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EN
The Holy Cross Mts. and their vicinities is a unique area on the geological map of Europe since rocks of all Phanerozoic systems, including the Cambrian to Quaternary, are exposed there. The variable rock types provide great cognitive and educational opportunities, but also stimulate the exploitation of various types of minerals. On the one hand, mining activities contributed to the recognition and better exposure of rocks, but on the other hand, they often threaten the natural environment and become burdensome for the inhabitants. The study of the balance between environmental protection and human mining activity is carried out by environmental geology, which is an important part of the activity in the Holy Cross Mts. Branch of the Polish Geological Institute (PGI), where various tasks in this field have been carried out for over half a century. The care for protection and promotion of the geological heritage of the Holy Cross Mts has been an important task of geologists working in the Kielce Branch of the PGI throughout its over 80-year history. It is manifested in the legal protection of the most interesting geological areas and geosites, andthe promotion of geological knowledge in wide public opinion. The geological education in the Holy Cross Mts. plays a special role because the inanimate nature isavery valuable element of natural environment that distinguishes the Kielce region from other regions of Poland.
PL
Podstawowym zadaniem geologów jest poszukiwanie złóż surowców mineralnych. Ale w społeczeństwach rozwiniętych i demokratycznych podjęcie eksploatacji musi mieć akceptację społeczną. Trudno jest o to w sytuacji słabej znajomości roli surowców mineralnych w codziennym życiu całego społeczeństwa, jak i pojedynczych obywateli. Konieczne jest podjęcie edukacji w zakresie szeroko pojętych nauk geologicznych, jednakże ze szczególnym naciskiem na akceptację eksploatacji złóż surowców mineralnych. Edukacją powinny być objęte szerokie kręgi społeczne, ale szczególną uwagę należy poświecić dzieciom i młodzieży. Prezentowany artykuł zawiera również szkic komiksu edukacyjnego, gdyż jest to forma bardzo dobrze przyjmowana przez młodych odbiorców.
EN
The main task of geologists is to search for mineral deposits. However, in developed and democratic societies, exploitation must be accepted by the society. It is difficult to achieve it in the situation of poor knowledge of the role of minerals in daily life of the whole society and individual citizens. It is necessary to undertake education in the field of widely understood geological sciences, but with a particular emphasis on the acceptance of the exploitation of mineral deposits. Education should cover broad social circles, but special attention should be paid to children and young people. This paper also contains a sketch of the educational comic book, because it is a form very well received by the young audience.
PL
Kamieniołomy były od dawna bazą do prowadzenia badań geologicznych, doskonałym źródłem pozyskiwania skamieniałości, a obecnie są również ważnymi obiektami służącymi edukacji i popularyzacji wiedzy geologicznej. Niestety nieczynne kamieniołomy często ulegają dewastacji – zarastają roślinnością, stają się składowiskami odpadów, są zalewane przez wody gruntowe lub wyrównane dla potrzeb realizacji inwestycji budowlanych. Istniejące prawo teoretycznie umożliwia ochronę nieczynnych kamieniołomów, jednak w praktyce są one rzadko chronione. Winę za ten stan rzeczy ponosi nieodpowiednia interpretacja niektórych zapisów prawa, problemy z własnością gruntów oraz brak świadomości społeczeństwa o wartości tych obiektów. Ochrona ścian kamieniołomu może być realizowana poprzez zakładanie rezerwatów, jak również tworzenie parków rekreacyjnych z elementami edukacyjnymi. Przykładem jest kamieniołom Sadowa Góra w Jaworznie z powstałą w nim GEOsferą, czy też Lipówka w Rudnikach z przyrodniczymi ścieżkami edukacyjnymi. Spośród ponad stu starych kamieniołomów Wyżyny Częstochowskiej i Wieluńskiej wybrano te o szczególnej wartości, aby na ich przykładach omówić zagadnienia i problemy pojawiające się przy próbach ich zabezpieczania. Inicjatywa autorów na rzecz ochrony tych obiektów w wielu przypadkach zaowocowała zwróceniem uwagi na nie lokalnych władz, a w niektórych – podjęciem konkretnych działań na rzecz ich zabezpieczenia. Na drodze objęcia ich faktyczną, prawną ochroną piętrzą się jednak liczne przeszkody. Wydaje się, że bez zdecydowanego poparcia takich działań ze strony Ministerstwa Środowiska nie mają one realnych szans na sukces.
EN
Old quarries often present the only possible insight in the geological history of the area, being also the important objects of scientific value, and the attractions for the education and geoturism. These statements are especially true for Poland, where, except the high mountains, the bulk of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks is usually hidden below the cover of a younger, mostly Quarternary deposits. The best places where these rocks can be observed are just the quarries. The old quarries often have been the basis for the geological studies, the scientific interpretation of cropping out here rock formations – both of stratigraphical, sedimentological, tectonical and palaeontological nature, and yielded the collections of fossils – often new for the science. The existing law gives several opportunities for protection of the quarries, at least in theory, indicating e.g. the geological outcrops as possible types and places of reserve. Unfortunatelly, both in the formal practice, and in interpretation of the existing law, the old qurries are rarely protected as the monuments or reserves of the inanimate nature. Such situation results from the generally poor knowledge of geology, the wrong interpretation of existing law according to opinion that “old quarries as the product of the human activity are not true objects of the nature”, and a very complicated way to formal recognition of the abandoned quarry as the protected object according to the law. There exists of course another way than the formal one to protect the old abandoned quarries. They can be used as places of recreation – natural parks where the interdisciplinary and interactive education with special attention to geology could be realized, or other possible solutions given, making them places of rest, sport, or other purposes. All of these need, however, the understanding of importance of the abandoned quarries as the objects of the high tourist and recreation attraction, and thus places useful for the local administration, enterprises and population. A special example of well understood position of the old qurry for the educational, ecological, geological purposes presents the newly erected „Geosfera center” at Jaworzno. Here in the abandoned qurry of Middle Triassic limestones and dolomites a multi-directional educational and recreation object has been formed due to activity of the local admistration and the scientists of the Polish Geological Institute – National Research Institute (Woźniak, 2011; Woźniak & Krzeczyńska, 2010, 2013). Although some other , good examples may be also cited e.g. the old quarry Lipówka near Częstochowa transformed by its owner “Cemex” Enterprise into educational area – with special path devoted both to geology, and the living nature characteristics (Babelewska et al., 2014; Śliwińska-Wyrzychowska et al., 2014); or the Skarbka quarry at Bałtów where the private investor founded the “line-park” with educational path, such examples are not numerous; the advanteges in adaptation of the old quarries for the promotion and recreation of the area are generally not noticed. Of more than one hundred of the old quarries of the Jurassic rocks in only one region of Poland well known to the authors – the Wieluń Upland, and the adjoining part of the Częstochowa Upland – are presented herein only six the most important of them which are unfortunatelly neither formally protected, nor in any other way saved against the potential destruction. All these quarries show the geologically important rock formations, and/or yielded the fossils of Middle and Upper Jurassic well known in international scale. These are as follows: (1) an old quarry at Wieluń showing the transitional beds between the Middle and Upper Jurassic rich in fossils, and showing special sedimentological features of extermely slow sedimentation in the open marine environment (Giżejewska, 1981; Antczak et al., 2014); (2–3) old quarries at Bobrowniki and Łobodno discussed recently in geological literature as the place of the reference level of the newly redefinded the World’s boundary of the two stages of the Upper Jurassic: Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian (Matyja& Wierzbowski, 2014; Wierzbowski et al, 2016); (4) Złota Góra quarries (“Adam” quarry) at Zawodzie in Częstochowa where the bedded limestones with abundant Upper Jurassic ammonite faunas have been described from XIX century (Różycki, 1953) – these include some forms having here their locus tipicus, and widely cited thereafter in many geological studies in the World – such as the genus Passendorferia (Brochwicz-Lewiński, 1973, 1975); (5) old quarry “Amerykan” at Złoty Potok showing the well preserved debris-flow deposits formed during Late Jurassic on the sea-bottom from the slope of the sponge “reef ” complexes; (6) the “Janina” quarry at Julianka showing the Jurassic coral-reef – the only one cropped out in the whole Kraków-Częstochowa and Wieluń uplands, and preserved karst phenomena of Early Cretaceous age (Różycki, 1937; Matyja & Wierzbowski, 2006). The present authors undertook some activities to protect the mentioned objects – but the general difficulties of many reasons – resulted so far in informal statements only of the local administration authorities – that they will care about them. It is thus the main subject of the whole problem that in opposition to protection of the animate nature which is generally realized well, the protection of the inanimate nature, and especially of the old quarries, is realized in the way that may be summarized as “less than perfect”. It should be mentioned that in the whole area of the Wieluń Upland, and the northern part of the Częstochowa Upland – a very picturesque region owing its landscape of the Upper Jurassic rocks – no one of the old quarries is protected according to the existing law. The main question remains – how this unhappy sitauation can be improved? In opinion of the authors – the formal support in this matter from the Ministry of the Environment seems necessary. There is necessity to organize the meeting to discuss the problem within group of specialists and under auspicies of the Ministry. Possibly a special opinion accepted by the Ministry should be sent to its local exposures. On the other hand, the protection of old quarries of special geological value should be placed within the subjects of activity of the newly rearranged Polish Geological Survey, as well as strictly related Polish Geological Institute.
EN
The aim of the article is to show the present-day directions in land use planning of selected geosites in Chêciñskie Hills and their further development prospects. It pays special attention to the possibilities of development in post-mining areas for both educational and tourist needs. The author also suggests his own area division of the area, which reflects its future directions in land use planning and facilities development. The article describes three geosites: Zelejowa Mountain, Rzepka and Beylina and Miedzianka Mountain. It highlights their natural and cultural values and shows possibilities of land use planning in the context of geotourism and geological education in the area of Chęcińskie Hills.
PL
Nieczynny kamieniołom w Jaworznie stanowi doskonały przykład wykorzystania terenu poeksploatacyjnego. GEOsfera nie ma być w swoich założeniach typowym muzeum geologicznym, ogrodem botanicznym, czy też kolejnym „dinoparkiem" - ma za to szansę stać się w przyszłości jednym z nielicznych w Polsce punktów edukacyjnych, promującym nauki geologiczne i przyrodnicze, wychodząc przy tym dalece poza ramy teorii.
EN
The paper presents the selected example of reclamation and revitalization in historical surface mining on the Chęciny-Kielce area. The several examples of currently state of reclamation and revitalization of quarry connected with marble exploitation is being described. The current observations and research of post-mining areas of the Chęciny-Kielce area are showing that those area are not use in fully range in geological education and geotourism. A few resolutions of reclamation and revitalization of described area for didactic and recreation point was proposed. Reclamation of the terrains transformed by mining activity is understood as creating or restoring their utilitarian value through appropriate landscaping, improving the physical and chemical properties of soils, regulating waterways, restoration and construction of the necessary access roads. Open-pit mining of rock materials which continued over several hundred years in the Chęciny-Kielce area has provided numerous and varied remnants, mainly in the form of pits and post-mining dumps. Large accumulation of remnants of open-pit mining of rock materials, as well as active mines that will create such areas in the coming years, raises the question of the appropriate mode of their reclamation and development which are the key element of the strategy for sustainable development of the area. In this article the problem of reclamation was examined in relation to the liquidated mines that existed in the Chęciny-Kielce area before the 70s of the twentieth century and conducted their operations on a small scale. On the basis of field research and analysis of the available sources and databases, the reclamation modes and post-mining terrains management were analysed. Field studies included inventory and valorisation with photographic documentation of the selected mining areas in terms of their development for teaching purposes. Because of the unique mining heritage, documenting the development of the mining techniques used for extraction of decorative rock materials over several hundred years, the basic directions of the post-mining land use categories should include the natural mode (protection of the abiotic and biotic environment which constitute for new values in the environment transformed by man) and the teaching mode (educational stands and tracks, exposing the geological and mining heritage). Examples of educational and tourist reclamation and revitalization of the post-mining terrains carried out in the discussed area, such as development and provision of the old Devonian limestone quarries in Kielce, lead to the conclusion that this mode of reclamation and development has the greatest justification in terms of local sustainable socio-economic development.
PL
Kamieniołomy stanowią nieliczne miejsca, gdzie widoczne są interesujące odsłonięcia budowy geologicznej o wysokich walorach edukacyjnych. Nieczynne wyrobiska mogą być atrakcyjne również z punktu widzenia organizowania i promowania różnych form wypoczynku i rekreacji. Adaptacja kamieniołomów na cele wypoczynku i rekreacji powinna uwzględniać ich walory edukacyjne, gdyż daje to rzadką okazję do propagowania wiedzy geologicznej i promocji geoturystyki. Prawidłowe zapisy w miejscowych planach zagospodarowania przestrzennego dają szanse na poprawne zagospodarowanie kamieniołomów. W zasadach zabudowy i zagospodarowania terenu powinno się wskazywać na konieczność uwzględniania funkcji edukacyjnej.
EN
Quarries are the few places where interesting unveilings of the geologic structures of high education values are visible. Inactive quarries can be attractive as promotion and recreation forms. An adaptation of quarries for recreation aims should take their education values into account because it gives a rare opportunity for popularization geological knowledge as well as geotourism promotion. Correct entries in the local land use planning give a chance for proper development of quarries. The principles of construction and land development should include the educational function of quarries.
EN
GeoTrop (GeoTrail) is the name of education-geotourist information packages designed for display on outdoor billboards to be placed next to selected interesting geosites and/or to be distributed in the form of leaflets from local tourist information offices, visitor centers, libraries and schools. The packages are compiled to disseminate geological information in the society by explaining some selected geological issues characteristic and/or important for a given region, such as: processes shaping the Earth surface, mineral resources and the world of fossils and minerals and rocks. The major aim of the packages is to provide information on interesting geological places or areas in an attractive way. Therefore, they represent an important contribution to the development of geotourism and, at the same time, promotion of individual communes and regions. The packages are compiled by specialists of the PGI-NRI at the request of the local self-governments, tourist centers and other administrative organizations.
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