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EN
The aim of the paper is to examine the variability of physical and chemical characteristics of two springs located in the Zagórzański Stream catchment (Spisko-Gubatowskie Foothills, Podhale region). Calcareous tufa occurs at one of the investigated springs. Field studies were conducted once a month from 25th March 2017 to 28thFebruary 2018. Water of the studied springs represents the bicarbonate-calcium-magnesium type during almost the whole year. The chemical composition of both springs is characterized by seasonal variability. The highest concentrations of most ions occurred in the summer, when the rainfall was the lowest and during winter drought; while the lowest concentration - in the period of increased rainfall. The variability of physical and chemical parameters of the spring with tufa is smaller than the other one. The spring with calcareous tufa stands out by the higher concentration of Mg2+ and SO42- and the presence of radon. The unique landscape values of the surroundings and hydrogeochemical features of the spring with calcareous tufa favour this place as an interesting hydro-tourism attraction in the Bukowina Tatrzańska region.
EN
Groundwater temperature is the basic physical parameter that determines the state and energy measure of the physical system while being an important indicator of the status of groundwater and aquifers. This article presents considerations on the temperature of fresh groundwater of the active exchange zone and their importance for the recognition of hydrogeological conditions. Review of groundwater temperature results application to analyze groundwater recharge process, flow and depth of circulation has been presented. It has been showed also how the water temperature supports evaluation of the groundwater chemical composition changes, the extension of contaminants, the hydraulic conductivity evaluation and the application in groundwater flow modelling study. A wide range of temperature variation in shallow waters of up to 20.3°C has been demonstrated based on measurements in the Quaternary aquifer in the Wrocław City infiltration intake and deep waters from the Neogen aquifer. Up to a depth of 10-17 m, significant seasonal temperature changes with depth have been documented. It was recommended to establish a neutral depth for the correct interpretation of the groundwater thermal field. Opposite spring water from a deeper aquifer of Cretaceous formations in the Stołowe Mts. documented an almost constant temperature higher by 4.6°C from the average air temperature. This indicates the range of groundwater flow depth of 170m below the land surface. A simple formula based on the density value of the heat flux, taking into account the average air temperature proposal, allows to calculating the depth of water flow. The methodical conditions for temperature measuring and the depth of location of temperature recording probesas well as their limitations, have been identified.
EN
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of climate change, mainly higher and lower precipitation, on the intensity of the impact of a coal waste dump on groundwater. The analysis used meteorological data for the Katowice region in 2002-2020 as well as data on the height of the groundwater table in the vicinity of the coal waste dump, and data on physicochemical parameters and chemical composition of groundwater in 2004-2020. Based on the analyses, it was found that the periods of drought in the Silesian Voivodeship, located in the south of Poland, occurred mainly in spring, while periods of excessive short-term rainfall in summer. The period of excessive annual precipitation occurred between 2007 and 2010, followed by a long period of dry or very dry years that lasted until 2016. During the period of excess annual precipitation, the leachate from the waste dump caused a decrease in the pH of groundwater from ca. 5 to 2.50, while an increase in electrolytic conductivity (EC) and the concentration of sulphates and zinc from ca. 1300 ms/cm, 100 mg/L, 5 mg/L to 5100 ms/cm, 3890 mg/L, 18.5 mg/L, respectively.
PL
W ostatnich latach obserwuje się problemy z obniżającym się poziomem wód gruntowych. Taka sytuacja wynika z niskich wartości opadów atmosferycznych w ostatnich latach i związanego z tym narastającego problemu suszy hydrologicznej. Wobec tego szczególnego znaczenia nabiera kwestia prawidłowego zaprojektowania, wykonania i dalszej eksploatacji ujęcia wody.
EN
The Polish hydrogeology had started its development at the end of the 19th century, before Poland was liberated. The needs for country restoration after the world war and for ensuring water supply for communities and industry required construction of many water intakes and water reservoirs. On the other hand, the development of ore deposits, e.g. hard coal seams, needed dewatering of mines and quarries. The Polish pioneer hydrogeologist was R. Rosłoński (1880-1956). He organized the Hydrology Department at the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) in 1919. After World War II, the Hydrogeology and Engineering Department was established at the Geological Institute in Warsaw. Dozent F. Rutkowski was the head of the unit for more than 10 years. Professors C. Kolago, J. Malinowski, A. Różkowski and B. Paczyński introduced in practice a number of hydrogeological studies, including hydrogeological cartography, groundwater resource balances, recognition of groundwater resources of well fields and hydrogeological units of Poland, mining hydrogeology, and the principles of groundwater protection in Poland. Hydrogeological data banks were also first introduced at the PGI. The last 20 years of hydrogeology at the PGI were strongly connected with Poland's accession to the European Union and with the implementation of European directives to the water management system in practice. For this reason, the state hydrogeological survey has been established at the PGI.
EN
The paper focuses on the problem of water draining from brown coal pits, which has occurred since the 1950s in the Gniezno Lakeland in the western part of central Poland. Threats to hydrogeological systems and related lake systems under conditions of mining-induced drainage near the lakes located in the Powidz Landscape Park (PLP) are indicated. The lowering of water level in the PLP lakes exceeds 5 m, as compared to the pre-mining-induced drainage state. Such a rapid change may cause ecological disaster for these deep-water, healthy lake ecosystems with abundant submerged macrophyte (Charophyte) habitats (Natura 2000 protected area). Considering the regional context, the causes of hydrodynamic pressure leading to degradation of Lake Wilczyńskie and neighbouring, hydrologically connected lakes, are presented. The proposed mitigation actions for improving the ecological state of these lakes are presented in the contexts of (1) water balance assessment, (2) hydrotechnical issues related to the redi¬stribution of water from the Slesiňski Canal (the Warta River - Lake Goplo) through water pipeline transmission, and (3) the accelerating groundwater reclamation of the Jóźwin IIB open mine pit area.
EN
An important task of the Polish Geological Institute acting as the state geological and hydrogeological surveys is to collect geological data and information for the entire country. One of the most important components of the Institute's data processing system is the HYDRO Bank, whose information resources include attribute and spatial information on groundwater intakes. Since its establishment in the early 1970s, the HYDRO Bank has been using IT high technologies. Currently, the database resources are being updated and made available exploiting the web application SPD PSH enabling users to access information in a controlled way using a web browser. The information from the database is the basis for the majority of national studies in the field of hydrogeology, cartography, environmental protection, and regional development, carried out by geological enterprises, research institutes, universities, and government administration.
EN
A crucial part of every adaptation planning and disaster risk reduction is estimation of vulnerable areas and risk in the future. Only a well-developed monitoring system could bring valuable information to create possible scenarios to set up adaptation plans. Monitoring systems of meteorological conditions, surface water, groundwater, landslides, seacoast, agricultural drought as well as their standards and methodologies, are crucial for establishing an effective warning system of every country, and thus are the subject of research conducted by national institutes. Therefore, the conditions of this national research (getting trained staff, equipment etc.) is essential to provide reliable information for a national adaptation plan and for economic assessment of climate change impacts. Poland has significant experiences in monitoring systems, data collecting and visualizing, as well as in the development of scenarios and risk maps. Methodologies and capacity building, necessary for their use, along with experiences and lessons, learned to get valuable information for disaster risk reduction, were presented by the authors from the research during the 24th session of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP 24) in Katowice (December 2018). The presentation contributed to the global adaptation process through experience sharing that is important for the relevant research conducted in the least developed countries.
EN
The article presents the characteristics of the gravimetric and hydrometric system for observation of mining tremors in Upper Silesia. Individual system components were installed in the years 2018-2019 as part of the European Platform Observing System -Poland project with the acronym EPOS-PL, financed from the EU program - Intelligent Development. The system records the changes in gravitational acceleration and groundwater level with a frequency of 1 Hz in the mining and post-mining areas. The analysis of the measurement data collected allows evalu¬ating the sensitivity of the system and the possibilities of its use in the mining seismicity studies in Upper Silesia, as well as monitoring rock mass movements under the influence of seismic and geodynamic phenomena in other parts of the world.
PL
Jednym z problemów, który wymaga rozwiązania na etapie przygotowania i realizacji inwestycji drogowych, jest woda gruntowa na odcinkach zlokalizowanych w wykopach. Może występować w postaci zwierciadła swobodnego, co objawia się sączeniami i wypływami ze skarp i/lub w postaci zwierciadła napiętego, uniemożliwiającego realizację robót lub prawidłową eksploatację z uwagi na przebicia i wypływy przez warstwy podłoża gruntowego nawierzchni. W artykule przedstawiono przekład zrealizowanego odcinka drogi ekspresowej S7 w głębokim wykopie ze swobodnym i z napiętym zwierciadłem wody gruntowej, stabilizującym się powyżej niwelety.
EN
One of the problems that needs to be solved at the stage of the preparation and implementation of road investments is groundwater at the sections of roads constructed in trenches. The effects of high groundwater level are excessive seepage pressure and the erosion of slopes, which can render the completion and service of roads impossible due to hydraulic failure and outflows of water through the layers of the pavement subsoil. The article presents an example of the completed section of the S7 expressway constructed in a deep trench with the groundwater level and piezometric pressure stabilization above the road surface.
11
Content available remote Jak skutecznie wykonać barierę o niskiej wodoprzepuszczalności?
PL
Potrzeba wytworzenia bariery w przypadku napływu, dopływu, przepływu, wypływu, odpływu czy, wreszcie, wpływu wód gruntowych i substancji w nich rozpuszczonych, wynika z potrzeb równie licznych (pewnie liczniejszych) jak liczba wymienionych „pływów”. W hydrotechnice i geoinżynierii można zaproponować wiele sposobów systematyki przesłon (barier) przeciwfiltracyjnych w zależności od podstawowego celu postawionego tej przesłonie.
EN
In spite of enormous investment for water harvesting in Maharashtra, the issue of water defciency persist. Therefore, with the proper understanding of recent (1975–2014) hydrometeorological characteristics in the semiarid region of Maharashtra, the study endeavored to suggest management strategies to optimize the water resources. To understand the inherent characteristics of rainfall, runof, dam storages and groundwater, statistical techniques including descriptive statistics, correlation, regression and Student’s t test were applied. The monsoon rainfall has notable control over the water resources. As the study region characterized by signifcantly low water availability with high variability which is accountable for higher frequency and intensity of drought, it should be prioritized while formulating a judicial plan for water management. The major rivers of Maharashtra follow the unimodal pattern of rainfall. Whereas the study area displays a peculiar character of the bimodal and unimodal regimes of rainfall and runof, respectively, this highlights the role of hydrological losses. However, it also indicates that there is a wide scope to harvest surface water, particularly during the months of September and October. Interestingly, the inter-annual variability in the extreme rainfall and runof events over the study basins is observed to be higher in India. Most of the water (>50%) received during fashy rainfall events drains out through fashy discharges. The impoundment of this water and modifed irrigation schedule by considering the recent hydrological characteristics may diminish the variability and defciency of surface and subsurface water. Furthermore, for the precise forecast of water availability in the study area, ENSO condition needs to incorporate, as it has a signifcant connection with rainfall and runof.
EN
The gamma-ray spectrum equipped with a high-purity germanium detector was used to measure the naturally occurring radioactive materials of groundwater samples resources from the petroleum-producing communities of Ma’rib Province-Yemen. Thirty-fve samples were collected from diferent sites. The 40K, 232Th, and 226Ra activity concentrations of groundwater samples for oil and non-oil communities were measured. The annual efective doses due to 40K, 232Th, and 226Ra were calculated and did not show a signifcant health impact. These results can contribute to building a database and provide a general background of the detectable TENORMs for studied areas, which will be useful in any radiological emergency. Signifcantly, the Ma’rib region is rich in oil and gas.
EN
Groundwater is the primary source of water for human development in the Yishu River basin, and therefore characterizing groundwater quality is essential for sustainable development of groundwater resources in the region. This study aimed to determine the hydrochemical characteristics and water quality of groundwater in the Yishu River basin by sampling 45 wells in October 2016 and May 2017. Hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater were determined using integrated hydrochemical analysis and the groundwater quality was evaluated based on the water quality index (WQI). Groundwater of the Yishu River basin was characterized as weak alkaline hard water with mean concentrations of total hardness and total dissolved solids of less than 500 mg L−1 and 1000 mg L−1, respectively, and the principal chemical components of groundwater were higher in 2016 than in 2017. A Piper diagram showed that 64.4% of the water samples contained Ca–HCO3 type water and 27% contained mixed water (27%). The dominant processes driving the chemical composition of groundwater were found to be dissolution of silicate and carbonate minerals and cation exchange. The saturation index indicated that carbonate minerals were supersaturated, whereas gypsum, fuorite, and halite were unsaturated. The WQI indicated good groundwater quality in the Yishu River basin, with only one water sample classifed as having "poor" water quality in 2016 and 2017, respectively. However, these samples contained high nitrate concentrations (>200 mg L−1), which may be the result of domestic sewage discharge and/or the use of agricultural fertilizers.
EN
The article presents the results of investigations carried out in the hydrological years of 2015, 2016 and 2017 in the Przebędowo reservoir basin (in areas adjacent to the reservoir). It is located in the Wielkopolskie province, 25 kilometres north of Poznań in the Murowana Goślina commune. The analysed catchment with an area of approx. 100 km2 is mostly covered by forests, while in the immediate vicinity of the reservoir it also comprises arable land. The entire catchment is covered by postglacial deposits, such as sands and clays. Areas adjacent to the reservoir are composed of quaternary (Pleistocene) fluvial deposits. The analysis of layers contained within piezometers showed the predominance of medium sands, which were deposited up to a depth of about 3 m. The groundwaters in those layers formed a continuous aquifer horizon. The analysed reservoir was constructed in the valley of the Trojanka river, from km 6 + 915 to km 8 + 371 of the river course, by the Greater Poland Provincial Land Drainage and Water Units Board in Poznań. It was put into operation in November 2014. The earth dam of the reservoir is class IV it is 334 meters long and 3.30 meters high. The reservoir with a length of 1450 m and a maximum bed-width of 120 m at a normal damming level has a flooded surface of 12.03 ha. The main purpose of the reservoir is to store water for agricultural purposes, improve climatic and water conditions in the adjacent agricultural areas, provide protect against flooding and fire for areas lying both below the dam and adjacent to the reservoir. Around the reservoir an ecological buffer zone was made in the form of tree and shrub plantings. It reduced runoff of biogenic compounds (nitrogen and phosphorus) and pesticides from adjacent agricultural areas. The conducted analysis of precipitation data according to the criterion developed by Kędziora (1995) (following Kaczorowska, 1962) showed that the water year of 2015 was dry. The precipitation total in that year was 429 mm and was lower than the average of the multi-year period by 131 mm, while temperature was higher than average by 0.5°C. In contrast, the water year of 2016 was wet, as the precipitation total in that year was 682 mm, i.e. by 122 mm higher than the average of the multi-year period, with the air temperature higher than the average by 0.4°C. The last water year analysed (2017) was very wet, because the precipitation total exceeded the multi-year average by 244 mm, with the air temperature close to the average. Results indicated that next to the character of the reservoir, also meteorological conditions had a considerable impact on changes in water levels in the analysed reservoir and groundwater levels in the adjacent area. Research showed a hydraulic connection between the water retained in the reservoir and groundwater in the adjacent areas. It was found that over a greater part of the water years analysed in this paper the water retained in the Przebędowo reservoir fed groundwaters of the adjacent areas. The longest supply time, which ranged from 282 days to 366 days, was recorded for wells P-2 to P-21. They are located within a short distance from the dam. In contrast, in the case of wells 1' to 6', located near the middle part of the reservoir, two-way water flow was found. In the analysed years the water in reservoir was fed by the groundwater from the wells for a period between 7 days (st. 2') to 365 days (st. 5'). The analyses carried out in the winter and summer half-years of the discussed water years indicated mostly strong relations between the elevation of water levels in the reservoir and groundwater elevation in the studied wells. However, it was found that the interrelationships between the discussed values were stronger in the summer half-years. The obtained research results generally showed that the waters accumulated in the Przebędowo reservoir have a positive impact on groundwaters in the adjacent areas and feed them during drought periods.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań przeprowadzonych w latach hydrologicznych 2015, 2016 oraz 2017 w zlewni zbiornika Przebędowo (w terenach bezpośrednio przyległych do zbiornika), zlokalizowanej w województwie wielkopolskim, 25 km na północ od Poznania w gminie Murowana Goślina. W omawianej zlewni, o powierzchni około 100 km2 przeważają lasy, a w mniejszym stopniu w terenie bezpośrednio przyległym do zbiornika występują grunty orne. Na całym obszarze zalegają utwory polodowcowe takie jak piaski i gliny. W ogólnym ujęciu tereny przyległe do zbiornika zbudowane są z osadów czwartorzędowych (plejstocen) fluwialnych, a analiza warstw objętych piezometrami wykazała przewagę piasków średnich zalegających do głębokości około 3m, w których wody gruntowe tworzą ciągły poziom wodonośny. W terenie bezpośrednio przyległym do zbiornika występują grunty orne. Analizowany zbiornik został wykonany w dolinie rzeki Trojanki, od km 6+915 do km 8+371 jej biegu przez Wielkopolski Zarząd Melioracji i Urządzeń Wodnych w Poznaniu i został oddany do eksploatacji w listopadzie 2014 roku. Ziemna zapora czołowa na zbiorniku jest klasy IV, jej długość wynosi 334 m, przy wysokości 3,30 m. Zbiornik o długości 1450m i szerokości maksymalnej 120m, przy normalnym poziomie piętrzenia (NPP) ma powierzchnię zalewu 12,03ha. Głównym celem zbiornika jest magazynowanie wody dla celów rolniczych, poprawa warunków klimatycznych i wodnych na przyległych użytkach rolnych, oraz ochrona przeciwpowodziowa i przeciwpożarowa terenów leżących poniżej zapory, a także terenów przyległych do zbiornika. Wokół zbiornika wykonano ekologiczną strefę buforową w postaci nasadzeń z drzew i krzewów, redukującą spływy związków biogennych (azot, fosfor) i środków ochrony roślin z przyległych terenów użytkowanych rolniczo. Przeprowadzona analiza wilgotnościowa omawianych w pracy lat według kryterium Kędziory 1995 (za Kaczorowska 1962) pozwoliła stwierdzić, że pierwszy analizowany w pracy rok hydrologiczny 2015 był rokiem suchym, w którym suma opadów wyniosła 429 mm i była niższa od średniej z wielolecia o 131 mm, przy temperaturze powietrza wyższej od średniej o 0,5°C. Natomiast rok hydrologiczny 2016 był rokiem wilgotnym, w którym suma opadów wyniosła 682 mm i była wyższa od średniej z wielolecia o 122 mm, przy temperaturze powietrza wyższej od średniej o 0,4°C. Ostatni analizowany w pracy rok hydrologiczny 2017 był bardzo wilgotny, gdyż suma opadów przekroczyła w tym roku średnią z wielolecia aż o 244 mm, przy zbliżonej do średniej temperaturze powietrza. Uzyskane wyniki badań potwierdziły, że duży wpływ na zmiany stanów wody w analizowanym zbiorniku i wód gruntowych w terenie przyległym, poza charakterem zbiornika, miał przebieg warunków meteorologicznych. Badania wykazały, że pomiędzy wodami retencjonowanymi w zbiorniku a wodami gruntowymi w terenach przyległych istnieje więź hydrauliczna. Stwierdzono, że przez większą część analizowanych w pracy lat hydrologicznych retencjonowane w omawianym zbiorniku wody zasilały wody gruntowe terenów przyległych, przy czym najdłuższy czas zasilania, wynoszący od 282 dni do 366 dni, stwierdzono dla studzienek od P-2 do P-21 zlokalizowanych w niedalekiej odległości od zapory. Natomiast w przypadku studzienek od 1’do 6’ zlokalizowanych w okolicach środkowej części zbiornika stwierdzono dwukierunkowy przepływ wód. W analizowanych latach wody gruntowe zasilały od strony tych studzienek wody zbiornika przez okres od 7 dni (st. 2’) do 365 dni (st. 5’). Przeprowadzone w analizowanych półroczach zimowych i letnich omawianych lat hydrologicznych obliczenia związków pomiędzy rzędnymi stanów wody w zbiorniku, a rzędnymi zwierciadła wód gruntowych w badanych studzienkach wykazały w większości silne zależności. Stwierdzono jednak, że wzajemne powiązania pomiędzy omawianymi wielkościami silniejsze były w półroczach letnich analizowanych lat. W ogólnym ujęciu uzyskane wyniki badań wykazały, że zasoby wodne gromadzone w zbiorniku Przebędowo pozytywnie oddziaływają na wody gruntowe terenów przyległych, zasilając je w okresach posusznych.
EN
Within the framework of the Poland’s preparation to join the EU, it was necessary to establish new surveys and specialized organizations to cope with tasks to implement the water management policy defined in the Water Framework Directive approved by the European Parliament and Council in 2000. The establishment of the Polish Hydrogeological Survey (PHS) by the Water Act of 18 July 2001 imposed an obligation on the Polish Geological Institute to identify, balance and protect the groundwater as well as to define the principles of the sustainable water management in the river basins. Taking into account the achievements of the Department of Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology, the PGI was well prepared to fulfil the tasks of the PHS in every way: both professional and organizational one. From the mid 1970s the groundwater monitoring has been organized by the Institute as a hydrogeological stationary observation network in Poland. The cartographic projects run by the Institute and the Institute digital data bases with a huge amount of the hydrogeological data collected till 2000 have been very useful to the PHS activity. In subsequent 17 years the PHS has run on annual basis more than 30 permanent tasks as well as more than 10 many years projects essential for the national groundwater management. Until the end of 2017, the PHS activity had been funded by the National Fund for the Environment Protection and Water Management. Currently after the water management reform by the Water Act of 20 July 2017, the PHS is supervised by the competent minister for the water management (The Minister of Marine Economy and Inland Sailing), while funding is now by the National Water Authority Polish Waters.
PL
Węglan wapnia CaCO3 jest substancją szeroko rozpowszechnioną w przyrodzie i znajduje liczne zastosowania praktyczne. W przyrodzie jego biomineralizacja jest między innymi wynikiem procesów strącania indukowanych mikrobiologicznie. Jednym z nich jest strącanie indukowane przez bakterie ureolityczne. Proces ten, jeśli prowadzony biomimetycznie, zachodzi w łagodnych warunkach i co ważne, może być zastosowany w warunkach polowych in situ. W ten sposób stanowi on ekoprzyjazną i energooszczędną technikę do wykorzystania jako ekologiczna alternatywa dla obecnie stosowanych technik w wielorakich obszarach inżynieryjnych. W obszarach tych wytrącany CaCO3 spełnia rolę czynnika remediacyjnego i cementującego, na przykład w celu (1) oczyszczania wód z jonów metali toksycznych i radionuklidów, (2) wzmacniania i konsolidacji gruntu i piasku, (3) uszczelniania formacji geologicznych, (4) naprawy obiektów budowlanych i (5) ochrony powierzchni tych obiektów warstwami ochronnymi. Choć stosowana z powodzeniem w sektorze ochrony i restauracji budowli historycznych, technika ta pozostaje ciągle na etapie badań i procesów optymalizacyjnych. By stać się w pełni niezawodną i ekonomiczną techniką wymaga ona dalszych badań, których zadaniem jest rozwiązanie ograniczeń i parametryczna optymalizacja, oraz testy w pełnowymiarowych eksperymentach polowych. Jest to zadanie interdyscyplinarne dla inżynierów budownictwa, geologów, chemików, mikrobiologów i konserwatorów zabytków, którego efektem będzie wprowadzenie tej ekoprzyjaznej i innowacyjnej techniki na rynek inżynierski do wykorzystania w inżynierii środowiska i lądowej, geotechnice i konserwacji zabytków. W kontekście ekopotencjału i innowacyjności tej techniki, w niniejszym artykule przedstawiono jej podstawy, obszary jej zastosowań oraz zalety i ograniczenia.
EN
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is a substance widespread in nature and used in numerous practical applications. In nature, its biomineralization relies, among others, on microbiologically induced precipitation processes. One of such processes is precipitation induced by ureolytic bacteria. If performed in a biomimetic manner, the process is carried out under mild conditions and, most importantly, can be employed in field applications in situ. Therefore, the process constitutes an eco-friendly and energy-saving technique to be used as an ecological alternative to conventional techniques in a variety of engineering fields. In these fields, CaCO3 serves as a remediating and cementing agent, for instance to (1) clean waste- and groundwater from toxic metals and radionuclides, (2) strengthen and consolidate soil and sand, (3) seal geological formations to enhance oil recovery and geologic CO2 sequestration, (4) repair stone and concrete structures, and (5) cover surfaces of these structures with protective layers. Although already in use in the sector of protection and renovation of stone monuments, to date the technique has remained mostly under research and optimization. To become fully implementable as a reliable and economically viable technique, it still requires further research in order to address its limitations, focus on parametrical optimization, up-scaling and life-size field experiments. All these, in an interdisciplinary effort of geologists, microbiologists, chemists, civil engineers and conservators of historic monuments, will move this eco-friendly and innovative branch of engineering from laboratory to field applications in the environmental and civil engineering, geotechnology and conservation of historic buildings. Given its eco-potential and innovativeness, in this study the principles of the technique, advantages, possible applications and challenges are reviewed.
EN
Typhoid or enteric fever is a worldwide infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica. In Sri Lanka, 12,823 Salmonella positive cases were recorded and 133 cases were recorded from Anuradhapura district during 2005 to 2014. Therefore, the study was carried out to identify the microbiological and chemical contamination status of forty-four water sources in Anuradhapura area during October 2016. The study was focused to determine total coliform, faecal coliform, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. contamination along with some physico-chemical parameters of both ground and surface water. Sampling, transportation, and analysis were performed following standard protocols. Results of the study revealed that almost all sampling locations were contaminated with both total and E. coli bacteria and the values were not within the World Health Organization and Sri Lanka Standards drinking water quality standards. Around 32% of sampling locations were positive for Salmonella spp. and among them, 2 spring sampling locations are being highly used to extract water for drinking. However, Shigella spp. was not recorded during the study period. Majority of the sampling points were not within the Sri Lanka drinking water standards for COD and 25% sampling locations were recorded greater than 750 μS∙cm–1 conductivity. Also, 55% of locations recorded very hard water where the highest values were recorded in Padaviya. The tested other water quality parameters: NO2-N, NH3-N, and total phosphate (TP) concentrations were found within the Sri Lanka drinking water standards. PCA analysis revealed that sampling locations were grouped into three groups such as; well water, tank water and springs.
PL
Dur brzuszny jest chorobą o zasięgu światowym wywoływaną przez bakterie Salmonella enterica. W latach 2005– 2014 na Sri Lance zanotowano 12 823 przypadki zakażenia salmonellą, w tym 133 przypadki na terenie dystryktu Anuradhapura. Dlatego podjęto badania celem zidentyfikowania stanu zanieczyszczenia mikrobiologicznego i chemicznego 44 źródeł wody na terenie Anuradhapura w październiku 2016 r. Oznaczono całkowitą liczbę bakterii grupy coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. i Shigella spp. oraz niektóre fizyczne i chemiczne parametry wód gruntowych i powierzchniowych. Pobieranie próbek, transport i analizy wykonywano według standardowych procedur. Wyniki analiz wykazały, że niemal wszystkie stanowiska były zanieczyszczone zarówno bakteriami E. coli jak i bakteriami grupy coli, a ich liczebność przekraczała normy WHO i Sri Lanki. W około 32% stanowisk stwierdzono obecność Salmonella spp., wśród nich 2 źródła, które są intensywnie eksploatowane na cele spożywcze. W okresie badań nie stwierdzono obecności Shigella spp. Wody większości stanowisk nie spełniały norm Sri Lanki, pod względem poziomu ChZT, a w 25% stanowisk przewodnictwo wody przekraczało 750 μS∙cm–1. Wody 55% stanowisk wykazywały dużą twardość z najwyższymi wartościami notowanymi w Padaviya. Inne parametry chemiczne takie jak: NO2-N, NH3-N i fosfor całkowity mieściły się w normach jakości wody pitnej w Sri Lance. Za pomocą analizy PCA zagregowano badane źródła w trzy grupy: wody ze studni, wody ze zbiorników i wody źródlane.
EN
In Sri Lanka, among 2588 Salmonella positive cases, the highest incidences were recorded from Jaffna peninsula during 2005 to 2013. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify the microbiological and chemical contamination status of groundwater (40 well water) sources in Jaffna during November 2016. The total coliform, E. coli, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. along with some physico-chemical parameters of groundwater were studied. The results revealed that entire peninsula was contaminated with total coliform and E. coli bacteria and the parameters recorded were not within the WHO and SLS (Sri Lanka Standards) drinking water quality standards. 38% of sampling locations were positive for Salmonella spp. and among them six sampling locations were being used for drinking purposes. The results of the study correlates with the statistics of typhoid cases recorded in Jaffna. Results of the study also revealed that around 80% of wells were not within the values specified in guidelines of the SLS for drinking water quality on electrical conductivity. Further, 15% of wells recorded greater than 10 mg∙dm–3 nitrate, which is still below the SLS drinking water standards (45 mg∙dm–3). According to the water quality data, PCA analysis showed that Jaffna town, Nallur, Tellippalai and Kopay DS divisions has similar characteristics for water quality.
PL
Spośród 2588 przypadków zatrucia salmonellą zanotowanych na Sri Lance największą liczbę zachorowań stwierdzono na półwyspie Jaffna w latach 2005–2013. Dlatego prezentowane badania miały na celu identyfikację chemicznego i mikrobiologicznego zanieczyszczenia wód gruntowych z 40 studni w listopadzie 2016 r. Analizowano całkowitą liczbę bakterii z grupy coli, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. oraz wybrane parametry fizyczne i chemiczne wód gruntowych. Wyniki ujawniły, że cały półwysep jest skażony bakteriami z grupy coli i bakterią Escherichia coli, a analizowane parametry nie spełniają standardów WHO i standardów Sri Lanki co do jakości wody. W 38% badanych stanowisk stwierdzono obecność Salmonella spp., przy czym sześć z nich wykorzystywano jako źródła wody pitnej. Wyniki badań korelowały z rejestrowanymi przypadkami duru brzusznego na półwyspie. Stwierdzono także, że 80% studni nie spełniało wymogów stawianych wodzie pitnej przez normy Sri Lanki w odniesieniu do przewodnictwa elektrolitycznego. Ponadto stężenie azotanów w 15% studni było większe niż 10 mg∙dm–3, ale nie przekraczało granicznej wartości 45 mg∙dm–3 wyznaczonej przez normy dla wody pitnej. Analiza PCA wykazała, że miasto Jaffna oraz gminy Nallur, Tellippalai i Kopay mają wody o podobnych właściwościach.
EN
The Henaya Irrigated Perimeter (HIP) is an agricultural area irrigated by treated wastewater (TWW) of Ain El Hout treatment plant. Various analyses have shown that i) this water has low concentration of heavy metals and toxic elements, ii) the average values of the physicochemical parameters for 136 samples are satisfactory (29.2 mg O2∙dm–3 for chemical oxygen demands – COD, 13.14 mg O2∙dm–3 for biological oxygen demands – BOD, 14.2 mg∙dm–3 of suspended matter – SM, 1.82 mg∙dm–3 of N-NO3, 7.7 for pH and 927.74 μS∙cm–1 for electric conductivity – EC). Thirdly, it contains a high number of bacteria and nematodes (7200 CFU∙(100 dm3)–1 for faecal coliforms and 30 eggs∙dm–3 for intestinal Nematodes) which makes it dangerous for groundwater contamination. The objective in this work is to characterize the TWW and evaluate the impact of it use for irrigation on the quality of Hennaya groundwater. Before this, one has to prove that there is an amount of TWW that feeds the water table to show that there is a risk of pollution. We then estimated the aquifer minimum recharge value by TWW using the Thormthwaite method. The estimation has given 92 mm which is an important quantity. The results of the groundwater microbiological analyses reveal no sign of contamination. The cause is the efficiency of the degradation of pollutants of the Vadose zone. The soil purifying power Md of the HIP was evaluated by the Rehse method and gave values ranging from 2.1 to 12.7 which indicated a complete purification.
PL
Obszar nawodnień Hennaya to grunty rolnicze nawadniane oczyszczonymi ściekami z oczyszczalni Ain El Hout. W wyniku analizy stwierdzono, że w oczyszczonych ściekach stężenia metali ciężkich i substancji toksycznych jest małe, a średnie wartości parametrów fizycznych i chemicznych mierzonych w 136 próbkach są zadowalające (ChZT – 29,2 mg O2∙dm–3, BZT – 13,14 mg O2∙dm–3, zawiesina – 14,2 mg∙dm–3, N-NO3 – 1,82 mg∙dm–3, pH – 7.7 i przewodnictwo – 927,74 μS∙cm–1). Ścieki zawierają dużą liczbę bakterii coli pochodzenia kałowego (7200 jtk∙(100 dm3)–1) i jaj nicieni przewodu pokarmowego (30 jaj∙dm–3), co stanowi zagrożenie dla jakości wód gruntowych. Celem badań była analiza oczyszczonych ścieków i ocena ich wpływu na wody gruntowe nawadnianych nimi obszarów. Wstępnie należało dowieść, że ścieki zasilają wody gruntowe i istnieje ryzyko zanieczyszczenia. Za pomocą metody Thormthwaite’a oszacowano minimalne zasilanie wód podziemnych – 92 mm, czyli jest to znacząca ilość ścieków. Nie stwierdzono mikrobiologicznych zanieczyszczeń wód gruntowych. Przyczyną tego jest zdolność strefy aeracji do redukcji zanieczyszczeń. Redukcję zanieczyszczeń przez gleby nawadnianej strefy oceniano metodą Rehse, a uzyskane wartości wynoszące od 2,1 do 12,7 wskazują na całkowite oczyszczenie.
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