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EN
The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of unmanned aerial vehicles as devices supporting the system of physical protection of critical infrastructure facilities using the example of a nuclear power plant. This paper contains information on the reasons for the construction of a nuclear power plant in the era of economic development of the Polish state. The legal requirements consisting of the analysis of the risk of terrorist threats for the facility was indicated. One of the sources of danger is unmanned aircraft or flying models increasingly used in the airspace. Furthermore, this paper presents legal rules and principles according to which missions of unmanned aerial vehicles or flying models are performed. The current regulations allow the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as devices supporting physical security systems at facilities. This study showed that although the use of unmanned aircraft for the purpose of increasing the security level of critical infrastructure facilities has some limitations, however, the possibilities arising from their usefulness are the decisive advantage of the need to implement drone technology in security.
EN
A region's economic development stability is directly linked to the level of services provided and the transport and communication infrastructure available to it. Airport security in the context of transport infrastructure development and the further development of regional logistics facilities is an important factor affecting both the public and private sectors. The causes and consequences investigation, which are the basic means for finding solutions in the safety area of the selected critical infrastructure subject was solved using the Ishikawa diagram. The search for causation based on the principle where each result has its own cause or combination of causes. We can use the 6M approach (staff, methods, machines, materials, measurement, and mother-nature), or 8M, which is supplemented by management and maintenance. In the process of elaborating this article, the consequences defined and the causes underlying the proposed solutions were examined in a successive way. This paper points out possible directions of development in the field of airport security within the context of the public logistics centre development. Obviously, there is no totally secure system and an increase in the level of security can be ensured by correlating all systems used to increase of the critical infrastructure elements resilience.
EN
In numerous definitions of energy security, an approach, which emphasises the importance of continuity of supply dominates. It takes into account the need for diversification and signals the necessity to protect the environment and keep energy costs under control. Noticeably, energy security is not only an issue of the state in strategic dimension, but it also embraces the management issues that can be comprehensively described through a classical, multi-level management approach using: strategic and operational levels. Furthermore, security in the dimension of needs is a response to threats. Therefore, the taxonomy of threats concerning the energy sector facilities may be useful in defining energy security in terms of management. This article is an attempt to define the features of energy security as a response to threats, within strategic, operational and tactical dimensions. The proposed herein approach aims to manage energy security in the scope of a diagnosis, an assessment, and taking action, as well as monitoring the current state.
4
Content available Port oil terminal reliability optimization
EN
A method for reliability optimization, which is relevant for critical infrastructure activity governed by operational processes, is presented and applied to a port oil terminal. The optimal values for the reliability and resilience indicators related to the operation, are determined for this critical type of infrastructure. Simple suggestions regarding optimized infrastructural operation strategies are formulated and implemented towards reorganizing the port oil terminal processes in order to maximize its lifetime in defined reliability states.
5
Content available Examination of the safety of a port oil terminal
EN
Modeling the safety of critical infrastructure free of outside impacts is presented, and basic safety indicators are defined. The safety of the port oil terminal critical infrastructure free of any outside impacts is examined based on critical infrastructure safety statistical data provided by the operators. Its safety function and other safety indicators are identified and predicted. Furthermore, the safety and resilience indicators for the critical infrastructure of the port oil terminal impacted by its operations are determined, and the results are compared to its indicators obtained without considering operation impacts
PL
W pracy poddano analizie metodologię określania przynależności do infrastruktury krytycznej. Wykaz sektorów określa ustawa o zarządzaniu kryzysowym. Krótko omówiono dwie awarie infrastruktury krytycznej. Podano kryteria kwalifikacji do infrastruktury krytycznej. Odniesiono się do elementów ochrony infrastruktury krytycznej. Na przykładzie systemu zbiorowego zaopatrzenia w wodę szczegółowo przedstawiono kryteria identyfikacyjne. Podsumowaniem rozważań naukowych jest określenie strategii zrównoważonego systemu wodociągowego
EN
In the article the methodology for determining the belonging to the critical infrastructure was analyzed. The list of sectors is determined by the regulation of crisis management. Two failures of critical infrastructure were briefly discussed. Qualification criteria for critical infrastructure were given. Reference was made to the elements of critical infrastructure protection.On the example of the collective water supply system, identification criteria was presented in detail. A summary of the scientific consideration is to identify strategies for sustainable water supply system.
EN
In connection with the entry into force of the Anti-terrorism Act, administrators of many production facilities are required to prepare a number of anti-terrorism procedures called anti-terrorist/AT attachment (Security plan related to facilities and equipment subject to mandatory protection in respect of terrorist threats). The article is a case study of the AT attachment implementation in several production plants belonging to one enterprise. It characterizes the strategy adopted in this company and the solutions developed in 2017-2019 in several production plants. The purpose of the article is to show why the implementation of this procedure is a challenge for the company.
8
Content available remote Critical infrastructure in the shaping of national security
EN
Objectives: Critical infrastructure plays a key role in ensuring national security of a state, due to important functions thereof in military, economic, and public administration sectors. The destruction, damage, failure or other deprivation of critical infrastructure of its operational capabilities constitutes a direct threat to the structural and personal security of the state. Methods: The research methods and techniques implemented in the research process itself primarily hinge on critical analysis of acts of law and organisational and competence-related documents, subject-matter literature, synthesis and inference in order to reach the formulated objectives based on efficiency criteria. Results: The main findings indicate that critical infrastructure is perceived as a set of systems which exerts a substantial impact on the security of the state and, obviously its residents. The results advocate for a reflection that critical infrastructure embraces a number of facilities which appear to be remarkably diverse. They are buildings, structures, installations, equipment and services which, integrally, form cohesive systems which allow proper functioning of a given state. It is the state whose role is just to supervise and coordinate whereas the operators of critical infrastructure are the ones who are to protect it. Conclusions: The overall findings of this paper present the notion that safeguarding critical infrastructure is a task of crucial importance to national security of a state and, therefore, it would be worth reconsidering the intensification of rules which apply to the infrastructure of the national security and its efficient functioning.
EN
Our national security, economic prosperity and national welfare depend on a set of highly interdependent elements of critical infrastructure. Examples of critical infrastructure facilities include the national electricity grid, oil and gas systems, telecommunication and information networks, transportation networks, water systems and banking and financial systems. Given their importance, it is crucial to maintain the reliability of critical infrastructure facilities, especially power plants, both in times of peace and also in times of crisis or under conditions of attack. For this purpose, on the one hand, it is possible to improve and create new technical solutions supporting the restoration of the proper functioning of critical infrastructure facilities, such as remotely controlled mobile robots for example. On the other hand, it is important to prepare employees to operate in unusual conditions by organising appropriate training. In both cases, it can be useful to apply virtual reality techniques.
PL
Nasze bezpieczeństwo narodowe, dobrobyt gospodarczy i dobrobyt narodowy zależą od zestawu wysoce zależnych od siebie infrastruktur krytycznych. Przykładem obiektów infrastruktury krytycznej jest krajowa sieć elektryczną, systemy naftowe i gazowe, sieci telekomunikacyjne i informacyjne, sieci transportowe, systemy wodne oraz systemy bankowe i finansowe. Biorąc pod uwagę ich znaczenie kluczowe jest zachowanie niezawodności obiektów infrastruktury krytycznej, zwłaszcza elektrowni, również w warunkach kryzysowych lub ataku. W tym celu z jednej strony mogą być udoskonalane i tworzone nowe rozwiązania techniczne wspomagające przywrócenie prawidłowego funkcjonowania obiektów infrastruktury krytycznej, takie jak np. zdalnie sterowane roboty mobilne. Z drugiej ważne jest aby przygotować pracowników do działania w nietypowych warunkach organizując odpowiednie szkolenia. W obu przypadkach przydatne może okazać się zastosowanie technik rzeczywistości wirtualnej.
EN
The paper focuses on a critical infrastructure reliability and resilience to its operation process and particularly is devoted to critical infrastructure reliability and resilience indicators. First, the model of critical infrastructure reliability without considering outside impacts is proposed and applied to determine the port oil terminal reliability indicators. In the next step, the operation impact model of critical infrastructure reliability is created and applied to reliability and resilience analysis of the port oil terminal. The comparison of the port oil terminal critical infrastructure reliability indicators without considering outside impacts with indicators considering impact of its operation process is performed. A significant influence of the operation process on the port oil terminal reliability is proved.
PL
Artykuł koncentruje się na niezawodności i odporności infrastruktury krytycznej w procesie eksploatacji, proponując wskaźniki niezawodności i odporności tej infrastruktury. Najpierw zaproponowano model niezawodności infrastruktury krytycznej bez uwzględnienia oddziaływań zewnętrznych oraz zastosowano go do wyznaczenia wskaźników niezawodności portowej bazy paliw. Następnie utworzono model wpływu eksploatacji oraz zastosowano go do analizy niezawodności i odporności portowego terminala transportu paliwa. Porównano wskaźniki niezawodności infrastruktury krytycznej terminala bez uwzględnienia wpływów zewnętrznych ze wskaźnikami uwzględniającymi wpływ jej procesu eksploatacji. Wykazano istotny wpływ procesu eksploatacji na niezawodność portowego terminala transportu paliwa.
PL
Artykuł ma na celu przedstawienie zarysu najbardziej charakterystycznych cech problemu wzrostu roli i przewagi cyberbezpieczeństwa jako kluczowego elementu funkcjonowania infrastruktury krytycznej i możliwości jego rozwiązania. Z uwagi na fakt, że ze wszystkich systemów obejmujących infrastrukturę krytyczną najważniejszy dla właściwego funkcjonowania gospodarki i społeczeństwa jest system zaopatrzenia w energię, surowce energetyczne i paliwa, w artykule poddano analizie przeszły, teraźniejszy oraz przyszły stan zagrożeń i ewolucji narzędzi do ich zwalczania. Szczególny nacisk położono na charakterystykę tych zagrożeń, w tym przede wszystkim cyberataków, jak również najefektywniejsze sposoby ich zwalczania. Artykuł wpisuje się w debatę o kluczowym wpływie cyberataków na infrastrukturę krytyczną, co ma bezpośredni wpływ na bezpieczeństwo narodowe.
EN
The article’s goal is to outline the most characteristic features of the problem of the growing role and predominance of cybersecurity as a key element in the functioning of critical infrastructure and the possibilities of the best solutions. Due to the fact that from all systems of critical infrastructure, the most important for the proper functioning of the economy and society is the system of energy and fuel supply. The article will analyze past, present and future threats and evolution of tools to combat them. Particular emphasis will be placed on the characteristics of these threats, especially cyberattacks, as well as the most effective ways of counter-actions. The article might be an element of the debate on the critical impact of cyberattacks on critical infrastructure, which has a direct impact on national security.
PL
Niniejszy artykuł przedstawia wnioski z przebiegu ćwiczeń współdziałania służb ratunkowych, policji, instytucji ochrony sanitarnej i przedsiębiorstw odpowiedzialnych za zaopatrzenie w wodę aglomeracji śląskiej w Polsce obejmującej około 3,5 mln mieszkańców. W październiku 2018 roku przeprowadzono eksperyment w formie ćwiczenia symulacyjnego pod kryptonimem Kryzys 2018. Obrazował on incydent ataku terrorystycznego na wodociągi miejskie mający na celu skażenie wody przeznaczonej do spożycia przez ludzi. Przeprowadzone według własnego scenariusza autorskiego ćwiczenie symulacyjne miało na celu sprawdzenie skuteczności procedur stosowanych w takich sytuacjach. Zaangażowano jednostki straży pożarnej, policji, służb sanitarnych, pracowników przedsiębiorstw wodociągowych oraz przedstawicieli administracji rządowej odpowiadającej za bezpieczeństwo publiczne. Symulacja dotyczyła ataku terrorystycznego polegającego na skażeniu wody poprzez zatłoczenie substancji szkodliwych bezpośrednio do wodociągu magistralnego. Stwierdzono, że stanowi to poważne zagrożenie, z uwagi na trudność wykrywania, szybkość i skutki oddziaływania. Dotychczas nie opisywano takiego rodzaju ataku terrorystycznego. Uzyskane wyniki motywują do przyjęcia nowych zaleceń i korekty stosowanych procedur. Stwierdzono, że reakcja służb ratunkowych może być spóźniona. Przeprowadzanie cyklicznych ćwiczeń obejmujących współdziałanie różnych instytucji, służb w obiektach w zakresie zarządzania kryzysowego pozwala na praktyczne sprawdzenie przyjętych procedur i przyczynia się do ich ciągłego doskonalenia. Przedstawiona w niniejszym artykule metodologia opisuje etap przygotowania i przeprowadzenia oraz spotkanie analizujące. Umożliwia to przeprowadzenie analogicznych symulacji w innych krajach. Wnioski z obserwacji współdziałania służb i instytucji w czasie wspólnych ćwiczeń posłużyć mogą doskonaleniu planów ochrony i procedur ratowniczych oraz poprawić przygotowanie przedsiębiorstwa wodociągowego na ewentualne zdarzenia o charakterze terrorystycznym.
EN
The article presents the conclusions from the excercise of rescue services, the police, the institutions responsible for sanitary security and companies responsible for providing water for the Silesia Region in Poland, inhabited by approximately 3.5 mln people. In October 2018, the simulation excercise code-named ‘Crisis 2018’ was carried out. It involved an incident of a terrorist attack aiming at infecting drinking water in the Municipal Water Works. The simulation excercise carried out on the basis of the proprietary script was meant to check the effectiveness of the procedures expected to be used in such situations. It was established that contamination of water by pouring hazardous substances directly into the main waterwork is a serious danger due to the difficulty in its detection, pace and its impact. The conclusions motivate to accept new recommendations and introduce modifications of the secure procedures for critical infrastructure. The monitoring system of an extensive critical infrastructure should be equipped with the remote notyfing system informing about a possible interference. The duty to notify the area owner/ administrator, the Sanitary Inspection and the City Council about the suspicion of water contamination in order to turn off the relevant parts of a pipeline should be introduced to the notifying instruction used on the command post. The conclusions drawn from the observation like this could also make the water company better prepared for possible terrorist attacks in the future.
EN
The elements of critical infrastructure have to meet demanding dependability, safety and security requirements. The article deals with the prognosis of water mains reliability while using sparse irregular filed data. The data are sparse because the only thing we know is the number of mains failures during a given month. Since it is possible to transform the data into a typical reliability measure (rate of failure occurrence – ROCOF), we can examine the course of this measure development in time. In order to model and predict the ROCOF development, we suggest novel single and multiple error state space models. The results can be used for i) optimizing mains operation and maintenance, ii) estimating life cycle cost, and iii) planning crisis management.
PL
Elementy infrastruktury krytycznej muszą spełniać wysokie wymagania w zakresie niezawodności, bezpieczeństwa i ochrony. Artykuł dotyczy prognozowania niezawodności sieci wodociągowej przy wykorzystaniu nieregularnie rejestrowanych rzadkich danych. Wykorzystane w pracy dane są rzadkie, ponieważ dostarczają jedynie informacji na temat liczby uszkodzeń wodociągu w danym miesiącu. Przekształcenie tych danych w typową miarę niezawodności (wskaźnik występowania uszkodzeń – ROCOF), pozwala zbadać przebieg rozwoju tej miary w czasie. Rozwój ROCOF można modelować i przewidywać za pomocą zaproponowanych w pracy innowacyjnych modeli przestrzeni stanów uwzględniających pojedynczy błąd lub wiele błędów. Uzyskane wyniki można wykorzystać do i) optymalizacji pracy i eksploatacji sieci wodociągowej, ii) szacowania kosztów cyklu życia, oraz iii) planowania zarządzania kryzysowego.
PL
W artykule opisano najnowsze zmiany w zabezpieczeniach Easergy MiCOM serii Px30. Dotyczą one elementów cyberbezpieczeństwa komunikacyjnego na bazie norm IEC 62443 i IEC 62351 oraz nowej funkcji w zakresie wyglądu panelu przedniego – HMI (Human Machine Interface), który także spełnia wymogi bezpiecznego dostępu do danych z poziomu lokalnego.
EN
The article describes the latest changes in the Easergy MiCOM Px30 protection series. These relate to the elements of cybersecurity on the basis of IEC 62443 and IEC 62351 standards and the new function of the front panel appearance - HMI (Human Machine Interface), which also meets the requirements of secure access to data from the local level.
PL
W artykule opisano najnowsze zmiany w zabezpieczeniach Easergy MiCOM serii Px30. Dotyczą one elementów cyberbezpieczeństwa komunikacyjnego na bazie norm IEC 62443 i IEC 62351 oraz nowej funkcji w zakresie wyglądu panelu przedniego - HMI (Human Machine Interface), który także spełnia wymogi bezpiecznego dostępu do danych z poziomu lokalnego.
EN
The article describes the latest changes in the Easergy MiCOM Px30 protection series. These relate to the elements of cybersecurity on the basis of IEC 62443 and IEC 62351 standards and the new function of the front panel appearance - HMI (Human Machine Interface), which also meets the requirements of secure access to data from the local level.
EN
Certain critical infrastructure networks show some interconnections, relations and interactions with other ones, most frequently when located and operating within particular areas. Failures arising within one critical infrastructure network, can then negatively impact not only on associated systems, societies and natural environment, but also on mutual critical infrastructure networks. Therefore, interdependent critical infrastructure networks can be determined as network of critical infrastructure networks (network of networks approach). The paper presents safety analysis of the network of critical infrastructure networks, taking into account interconnections, relations and interactions between particular ones. Critical infrastructures networks as multistate systems are considered, by distinguishing subsets of no-hazards safety states, and crisis situation states, and by analysing transitions between particular ones. Issues introduced in the article are based on the assumption that one key critical infrastructure network impacts on functioning of other critical infrastructure networks - can reduce their functionality and change level of their safety and inoperability, furthermore, other networks can impact each other, too. Safety characteristics of network of critical infrastructure networks: safety function, mean values and standard deviations of lifetimes in particular safety state subsets, are determined, taking into account interdependencies between particular networks. The results are related to various values of coefficients defining the significance of influence of interdependencies among networks.
EN
The probabilistic general model of critical infrastructure accident consequences including three models of the process of the initiating events generated by a critical infrastructure accident, the process of the environment threats and the process of environment degradation is created and adopted to the maritime transport critical infrastructure understood as a ship network operating at the sea waters and then applied to accident consequences modeling, identification and to these consequences optimization and mitigation.
EN
The critical infrastructure (CI) has an important place in Polish security system. The article discusses legal acts and characterises the notion of critical infrastructure as an element essential for the functioning of the society. As a result of the entry into force of the Anti-terrorism Act from 10 June 2016 (Journal of Laws [Dz. U.], item 904), the current procedure of security plan acceptance was extended to include participation of the Internal Security Agency through the requirement to submit a so-called anti-terrorist attachment. The article is an analysis of the constituent parts of the document and procedures it covers. Moreover, the authors present conclusions and recommendations resulting from the analysis of AT attachments of CI facilities and other facilities subject to mandatory protection. The empirical system of reference is based on facilities located in Silesia. The authors described their experiences related to the process of preparation and acceptance of AT attachments as well as conclusions based on employee trainings conducted in workplaces where anti-terrorism procedures are in force.
19
Content available remote Vulnerability analysis in critical infrastructures: a methodology
EN
Vulnerability assessment is a crucial aspect for the development of methodologies to define the levels of protection in critical infrastructures. Throughout this research, we discussed the concept of vulnerability and methodologies and processes for its assessment in critical infrastructures due to a terrorist threat. The research focused on the development of an analysis model, exploring a multi-criteria decision method, in order to limit the risks to the maximum extent possible.Through a qualitative research methodology, in which we applied an analysis model based on the Threat and Infrastructure dimensions and their respective factors, we verified that the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure consists in the probability of the success of an attack, conducted by a threat - properly identifi ed, characterised, analysed and categorised - against an infrastructure with certain characteristics, which value is defi ned by the user and aggressor’s point of view. The construction of an algorithmic model for vulnerability assessment, complemented by tools to support the calculations and records, allows, through a rational, scientific and algebraic process, a qualitative analysis of factors to be transformed into measurable and quantifi able values, whose algebraic operation integrates them into a final result that expresses, as a percentage, the degree of vulnerability of a critical infrastructure facing a terrorist threat.
EN
The work includes examination of emergency events in the methanol storage base. The article presents physical effects and hazards that may arise as a result of uncontrolled emission of methanol to the environment.
PL
Praca zawiera badania zdarzeń awaryjnych w bazie magazynowej metanolu. Opracowanie prezentuje efekty fizyczne oraz zagrożenia mogące powstać w wyniku niekontrolowanej emisji metanolu do otoczenia.
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