during the compressor’s work cycle. All the test results could be observed in real time, besides the diagnostic software, supporting the tests, made it possible to record measurements. In the described software, it is possible to compare the courses for different cases, to then make a comparative analysis of the results obtained in the state of functional and simulated disability.
PL
Wsród wymagań stawianych blokom energetycznym najważniejsze są wymagania techniczne, decydują bowiem o ich dyspozycyjności. Dla bloków klasy 200 MW, które w przyszłości jeszcze bardziej niż obecnie bedą stabilizować Krajowy System Elektroenergetyczny wysoka dyspozycyjność będzie najbardziej pożądaną cechą. Zapewnić ją może tylko wiedza z odpowiednio zorganizowanej i wykonywanej diagnostyki oraz kreowany na jej podstawie maintenance posiadający odpowiedni zakres i poziom przy akceptowalnych kosztach. W tym celu opracowano kompletny system diagnostyczny, który integruje prognozowanie trwałości i predykcję awarii, uwzględniając warunki eksploatacji ponad 30 bloków klasy 200 MW.
EN
On the present there is very intensively emphasized the environmental protection, which is also connected with reduction of emissions produced by the vehicles. The actual European emission standard EURO 6 will be replaced very soon with the new and even stricter standard EURO 7. There is a well-known fact that the new regulations are demanding with regard to the NOX emissions. However, there is at disposal a suitable technical solution, namely in the form of an innovative engine technology, which is called the HCCI. A principle of this technology consists in a self-ignition of the homogenous air-fuel mixture using the compression process. Combustion of the mixture is performed in the whole compression volume without a spark ignition, whereby the NOX emission level is almost negligible. However, this technology is also characterised by several serious problems, for example there is occurring a complication concerning control of the self-ignition phenomenon. The presented article introduces an original diagnostic system, which enables to control the whole self-ignition system and in this way to ensure a reliable operation of the HCCI engine. This system is patented now as well as it was tested in an experimental vehicle built for the international competition “shell eco marathon”.
EN
The paper is aimed at presenting a study of the main limitations and problems influencing the robustness of diagnostic algorithms used in diagnostics of complex chemical processes and to present the selected exemplary solutions of how to increase it. The five major problems were identified in the study. They are associated with: uncertainties of fault detection and reasoning, changes of the diagnosed process structure, delays of fault symptoms formation and multiple faults. A brief description and exemplary solutions allowing increase of the robustness of diagnostic algorithms were given. Proposed methods were selected keeping in mind applicability for the on-line monitoring and diagnostics of complex chemical processes.
EN
The article presents the results of research on the use of an axial flux in the diagnostics of induction motor stator winding fed by a frequency converter. Voltage signal waveforms proportional to the axial flux were recorded during motor operation under various conditions and were analyzed with regard to the detection of stator winding short circuits. The taps of the selected coil turns of stator phases were introduced into the tested motor, which allowed to physical modelling inter-turn short circuits. The structure and operation of the computer system used to monitor the state of induction motor windings were discussed. The developed diagnostic system was made in the National Instruments LabVIEW environment. The analysis of faults of the axial flux was made in the detection of induction motor stator winding. The results of experimental research conducted using the developed diagnostic system have also been presented.
EN
The transport safety is a property of the transport process (movement of individuals and/or goods), characterized by absence of danger to life and health of individuals [1,2,10]. This process should represent a high reliability and safety. The measure of safety is certainty that components of the transport process will remain intact during operation, except for natural changes due to ageing and wear. To ensure a sufficient safety level, it is vital to employ the electronic transport systems which aim is to increase the safety of transferred individuals and goods. The electronic transport systems are designed to detect the threats that occur during the transport process (for both stationary and moving objects). This article presents influence of the electromagnetic interferences within vast railway area on the electronic transport systems with one transmission bus. These electromagnetic interferences are able to completely compromise the electronic system, induce the voltage in the transmission buses or in other components of the system and trigger the alarm (higher probability of false alarm). While operating the transport safety system, full spectrum of electromagnetic interferences should be taken into account. Due to complex behavior of the electromagnetic waves during penetration (propagation), influence of the electromagnetic interferences requires separate analyzes for different frequency bands.
EN
The following paper presents the problem of classification (identification) elements in the internal structure of a technical object. This problem is directly linked with diagnostics and compilation of an expert data base. The basis of a process of grouping elements into classes is to make a diagnostic model of a given object in a form of a structure or set of basic elements of an object. In order to conduct the grouping of elements into subsets of s-th classes, the following paper compiles and presents analytical formulas and classification rules. Theoretical considerations presented in this paper are also verified using an engine control system as an example of a complex technical object.
EN
Article presents theoretical, simulation and experimental analyses of possible effect of short-circuit forces on the transformer windings. The first part of the article is focused to the establishment and activity radial and axial forces during short circuit. It shows dimensions, direction and of course caused mechanical stress. Equation shows basic dependencies of these mechanical forces created in the transformer windings. The last part of the article is focused on the simulation method which shows the mechanical stress caused by the short-circuit currents on transformer. The paper presents experimental methods of diagnostics for analysis of the short circuit on transformer windings.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia teoretyczną, symulacyjną i doświadczalną analizę ewentualnych wpływów prądów zwarciowych na uzwojenia transformatorów. Pierwsza część artykułu koncentruje się na powstaniu i działaniu promieniowych i osiowych sił podczas zwarcia. Przedstawia rozmiary, kierunek i oczywiście powstałe naprężenia mechaniczne. Równanie pokazuje podstawowe zależności sił mechanicznych powstałych w uzwojeniach transformatora. Ostatnia część pracy dotyczy metody symulacji, która przedstawia naprężenia mechaniczne spowodowane przez prądy zwarciowe na transformatorze. Artykuł przedstawia eksperymentalne metody diagnostyki do analizy wpływu zwarcia na uzwojenia transformatora.
PL
W ramach międzynarodowego projektu FAIR, którego uczestnikiem jest również Polska, budowany jest obecnie w Darmstad (Niemcy) akcelerator kołowy. Będzie on służyć do rozpędzania ciężkich jonów do prędkości bliskich prędkości światła. Akcelerator ten będzie zbudowany z magnesów nadprzewodzących co pozwoli m.in. na minimalizację strat energii elektrycznej. Utrzymanie magnesów akceleratora w stanie nadprzewodnictwa wymaga kontroli kluczowych jego parametrów zarówno przed pierwszym uruchomieniem jak i w trakcie eksploatacji. Na Wydziale Elektrotechniki i Automatyki Politechniki Gdańskiej opracowywany jest obecnie system pomiarowo-diagnostyczny, który ma służyć do testowania stanu obwodów elektrycznych magnesów nadprzewodzących. W artykule przedstawiono wymagania stawiane przed systemem pomiarowym oraz koncepcję działania podsystemów do kontroli stanu izolacji oraz poprawności połączeń magnesów. Omówiono także wnioski wypływające z badań elementów systemu pomiarowego.
EN
Poland is a member of international project FAIR. The purpose of this project is construction of a circular accelerator of heavy ions in Darmstadt (Germany). The main part of the accelerator are superconducting magnets. Maintaining superconducting magnets capable of superconductivity requires precise control of the parameters before the first run and during their operation. For this purpose, the research team at the Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering of Gdansk University of Technology conducts research on specialized diagnostic and measurement system for testing electrical circuits of superconducting magnets in the project FAIR. This paper presents the requirements for diagnostic system and concept of hardware for subsystems testing the resistance insulation and cerrectness of electrical circuit of superconducting magnet. It also presents the conclusions from experimental research of essential system components.
PL
Rozwój układów i elementów elektronicznych we współczesnych pojazdach oraz złożoność poszczególnych jego podzespołów sprawia, że naprawa współczesnych samochodów bez użycia zewnętrznego systemu diagnostycznego jest praktycznie niemożliwa. Coraz to więcej elementów konstrukcji pojazdów do tej pory czysto mechanicznych zastąpionych zostaje przez podzespoły mechatroniczne, a więc wyposażone w dodatkowe elementy i czujniki elektryczne. Rozwiązania te w znacznym stopniu przyczyniają się do zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa i komfortu poruszających się po drodze [8]. Rozwój mikroelektroniki w dużym stopniu przyczynił się również do zwiększenia mocy jednostek napędowych oraz poprawy emisji substancji szkodliwych do środowiska naturalnego. Oczywiście należy tutaj wspomnieć, a nawet szczególnie zaznaczyć, że wszystkie dodatkowe systemy stosowane we współczesnych pojazdach nie potrafią oszukać praw fizyki i zapewniają poprawę wskaźników bezpieczeństwa jedynie w pewnych granicach.
EN
This paper presents a wireless on-board diagnostics system for a vehicle that measures and records the selected parameters of the internal combustion engine and the acceleration of the body. The measurements are sent to a computer on-line, using the 868MHz frequency band. Uploaded information can be stored on disk and visualized using a special application running on a PC.
EN
The paper presents semi-Markov models of technical state transitions for diesel engines, useful for determination of their reliability, as a result of the conducted statistical empirical studies. Interpretation of technical states provided for this sort of engines refers to ship main engines, i.e. engines employed in propulsion systems of sea-going ships. The considerations recognize diesel engine as a diagnosed system (SDN), of which state can be identified by a diagnosing system (SDG). Both of the systems: SDN and SDG compose a diagnostic system (SD). Examples of three-state semi-Markov models were applied to demonstrate that in case of use of proper diagnosing systems (SDG) for identification of technical states of such engines as SDN, by classification of the states to the relevant class of the reference states, it is possible to make use of a Markov model to determine reliability of the engines. For developing a Markov model of state transitions for the engines, there were applied functions of the risk of damage: λ12 that causes transition from state s1 to state s2, and λ13 that causes transition from state s1 to state s3, as well as intensity functions of recovery (restitution): λ21 that causes transition from state s2 to state s1, and λ31 that causes transition from state s3 to state s1.
15
EN
This article analyzes the mobile medical diagnostic systems and compare them with the proposed HealthTracker system based on smart watch Apple Watch. Before the development of the system HealthTracker, there was conducted a review and analysis of existing similar systems to identify common and distinctive features of the future system. This analysis will improve HealthTracker system, based on the strengths and weaknesses of existing systems and help identify and justify the key benefits and unique system HealthTracker. The main goal is to provide a system HealthTracker convenient way to interact with the patient the doctor based on the vital signs of the patient. Apple Watch is an excellent watch presented in 2014 that has the capacity to collect and compile data on the health of the user and can be used for medical purposes. The main hardware components of the watch for collecting and analyzing health data is a technology Taptic Engine, infrared sensors and pulse. The main software components of the watch, that will be used in the design of the system is the 3 applications, each of which measures a user's vital signs. Integration with smartphone user makes data on the health of a quick and reliable. On the market today there are analogues of the system, but most of the systems are relatively new and require many improvements, some are under development prototypes. In addition, all the above systems require binding to certain equipment that is not always convenient in everyday use. To eliminate all the inconvenience in using existing systems need to create a system that is integrated into smart watches that provide ease of use, and the mechanism storing and analyzing medical data to cloud storage. An important aspect of the study is to analyze the general situation in the market of mobile medical diagnostic systems. Thanks to research the key advantages and disadvantages of the proposed mobile medical analysis system and shows its versatility compared with existing systems on the market.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono budowę i działanie inteligentnego systemu do diagnostyki taśm oraz komputerowego spomagania zarządzania taśmami przenośnikowymi. Omówiono strukturę systemu oraz jego kluczowe elementy. System został zaprojektowany w taki sposób, aby mógł działać jako jedna całość, realizując wszystkie założone cele lub jako pakiet wybranych przez odbiorcę modułów. Większość modułów została już zrealizowana, obecnie trwają prace testowe oraz weryfikacje przyjętych założeń i modeli.
EN
The paper presents the design and operation of intelligent system for the damage detection, diagnosis and computeraided maintenance management system for conveyor belts using the Condition Based Maintenance approach. The system has been designed in such a way that it can operate as a single unit, realizing all the goals, or as a package of modules chosen by the customer. Most modules have already been completed, work is currently underway testing and verification of the assumptions and models.
17
Content available Industrial diagnostics system using gamma radiation
EN
During the operation of large industrial installations, a very important task is to maintain the proper technical state. In the event of an emergency, it is vital to locate the place of occurrence as soon as possible. In solving this type of problem, it often helps to apply the methods of measurement associated with ionizing radiation. One of these methods is the gamma scanning. The purpose of this type of measurement is the detection and localization of disturbance of technological processes which may result in incorrect decomposition the flowing medium and workpiece (sediments, congestion) as well as damage to the internal constructions. A particularly: (i) preventive diagnosis – early detection of installation failure; (ii) rationalization of repairs and renovations – to determine the need to take or not to take remedial action; (iii) quick and precise installation inspections – to gain knowledge of the technical condition and technological installations; (iv) indication of worn parts and posing a threat – diagnostics of the technical condition installation; (v) forecasting the useful lifetime of equipment.
18
Content available remote RSKID – system radiowego sterowania dla kombajnów chodnikowych typu KID-220MP
PL
Opisany został system diagnostyki i sterowania RSKID, przeznaczony dla kombajnu chodnikowego. System opracowany został w ramach zrealizowanej w Instytucie pracy „Opracowanie nowej funkcjonalności modułu interfejsu obsługi i wizualizacji systemu sterowania kombajnem”. System ten został zastosowany na kombajnie chodnikowym KID‑220MP w IPR Soligorsk. Przedstawiono strukturę systemu oraz opisano jego właściwości, ponadto przedstawiono krótkie charakterystyki poszczególnych urządzeń wchodzących w jego skład oraz realizowane przez nie funkcje.
EN
Described diagnostics and control system RSKID is designed for roadheader. The system was developed in the Institute as part of the project „Development of a new functionality of the operating and visualization interface control system combine”. System was used to KID 220MP roadheader in IPR Soligorsk. The article presents the structure of the system and describes its properties. Also provides a brief description of devices included in its composition and function.
PL
W artykule przedstawione zostały zagadnienia dotyczące budowy komputerowego systemu akwizycji sygnałów diagnostycznych oraz ich przetwarzaniu dla potrzeb diagnostyki silników indukcyjnych klatkowych. Na podstawie obserwacji sposobu pomiarów sygnałów diagnostycznych tradycyjnymi metodami oraz procedur oceny typowych uszkodzeń maszyn indukcyjnych dokonano wyboru sposobu przeprowadzania pomiarów oraz ustalono ilość sygnałów diagnostycznych. Wybrano sygnały pomiarowo dostępne prądów, napięć, drgań i hałasu, przy analizie których będzie można rozróżnić każdą zmianę stanu technicznego badanej maszyny. W dalszej części przedstawiony został projekt wielozadaniowego systemu akwizycji danych. Oprócz typowej akwizycji danych opracowany system umożliwia również przeprowadzanie oceny stanu silników indukcyjnych, dzięki wykorzystaniu oprogramowania LabVIEW i jego bogatej funkcjonalności. Działanie opracowanego systemu zostało przetestowane w oparciu o dostępny silnik indukcyjny, a zarejestrowane dane poddane zostały odpowiednim analizom diagnostycznym. Na kilku przykładach zobrazowano wyniki tych analiz realizowanych w opracowanym systemie.
EN
This paper presents issues related to acquisition of diagnostic data used in squirrel cage induction machine diagnosis. Basing on observation of traditional methods of diagnostic signals measurement and procedure of typical fault detection of induction machines, method of performing the measurement and number of diagnostic signals were set. Available signals such as current, voltage, vibration and noise were chosen for analysis which allows for distinguishing each variation of technical condition of examined machine. Next, project of multitask data acquisition system was prepared. Apart from typical data acquisition, designed system allows for condition assessment of induction machines due to application of LabVIEW. Operation of designed system was tested using available induction motor and collected data has undergone diagnostic analyses. Some example results of those analyses have been presented.
20
Content available remote Designing of the Diagnostic Systems Based on the Sets of Requirements
EN
The article deals with the problem of designing the project of the diagnostic systems. The main attention was paid to the fact, that the overall design process can be improved by using the set of requirements, that are commonly used during the implementation of the software projects. The two main stages of proposed approach i.e. gathering and evaluation of set of requirements are described in this article. These stages can be realized by using the specialized expert system. The elaborated expert system and the example of using the proposed design approach are also presented in this article.
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