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EN
In this paper we consider a retained digits Cantor set T based on digit expansions with Gaussian integer base. Let F be the set all x such that the intersection of T with its translate by x is non-empty and let Fβ be the subset of F consisting of all x such that the dimension of the intersection of T with its translate by x is β times the dimension of T. We find conditions on the retained digits sets under which Fβ is dense in F for all 0 ≤ β ≤ 1. The main novelty in this paper is that multiplication the Gaussian integer base corresponds to an irrational (in fact transcendental) rotation in the complex plane.
PL
Standaryzacja procesów informacyjnych BIM jest istotnym elementem sukcesu wdrażania metodyki BIM poziomu dojrzałości 2 w projektach inwestycyjnych na całym świecie. W roku 2018 międzynarodowa organizacja standaryzacji ISO opublikowała długo oczekiwany międzynarodowy standard procesów informacyjnych BIM znany jako norma ISO 19650, a dokładniej dwie pierwsze normy z tej serii, czyli ISO 19650-1 i ISO 19650-2. Polski Komitet Normalizacji wydał je w styczniu oraz lutym 2019 roku jako PN-EN ISO 19650-1 i PN-EN ISO 19650-2, jednak bez tłumaczenia na język polski treści normy. Ponieważ aplikacja procesów BIM w krajowych projektach inwestycyjnych na podstawie anglojęzycznej wersji normy jest utrudniona przez jej hermetyczne słownictwo, łączące terminologię z obszaru prawa, techniki budowlanej, technologii informatycznych oraz metod zarządzania pochodzących z obcych systemów prawnych, uregulowań branżowych, a nawet zasad zwyczajowych dla środowisk zawodowych z obszaru budownictwa, głównie z Wielkiej Brytanii, niniejszy artykuł jest propozycją polskiego tłumaczenia terminologii normy ISO 19650 dostosowanego do realiów krajowych procesów inwestycyjnych. Celem tej propozycji jest z jednej strony wsparcie osób czynnie zaangażowanych w przygotowanie i realizację projektów BIM na krajowym rynku budowlanym, a z drugiej animowanie dyskusji nad wypracowaniem oraz ustabilizowaniem polskiej terminologii norm BIM z serii ISO 19650 i w konsekwencji przygotowanie wysokiej jakości tłumaczenia polskich wersji norm ISO 19650.
EN
Standardisation of BIM information processes is a significant element of successful implementation of BIM level 2 information management procedures all over the world. Back in 2018, the International Standardisation Organisation (ISO) has published a long awaited ISO 19650 BIM information standard, to be precise the two first standards of the ISO 19650 family, namely the ISO 19650-1 and ISO 19650-2. Polish Standardisation Committee (PKN) has published those two standards in January and February of 2019 as PN-EN ISO 19650-1 and PN-EN ISO 19650-2, but without translation to Polish of the standards’ content. Because implementation of the BIM information standards into the Polish domestic projects based on the English version of the standards faces severe obstacles due to hermetic terminology that includes terms from the area of foreign law, construction technic, information technology, project management and even professionally settled/agrees terminology, this paper focuses on bringing a proposal of establishing official Polish terms of the ISO 19650 standards by either translating or localising original English terms into the Polish language and/or construction market culture. The objectives of this paper are twofold: firstly, empower the Polish professionals active both in implementing BIM information management processes into the construction projects or delivering the actual solutions with a precise and profound understanding of the ISO norms principles and rules to leverage the BIM success ratio, secondly to animate an industry-wide discussion on the official Polish ISO 19650 terminology that will help to provide high quality translation of the ISO 19650 standards into Polish.
EN
Translators and interpreters need to rewrite or retell the essence of a message to be conveyed in a foreign language through cognitive grammar, implicatures, connotations and sometimes standardized phrases to bring out the full and true meaning in the translated work. The aim of this paper is to acquaint with the specificity of the translator's workshop, familiarization with the working framework for translations of implied meaning, theories of translation and elementary principles to be followed, so that, the reference meaning of the communicated content could impart pragmatic meaning. In view of the constraints of literal translation, special attention is given to linguistic aspects of pragmatics with regard to the conveyance of context sensitivity, precision, intentionality of the communicating sender, influence of the translator’s linguistic intuition and approach, and communicating receiver. Different approaches to translations and possible limitations are exemplified and explained with the use of Polish and English equivalents adopted from standard, maritime and legalese language.
EN
Theoretically, the task of translating from one language to another is still the same as it was only twenty or thirty years ago. In practice, however, the paths that translators take to achieve (more or less) the same results are changing all the time. This is because of changes in the media being worked in and with, as well as the increasingly powerful tools which are there for translators to use. These changes inevitably mean that the training which future translators receive has to be changed and adapted to reflect the changes in the way in which they will have to work, and even to reflect changes in the role of the translator.
5
Content available remote Universal Framework For OWL2 Ontology Transformations
EN
Domain ontologies are valuable knowledge assets with many potential applications, e.g. in software engineering. Their content is often a subject of bi-directional transformations. Unfortunately, a centralized transformation service which can be easily extended with new mappers is not available for ontology users. In consequence, they have to deal with many different translation programs, which have to be installed and learned separately. The paper presents a framework for universal ontology processing, dedicated to ontologies expressed in OWL2. The framework usefulness was verified by a proof-of-concept implementation, for which an existing OWL2 to Groovy translator was adapted. During the integration process, the translator functionality was enhanced with ontology individuals mapping. The exemplary implementation confirmed that the framework with plug-in architecture is flexible and easy for customization. The ontology stakeholders should benefit from the reduced cognitive load and more satisfying transformation process.
EN
We compare two SAT-based bounded model checking algorithms for the properties expressed in the existential fragment of a soft real-time computation tree logic (RTECTL) and in the existential fragment of computation tree logic (ECTL). To this end, we use the generic pipeline paradigm (GPP) and the train controller system (TC), the classic concurrency problems, which we formalise by means of a finite transition system. We consider several properties of the problems that can be expressed in both RTECTL and ECTL, and we present the performance evaluation of the mentioned bounded model checking methods by means of the running time and the memory used.
EN
Important basic transformations, implemented in CAD systems, are congruence transformations, so-called isometries, which preserve the distance of points. Logic of CAD software bases on the reflection, translation, rotation, and similarity. This fact is the important desideratum in the teaching of Descriptive Geometry. The paper includes a proposal for a teaching from the scope of isometries on the plane and in three-dimensional space.
PL
Ważnymi przekształceniami zaimplementowanymi w oprogramowaniu CAD, są izometrie, czyli przekształcenia zachowujące odległość punktów. Logika tych systemów opiera się gównie na pojęciu symetrii, translacji i obrotu. Ważną jeszcze rolę odgrywa podobieństwo. Uwzględnienie tego faktu w nauczaniu geometrii wykreślnej jest ważnym dezyderatem dydaktycznym. Praca zawiera propozycję dydaktyczną z zakresu zastosowania izometrii na płaszczyźnie i w przestrzeni.
EN
Popular science genre is usually defined as a genre whose aim is to fulfill a significant cultural and social function of popularizing science, scientific knowledge and research. This paper discusses the popular science translation or rather cultural adaptation, regarded as a mediation between these two cultures. The qualitative and quantitative research findings concerning headlines and sub-headlines discussed here, as well as their relation in the two cultures, may be of relevance to the work of all those interested in the mutual relation between language and popularization of science, in particular to linguists, translators, sociologists, philosophers of culture as well as journalists.
PL
Gatunek popularno-naukowy jest zwykle definiowany jako gatunek, którego celem jest ważna funkcja kulturowa i socjalna popularyzacji nauki, wiedzy naukowej i badań. National Geographic jest przykładem amerykańskiego magazynu popularno-naukowego, który jest wydawany i tłumaczony na wiele języków, a wśród nich jest jego polska edycja. Badania nad artykułami popularno-naukowymi i ich stylem w oryginalnej wersji angielskiej i w tłumaczeniu na polski pozwalają na wgląd w obie kultury. Artykuł omawia tłumaczenie popularno-naukowe lub raczej adaptację kulturową, traktowaną jako mediację pomiędzy dwoma kulturami. Na elementy językowe, szczególnie ważne z perspektywy dziennikarskiej, mającej na celu uczynienie szeroko dostępny dyskurs popularno-naukowy, składają się: nagłówki/tytuły, podtytuły, nagłówki w treści artykułów oraz nagłówki/tytuły rozpoczynające sekcje artykułów. Jakościowe i ilościowe wyniki badań, dotyczące tytułów i podtytułów prasowych omawianych w artykule, jak również ich relacji w obu kulturach, mogą mieć znaczenie dla badaczy zainteresowanych wzajemnymi relacjami pomiędzy językiem a popularyzacją nauki, w szczególności dla językoznawców, tłumaczy, socjologów, filozofów kultury i dziennikarzy.
EN
The identification of isometric displacements of studied objects with utilization of the vector product is the aim of the analysis conducted in this paper. Isometric transformations involve translation and rotation. The behaviour of distances between check points on the object in the first and second measurements is a necessary condition for the determination of such displacements. For every three check points about the measured coordinate, one can determine the vector orthogonal to the two neighbouring sides of the triangle that are treated as vectors, using the definition of the vector product in three-dimensional space. If vectors for these points in the first and second measurements are parallel to the studied object has not changed its position or experienced translation. If the termini of vectors formed from vector products treated as the vectors are orthogonal to certain axis, then the object has experienced rotation. The determination of planes symmetric to these vectors allows the axis of rotation of the object and the angle of rotation to be found. The changes of the value of the angle between the normal vectors obtained from the first and second measurements, by exclusion of the isometric transformation, are connected to the size of the changes of the coordinates of check points, that is, deformation of the object. This paper focuses mainly on the description of the procedure for determining the translation and rotation. The main attention was paid to the rotation, due to the new and unusual way in which it is determined. Mean errors of the determined parameters are often treated briefly, and this subject requires separate consideration.
EN
This study seeks to demonstrate the usefulness of a relatively underutilized approach to studying sustainable development as a term and concept. While studies on sustainable development have generally followed a normative approach seeking what the term should ideally mean, this study follows a historical approach such as recommended by the historian of philosopher Quentin Skinner to explore what changes of definition it has been capable of undergoing in the actual use. To illustrate why such changes may be a critical issue, we have deliberately focused on the case of a country – South Korea – where the very translation of the term into the native language, combined with other factors, has resulted in sustainable development being generally understood by the public as meaning something quite different from the more normative understanding of the term. Instead of a balanced development that protects the environment and promotes social welfare as well as promoting economic growth, sustainable development in the standard Korean translation has come to be understood as simply meaning continued economic growth, which is to be sought even at the expense of environmental degradation. For documentation and analysis, we have relied on various methods, while focusing on key sectors and select policy areas, including energy. We conclude with further reflections on why an approach such as ours might be a useful methodological addition in sustainable development research.
PL
W tej pracy podejmujemy użyteczne i relatywnie rzadko stosowano podejście do zrównoważonego rozwoju, rozumianego zarówno jako pojęcie, jak i koncepcja. Zwykle dominuje tu podejście normatywne, w ramach którego poszukuje się idealnej definicji, my proponujemy podejście historyczne, zgodne z zaleceniami historyka i filozofa Quentina Skinnera, odnoszące się do przeszłych zmian w definiowaniu i ich wpływu na obecne rozumowanie. Aby zilustrować, jak bardzo takie zmiany mogą być istotne, celowo wybraliśmy jeden kraj, Koreę Południową, w którym nawet przetłumaczenie terminu rozwój zrównoważony, w powiązaniu z innymi czynnikami, powoduje jego odmienne (niż to obowiązujące w podejściu normatywnym) rozumienie przez społeczeństwo. Miast rozwoju gwarantującego ochronę środowiska i społeczną pomyślność i wzrost gospodarczy, w standardowym koreańskim tłumaczeniu termin ten jest rozumiany jako trwały wzrost gospodarczy, do którego należy dążyć nawet za cenę degradacji środowiska. W badaniach opieraliśmy się na różnych metodach, uwagę zwracając na kluczowe sektory i obszary polityki, włączając w to kwestie energetyczne. Wykażemy, dlaczego takie podejście może być metodologiczne użytecznym dodatkiem do badań nad zrównoważonym rozwojem.
EN
The translation of Chymia philosophica by Jakub Barner is the second publication in Polish historiography of a printed source work on early modern chemistry (alchemy) written by a Polish citizen, well known and influencial across Europe (the first such translation comprised the treatises of Michael Sendivogius). This admirable initiative of unquestionable value to Polish historians of science resulted in an elegantly published volume, with an extensive introduction and useful appendices. The language of the translation is pleasant to read, retaining the spirit of the original by means of a moderate use of archaisms and generally accurate selection of proper terminology. A closer comparison of some fragments of the translation reveals, however, that it omits essential words, phrases and even entire sentences. The translation itself is occassionally incorrect as well, completely changing the meaning of the author’s text and distorting his intentions, thereby undermining the reliability of the Polish translation as a whole. In the factual layer, identifying both chemical substances and (especially) the names of the authors cited by Barner often appear to be doubtful or problematic. Apart from numerous obvious mistakes, as well as leaving many surnames unidentified even when it was very difficult, the translators and/or editors of the Polish text created some non-existent authors as a result of errors produced while copying their surnames from the original text or due to unfounded assumptions that some chemical or botanical terms are names of chemical authors. There is also no consistency in the spelling of surnames (usually left in the Latin form, sometimes spelled with wrong inflection, but also modernised). In the biographical introduction there are also numerous factual errors and some bizarre mistranslations. Not only did its author fail to correct invalid information of earlier biographers of Barner, relying only on the most obvious and accessible publications, but also perpetuated these "historiographical myths" and even created new ones. Neither did he consult any sources apart from some other of Barner‘s published books. Writing from the positivist perspective and on the basis of outdated literature, he also sustained the categorical distinction between alchemy and chemistry, already rejected in contemporary historiography, thus presenting the role and position of Barner in the history of science not quite adequately. If one adds to that the very numerous "typos” throughout the book, it may be regarded as a negative example of poor source editing in almost every respect, even though it makes a pleasant reading.
EN
In this paper, we investigate some important aspects of a new formalism for modelling and verification of hybrid dynamic systems (HDS), which is called multisingular hybrid Petri nets (MSHPNs). This new hybrid formalism is aimed to bridge the gap between hybrid automata (HA) and hybrid Petri nets (HPNs) by equipping the HPN model with the capabilities of HA to control the execution and firing of timed transitions. Practically, MSHPNs can be considered as the counterpart with the same expressive power as multisingular hybrid automata (MSHA). In order to analyse MSHPN models, a speed-based partitioning technique has been introduced in which the variable space is partitioned based on the balance of continuous places. In this paper, we formalize the notions of conflicts and conflict resolution and the challenging issue of speed computation. Then, we focus on considering a translation from a bounded MSHPN to a multisingular hybrid automaton that preserves the behavioural semantics of the original MSHPN in terms of weak timed bisimulation. The translation algorithm uses the speed-based partitioning method and obtains a speed-based partitioning hybrid automaton for a given bounded MSHPN. Model checking a timed property for an MSHPN amounts to model checking its equivalent property on the obtained speed-based partitioning hybrid automaton, thus MSHPN models can be analysed using the existing tools. The advantages of the proposed method are twofold: (1) hybrid systems can be described more succinctly and therefore more readably as MSHPNs, and (2) one can use the existing tools (like HYTECH) to analyse MSHPN models.
13
Content available On intersections of Cantor sets: Hausdorff measure
EN
We establish formulas for bounds on the Haudorff measure of the intersection of certain Cantor sets with their translates. As a consequence we obtain a formula for the Hausdorff dimensions of these intersections.
EN
The model checking tools Uppaal and VerICS accept a description of a network of Timed Automata with Discrete Data (TADDs) as input. Thus, to verify a concurrent programwritten in Java by means of these tools, first a TADD model of the program must be build. Therefore, we have developed the J2TADD tool that translates a Java program to a network of TADDs; the paper presents this tool. The J2TADD tool works in two stages. The first one consists in translation of a Java code to an internal assembly language (IAL). Then, the resulting assembly code is translated to a network of TADDs. We exemplify the use of the translator by means of the following well-known concurrency examples written in Java: race condition problem, dining philosophers problem, single sleeping barber problem and readers and writers problem.
PL
W artykule opisano prace związane z ujednoliceniem ikon na paskach narzędziowych wybranych, opartych na wolnych i otwartych licencjach systemów informacji przestrzennej. Przy projektowaniu wykorzystano doświadczenia projektu Tango (Tango, 2007) oraz wytyczne stworzone dla programów komercyjnych. Lepszą rozpoznawalność ikon uzyskano dzięki zastosowaniu systemu prezentacji wizualnej obiekt-akcja oraz założeniu powtarzalności symboli. Opracowany w ramach projektu zestaw ikon GIS icons (Szczepanek, 2009) został pomyślnie zaimplementowany nie tylko w dwóch pierwotnie zaplanowanych programach (GRASS i QGIS), ale jest sukcesywnie wdrażany w kolejnych aplikacjach. Drugim problemem przedstawionym w artykule jest zagadnienie wykorzystania narzędzi wspierających proces przygotowywania programów w wielu wersjach językowych (lokalizacji). Przeanalizowano aktualnie wykorzystywane i możliwe do wykorzystania narzędzia. Dokonano również analizy dostępnych w Polsce słowników branżowych pod kątem ich praktycznego wykorzystania przy tworzeniu polskich wersji programów. W ramach prac dokonano pełnej lokalizacji interfejsu programu QGIS oraz częściowej lokalizacji programu GRASS. W ramach dyskusji zaprezentowano zestaw narzędzi informatycznych, które mogą znacząco usprawnić proces tworzenia jednolitego, wspólnego dla wielu projektów słownika geomatycznego.
EN
The paper describes a project related to the unification of toolbar icons for selected, free and open license geographical information systems. Experience of the Tango project (Tango, 2009) and the guidelines available for commercial software were used in the design process. Better icon recognisability was achieved by implementing an object-action system for visual presentation and assumptions concerning the re-use of symbols. An icon set designed within the GIS icons project (Szczepanek, 2009) has been successfully implemented not only in two planned programs (GRASS and QGIS) but also in other programs. The second issue described in this paper relates to the use of tools supporting the development of multilingual applications (localization). The tools currently used and those which it is possible to use are analysed. Polish geomatics dictionaries were tested against practical use in the preparation of local versions of software. The full localization of the QGIS interface and the partial localization of GRASS are outcomes of the project described. In discussion, a set of informatics tools which could significantly improve the process of development of a uniform geomatics dictionary to be jointly used by different projects is presented.
EN
The aim of this work is to describe the translation from Intermediate Language, one of the input formalisms of the model checking platform VerICS, to timed automata with discrete data and to compare it with the translation to classical timed automata. The paper presents syntax and semantics of both formalisms, the translation rules as well as a simple example.
EN
This paper describes the BRILI English-Spanish Cross-Lingual Question Answering (CL-QA) system. Besides, a study that justifies the negative effect of Machine Translation (MT) tools on the precision of CLQA tasks is detailed. The BRILI system is capable to answer English questions from Spanish Documents. Some new characteristics in BRILI are described, especially the strategy used for the question processing module in which the Inter Lingual Index (ILI) Module of EuroWordNet is used with the aim of reducing the negative effect of question translation on the overall accuracy . Our system has participated in the 2006 edition of Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF) being rank first at English- Spanish QA task.
18
Content available Rozwój Geoinformatycznego Słownika PAU
PL
W artykule podsumowano pięć lat pracy nad Wielojęzycznym Interdyscyplinarnym Terminologicznym Słownikiem i Leksykonem Geoinformatycznym Komisji Geoinformatyki Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności. Prace te zaowocowały poszerzeniem bazy słownikowej o około 500 nowych haseł z zakresu fotogrametrii, teledetekcji, systemów informacji przestrzennej i kartografii. W artykule, obok istniejących już wcześniej funkcji (takich jak np. wprowadzanie pojedynczych haseł), przedstawiono również nowe możliwości Słownika, tj. automatyczny import danych. Pozwala to na wprowadzanie wielu przygotowanych uprzednio haseł. Aktualnie internetowy Słownik zapewnia łatwość obsługi, dzięki czemu spodziewany jest jego szybki rozwój. Prace zostały zainicjowane w PAU i prowadzone są pod auspicjami Komisji Geoinformatyki PAU. Obejmują inwentaryzację słownictwa geoinformatycznego, która jest wspierana przez szereg ośrodków naukowych w Polsce, z bardzo dużym zaangażowaniem specjalistów z Zakładu Fotogrametrii i Informatyki Teledetekcyjnej AGH w Krakowie, co pozwoli nie tylko na uporządkowanie terminologii, ale też na prześledzenie trendów słowotwórczych, jakie istnieją w różnych dyscyplinach nauki i techniki związanych z geoinformatyką.
EN
The paper summarizes five years of activities concerning the construction of Multilangual Interdisciplinary Terminological Dictionary and Lexicon for Geoinformatics of Polish Academy of Science and Arts. In the frames of this activities some 500 entries concerning photogrammetry and remote sensing, spatial information systems, and cartography, were produced. The dictionary editorial software got also some new functions. Beside the earlier existing functions, the new ones, such as function for the mass editorial data import, are described. Actually, the Dictionary provides very easy way of editing of new terms, and also very user friendly way of searching for a needed term. All works concerning the dictionary were initiated and are executed under auspices of the Geoinformatics Commission of The Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences. That activities cover the inventory of the terminology concerning geoinformatics, and are executed with participation of many scientific centers in Poland, with the leading activity of specialists of the AGH Department of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Informatics. Such wide participation of various specialists allows not only for deep trace of the word formation trends, which exist separately in various disciplines of science and technology, which use geoinformatics, but also some terminological unification can be expected with the passing time of the editorial cooperation.
EN
In this paper we present the genetic message translation in terms of automata, transformation semigroups, restricted direct product and cascade product. We give a description of the alphabets and words involved in the processes of transcription and translation. We define a Mealy automata for the translation process, providing its detailed coverings by simpler machines. This leads to an interesting structural representation of the proteins.
EN
In the paper, the production processes of a nano-products fabrication based on multi-stage informatic technology applying the concept of so called "gluey matrix" are described. In the first stage, an "intermediate product" is created, with linear, molecular structure identical to linear sequence in a final product. In the next stages, that flat, linear structure will convert into a spatial shape of molecules representing the final product. The operations performed in those systems are based on nanotechnologies or a "bottom-up" creation of the product. This approach to the product creation requires knowledge about the product molecular constitution and the phenomena obsewed on the surface of molecules and atoms, which allow for a design of a proper, "gluey matrix". This matrix introduced into a mixture of freely moving molecules (building blocks) concentrates and integrates the building blocks on the surface of matrix forming the needed intermediate product. In the next stages, the intermediate product created and next detached from the surface of gluey matrix is a substrate for the creation of appropriate final product by affecting the intermediate product with various external stimuli, assuring the proper conformational modifications.
PL
W pracy scharakteryzowano procesy produkcyjne stosowane w wytwarzaniu nanostruktur bazujące na wielostopniowej informatycznej technologii wytwarzania przy zastosowaniu koncepcji tzw. "macierzy lepkiej". W trakcie pierwszej fazy procesu jest wytwarzany półprodukt, którego liniowa, molekularna struktura jest taka sama jak w produkcie finalnym. W kolejnych fazach, ta liniowa struktura jest modyfikowana przestrzennie w celu otrzymania pożądanej konformacji produktu finalnego. W pracy przedstawiono różne warianty tego typu procesów. Macierz lepka wykorzystywana jest do syntezy struktury molekularnej na bazie podstawowych struktur elementarnych. Modyfikacje konformacji półproduktów realizowane są oddziaływaniem środowiska w którym realizuje się proces produkcyjny, na półprodukt otrzymany w pierwszej fazie procesu.
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