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EN
In this study, a total of 53 taxa were identified from 13 catchments in Turkey. Gomphonema affine var. rhombicum E.Reichardt, G. angusticephalum E.Reichardt & Lange-Bertalot, G. calcifugum Lange-Bertalot & E.Reichardt, G. elegantissimum E.Reichardt & Lange-Bertalot, G. exilissimum (Grunow) Lange-Bertalot & E.Reichardt, G. graciledictum E.Reichardt, G. italicum var. densistriatum Levkov, Mitic-Kopanja & E.Reichardt, G. linearoides Levkov, G. megolobrebissonii D.A.Chudaev, Kociolek & M.A.Golobova, G. minusculum Krasske, G. minutum f. syriacum Lange-Bertalot & Reichardt, G. reediae Levkov, Mitic-Kopanja & E.Reichardt, G. sarcophagus W.Gregory, G. subcapitatum (Grunow) E.Reichardt & Levkov and Gomphosphenia holmquistii (Foged) Lange-Bertalot were recorded for the first time in Turkey. Of the identified taxa, Didymosphenia geminata (Lyngbye) M.Schmidt, Gomphonema acuminatum Ehrenberg, G. affine Kützing, G. angustatum (Kützing) Rabenhorst, G. augur Ehrenberg, G. micropus Kützing, G. minutum (C.Agardh) C.Agardh, G. olivaceum (Hornemann) Brébisson, G. parvulum (Kützing) Kützing and G. truncatum Ehrenberg are common in the waters. G. angustius E.Reichardt, G. insignaffine Reichardt, G. insigne W.Gregory, G. italicum Kützing, G. laticollum E.Reichardt, G. pumilum var. rigidum E.Reichardt & Lange-Bertalot, G. stonei E.Reichardt, G. supertergestinum E.Reichardt and G. vibrio Ehrenberg have been recently recorded from the Turkish waters. The genus Gomphosphenia in Turkey has so far been represented only by G. grovei (M.Schmidt) Lange-Bertalot.
EN
In this paper, we report new records of rare diatoms that have recently been found in Southern Poland. Planothidium nanum was found only in the upper reaches of the Centuria River, which is not exposed to human influence, while Navicula flandriae was found in two rivers (the Bolina and the Mleczna) affected by salt mine water from hard coal mines. The impact of anthropogenic salinity on diatom communities is as yet poorly documented. Therefore, we conducted a survey on this phenomenon. We surveyed seven sampling sites for diatom assemblages and habitat characteristics, including three sampling sites impacted by mine water. Navicula flandriae was recorded at both sampling sites affected by salt mine water and in two other rivers (the Centuria and the Mitręga), indicating its wide preference for salinity. We confirmed the occurrence of P. nanum at the same site where this species was found and described in our previous paper. In addition, we recorded the occurrence of this species at two other sites in habitats with similar characteristics (lower reaches of the Centuria and Wiercica rivers). Our results indicate a more common occurrence of N. flandriae and P. nanum, which means that further monitoring of diatoms is necessary.
EN
In the article the method of analysis of financial potential using taxonomy method has been developed as well as it has been tested on the basis of empirical data of Ukrainian forestry enterprises. The application of such a method made it possible to construct a rating assessment of a complex and multifactorial economic object – the financial potential, using algorithms of systematization to multidimensional quantities. The authors present the stages of application of analytical procedures for assessing the dynamics of taxonomic indicators of financial potential as well as for constructing the rating of the suggested business entities. An innovative model of financial potential of forestry enterprises is proposed, which will allow to identify the complex of properties of an object as a basis for forming a set of analytical procedures for assessing its state. The obtained results of the analysis can serve as the basis for constructing a management strategy to optimize the financial potential of the enterprise.
4
Content available In defence of invertebrate fossil taxonomy
EN
Starting from a subjective viewpoint on the decreasing interest in invertebrate fossil taxonomy, this essay discusses its importance in palaeobiological studies exemplified with cases from the palaeobiogeography and palaeoecology of rugose corals, and aims at provoking a discussion on the topic. The possible causes of this negative declining trend include inherent problems of palaeontological taxonomy, and changing systems in science and higher education.
EN
The known occurrence of corals distinguished here in the new Family Krynkaphyllidae varies at the subfamily level. Those of the Subfamily Krynkaphyllinae subfam. nov. are so far almost unknown from outside of the Donets Basin. In contrast, those of the Subfamily Colligophyllinae subfam. nov. are common, possibly ranging from the lower Viséan Dorlodotia Salée, 1920, a potential ancestor of the family, to the Artinskian Lytvophyllum tschernovi Soshkina, 1925. They bear different generic names, but were all originally described as fasciculate colonial. A detailed study of Lytvophyllum dobroljubovae Vassilyuk, 1960, the type species of Colligophyllum gen. nov., challenges that recognition in that at least some of those taxa are solitary and gregarious and/or protocolonial. As such, solitary, protocolonial and, probably, fasciculate colonial habits are accepted in the Colligophyllinae subfam. nov., whereas the Krynkaphyllinae subfam. nov. contains only solitary taxa. The resemblance to the Suborder Lonsdaleiina Spasskiy, 1974 led to the analysis of families included in that suborder by Hill (1981) in the context of their relationship, or homeomorphy, to Krynkaphyllidae fam. nov. This question primarily concerns the Family Petalaxidae Fomichev, 1953; a relationship with the Family Geyerophyllidae Minato, 1955, is more distant, if one exists. The distinct, parallel stratigraphic successions of taxa within two subfamilies of the Krynkaphyllidae fam. nov. document their probably common roots and early divergence. However, a lack of robust data precludes an interpretation or treatment of those successions as phylogenetic. The absence of key stratigraphic and morphologic data meant that eastern Asiatic taxa have not been considered in these successions; however, morphological similarities allow for their tentative inclusion within the Krynkaphyllidae fam. nov. The following new taxa are introduced: Krynkaphyllidae fam. nov., Krynkaphyllinae subfam. nov., Colligophyllinae subfam. nov., Krynkaphyllum gen. nov., Colligophyllum gen. nov., Protokionophyllum feninoense sp. nov., Krynkaphyllum multiplexum sp. nov., Krynkaphyllum validum sp. nov., and three species of Protokionophyllum Vassilyuk in Aizenverg et al., 1983 left in open nomenclature.
EN
A new genus, Hypowaagenia (type species: H. endressi nov. sp.), is introduced for previously unknown large-sized macroconchiate aspidoceratid ammonites with an umbilical and a ventrolateral row of spines. In the medium and adult stages irregular ribs interconnect these spines. The oldest unequivocal record of this genus comes from the Early Kimmeridgian Planula Zone, whereas the type material of H. endressi nov. sp. comes from the upper Platynota Zone/? lowermost Hypselocyclum Zone. Corresponding microconchs have not yet been identified. Although all unequivocal records come from Southern Germany, a Tethyan origin is most likely for these aspidoceratids. Another, stratigraphically younger species tentatively included in Hypowaagenia is Aspidoceras acanthomphalum (Zittel, 1870), which is, however, only recorded yet by mesoconchiate specimens. The ammonite fauna of the type horizon of H. endressi nov. sp. is briefly characterized and termed as the geniculatum Biohorizon of the late Platynota Zone.
EN
The research was conducted in July 2018 on six oxbow lakes of the San River. A total of 21 samples from various macrophyte species were collected. Over 400 species of diatoms were identified in the analyzed materials, 9 of which belonged to the Rhopalodiaceae family. Most of these Epithemia and Rhopalodia species developed as dominants in most of the studied samples. One of reported species – Epithemia selengaensis Vishnyakov, Kulikovskiy & Genkal was first time reported from Poland. The aim of the study was to present the taxonomic diversity of the representatives of the Rhopalodiaceae family growing different macrophyte species in oxbow lakes in the summer aspect.
EN
Revision of the Silesian bear fauna, based on material from 152 sites, mainly cave and karstic localities, and also archaeological and open-air sites, shows the presence of 13 forms and species. These records encompass the last 16.5 Ma and may be divided into five main morphophyletic groups. The oldest bears, represented by the genera Ballusia and Ursavus, are dated to 16.5-11 Ma, and belonged to the stem forms of the subfamily Ursinae. After a break of 6 My, the earliest members of the genus Ursus appeared, and all known Pliocene bears in Silesia belong to the genus Ursus were identified as Ursus minimus. They represent one or two migration events. Additionally, between 3.6 and 3.2 Ma, a single occurence of Agriotherium insigne was recorded from the Węże 1 site. A few Early Pleistocene bear records are represented by U. etruscus, which was a probable ancestor of both arctoid and spelaeoid bear lineages. The oldest representative of Ursus ex gr. arctos known so far and assigned to U. a. suessenbornensis is known from one latest Early Pleistocene (1.2-0.9 Ma) locality, while other Polish records of this form require confirmation. The first occurrence of U. deningeri, the oldest taxon within the U. ex gr. deningeri-spelaeus lineage, was recorded from ~700 ka deposits in Silesia. During the pronounced cold period of MIS 12, the Scandinavian ice sheet covered almost the entire modern territory of Poland, with the exception of the Sudetes and the Carpathians. The accompanying drastic faunal turnover led to the formation of the pan-Eurasian Mammoth Fauna at ~460 ka. At that time a characteristic member of this fauna, the steppe brown bear Ursus arctos priscus, a specific ecomorph adapted to live in open grasslands, appeared in this region. It survived until the beginning of MIS 1, when modern Ursus arctos arctos appeared in Silesia and survived to the present day. U. deningeri was the most common bear during the Middle Pleistocene, while the first records of U. spelaeus spelaeus appeared since MIS 7. The latter form was replaced by U. ingressus during the Late Pleistocene (~110-100 ka). Spelaeoid bears totally dominated the cave assemblage, and finally vanished between 27 and 24 ka.
EN
This study investigated the potential of three microalgae taxonomic groups of Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota and Bacillariophyceae for biogas production. Biogas potential was assessed in mesophilic anaerobic digestion batch tests over a period of 20 days. The cumulative biogas yield (CBY) of Chlorophyta and Cyanoprocaryota was respectively 396.21 mL/g Volatile Solids (VS) and 382.45 mL/g VS. Bacillariophyceae digestion showed lower biogas production of 357.07 mL/g VS. The highest cumulative methane yield (CMY) of 241.25 mL CH4/g VS was recorded for Cyanoprocaryota biomass, which was signifi cantly higher (p<0.05) than the other two types of microalgae. The highest methane content in biogas of 63.08% was observed with Cyanoprokaryota. Chemical composition of biomass as well as biogas productivity are infl uenced by algal taxonomy.
EN
Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous successions of the Manín Unit of the Central Western Carpathians are exposed in Butkov Quarry in the Middle Váh Region, Slovakia. A significant part of the macrofauna belonging to neocomitid ammonites, formerly classified under the genus Teschenites Thieuloy, 1971, occurs in deposits spanning the Valanginian/Hauterivian boundary. The original definition of Teschenites was accompanied by uncertainties in the taxonomic and stratigraphic position of its original type species, i.e., Hoplites neocomien-siformis Uhlig, 1902. The present contribution focuses on and provides a possible taxonomic solution by es-tablishing the new genus Tescheniceras. In Butkov Quarry, the new genus includes five species. Tescheniceras flucticulum (Thieuloy, 1977), the type species, is the most abundant. Tescheniceras callidiscum (Thieuloy, 1971), the subzonal species for the uppermost Valanginian (Thieuloy 1971b), occurs only sporadically. Because Acanthodiscus radiatus (Bruguiére, 1789), the index species for the basal Hauterivian (radiatus Zone) in the international ammonite zonation, does not occur in the locality, the basal Hauterivian is indicated by the first appearance of the genus Spitidiscus Kilian, 1910.
EN
Over three thousand specimens representing the superfamily Trochoidea Rafinesque, 1815 [Trochidae Rafi-nesque, 1815 and Calliostomatidae Thiele, 1924 (1847)] from the upper Upper Badenian = Kosovian = lower Serra vallian (middle Miocene) marine deposits of Ukraine, housed in the collections of the Polish Academy of Sciences Museum of the Earth in Warsaw (MZ), are studied herein. The abundant material has allowed for investigations of the intraspecific variation and revision of earlier determinations. As a result, 21 species belong¬ing to 5 genera have been identified, described and illustrated, of which one is new [Clanculus (Clanculopsis) krachi sp. nov.] and one is left in open nomenclature. Granulifera O. Anistratenko, 2000 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Clanculopsis Monterosato, 1879; Granulifera pulla O. Anistratenko, 2000 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Monodonta tuberculata Eichwald, 1830; Gibbula sytovae Amitrov, 1961 is con¬sidered a junior subjective synonym of Trochus miocaenicus Mayer, 1853; Gibbula volhynica Friedberg, 1928 is considered a junior subjective synonym of Trochus novemcinctus von Buch, 1830; and Trochus buchii du Bois de Montpéreux, 1831 is suppressed in favour of the senior subjective synonym Trochus puschii Andrzejowski, 1830. The geographic distribution and stratigraphic ranges of the taxa are given. Six species are known only from the Polish-Ukrainian part of the Fore-Carpathian Basin. The protoconch features are systematically studied in the Trochidae and Calliostomatidae from this area for the first time.
EN
The article presents a method of solving the problem of the assessment of the exploitation policy. It was assumed that the evaluation of the exploitation policy can and should be carried out with reference to defined universal patterns. This allows comparability of such a policy, as well as making decisions regarding necessary changes. Therefore, there was proposed a way of building pattern models of the exploitation policy and there was carried out the assessment of the exploitation policies of the selected technical network systems, based on the selected taxonomic model.
PL
Przygotowanie i realizacja leczenia radioterapeutycznego wiąże się z wdrożeniem i postępowaniem w oparciu o bardzo złożone procedury, determinujące się wzajemnie, oraz przy udziale profesjonalistów z różnych grup zawodowych. Konieczność utrzymania restrykcji przestrzegania zalecanej dawki i geometrii napromieniowania podczas leczenia pacjenta wynika z potwierdzonej relacji dawka-odpowiedź w przypadku zmian nowotworowych i narządów krytycznych, pozostawiając niewielki margines na błędy w leczeniu. To wymaga wprowadzenia kompleksowego systemu zapobiegania zdarzeniom niepożądanym (tj. błędy w leczeniu), poprzez monitorowanie i analizę potencjalnych oraz zaistniałych incydentów/wypadków/niezgodności/„near misses” podczas procesu przygotowania i realizacji leczenia radioterapeutycznego. W Wielkiej Brytanii został zorganizowany system poprawiania praktyki i bezpieczeństwa w radioterapii, w oparciu o transparentną analizę zdarzeń niepożądanych, pozwalającą na usprawnienie procesów roboczych, optymalizację i planowanie procesów, rozwój i implementację nowych usług na bazie już ustalonej praktyki. Pozwala on również na otwartą analizę przyczyn pojawiania się usług niezgodnych i korektę ustalonej praktyki. Na potrzeby zobiektywizowania i ujednolicenia tego systemu wprowadzono kodowanie „ścieżki” radioterapeutycznej oraz zaimplementowano metody taksonomiczne do analizy czynników przyczynowych pojawiania się zdarzeń niepożądanych.
EN
The preparation and implementation of radiotherapy services (RT) are based on very complex procedures that determine each other, and cooperation of professionals from different professional groups. The need to maintain restrictions on compliance with the prescribed dose and patient setup during a treatment results from the confirmed dose-response relationship for tumours and critical organs, with a small margin for errors in the treatment. It requires to implement a comprehensive system to prevent adverse events (ie errors in treatment), by monitoring and analyzing potential and occurring incidents/ accidents/inconsistencies/„near misses” during the preparation and implementation of RT. In Great Britain, the system has been established for improving the practice and safety in radiotherapy, It is based on a transparent analysis of adverse events, resulting with improvement of operational processes, optimization and planning, development and implementation of new services. It also allows the analysis of the reasons for non-compliant services and implementation of corrections in their delivery/ processing. For the purpose of objectifying and harmonising of this system, coding of the RT „pathway” has been introduced and taxonomic methods have been implemented to analyse the causative factors of adverse events.
EN
The Family Kumpanophyllidae Fomichev, 1953, synonymised by Hill (1981) with the Family Aulophyllidae Dybowski, 1873, is emended and accepted as valid. The new concept of this family, based on both new collections and discussion on literature data, confirms the solitary growth form of its type genus Kumpanophyllum Fomichev, 1953. However, several fasciculate colonial taxa, so far assigned to various families, may belong to this family as well. The emended genus Kumpanophyllum forms a widely distributed taxon, present in Eastern and Western Europe and in Asia. Its Serpukhovian and Bashkirian occurrences in China vs Bashkirian occurrences in the Donets Basin and in Spain, may suggest its far-Asiatic origin, but none of the existing taxa can be suggested as ancestral for that genus. Thus, the suborder position of the Kumpanophyllidae remains unknown. Four new species: K. columellatum, K. decessum, K. levis, and K. praecox, three Kumpanophyllum species left in open nomenclature and one offsetting specimen, questionably assigned to the genus, are described.
EN
A new Subfamily Dirimiinae of the Family Kumpanophyllidae Fomichev, 1953 is introduced on the basis of Dirimia gen. nov., which is represented by six new named species and three species left in open nomenclature. The new species are Dirimia multiplexa, D. similis, D. recessia, D. composita, D. extrema, D. nana, Dirimia sp. 1, Dirimia sp. 2 and Dirimia sp. 3. The progressing atrophy of the columnotheca, leading to its total reduction in extreme species, and the occurrence of an axial structure instead of a compact pseudocolumella established in these species are accepted as differences exceeding the genus level. All specimens assigned to this subfamily were derived from the same Limestone F1 of the Donets Basin, and mostly from the same locality. The reasons for their split into a relatively large number of species are: 1) an increased radiation typical for faunal turnover times; 2) a delay in the appearance of differentiated skeletal characters relative to the appearance of genetic differences large enough to characterise different species; 3) a bias in preservation of fossil remnants by comparison to living populations, amplified by biases in the collections available for study by comparison to the total number of specimens fossilised.
EN
The maritime transportation system is increasingly a target of cyber attacks. This paper describes a taxonomy that supports the creation of adversarial cyber models, risk mitigation, and resiliency plans as applied to the maritime industry, using the Automatic Identification System as a specific illustration of the approach. This method has already been applied to the aviation sector; retooling it for a maritime example demonstrates its broad applicability to the transportation sector, in general.
EN
We present the first report and description of the pinnate diatom Haslea sp. from the northeastern Adriatic Sea, Croatia, producing a blue pigment. This organism is very similar to the well-known Haslea ostrearia, the first described “blue” diatom producing marennine, i.e. the pigment involved in the greening of oysters, and recently described H. provincialis. However, the Croatian diatom slightly differs from other Haslea species in its morphology and 18S rRNA sequence. The discovery of Haslea sp. from Croatia confirmed the possible existence of more species among the representatives of blue Haslea species, as previously assumed. The discovery of several genetically distinct populations of Haslea ostrearia, new species H. karadagensis, H. provincialis and Haslea sp. from Croatia, suggests that species richness in the group of “blue” diatoms is probably underestimated and still more new blue diatoms remain undiscovered. This also raises questions about previously published reports and observations of Haslea distribution in the Mediterranean Sea whether these organisms really belong to H. ostrearia.
EN
This paper presents the main definitions relating to dependability. Basic definitions including reliability, security, maintainability, etc. are described first. They are then supplemented by additional definitions, which address to the threats of dependability (faults, errors, failures). Overlapping dependability standards, renumbering and integration can cause uncertainty when using of a certain definition. For this purpose, authors present complemented fault taxonomy for fault-tolerant real-time systems to eliminate inconsistencies and to unify existing fault taxonomies.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono najważniejsze definicje dotyczące słowności. Podstawowe definicje w tym niezawodność, bezpieczeństwo, obsługiwalność, itp. opisane są w pierwszej kolejności. Następnie są one uzupełniane dodatkowymi definicjami, które odnoszą się do zagrożeń słowności (usterki, błędy, awarie). Nakładające się standardy słowności, renumeracja i integracja mogą spowodować niepewność przy korzystaniu z pewnych definicji. W tym celu autorzy przedstawiają uzupełnioną taksonomię usterek w tolerujących błędy systemach czasu rzeczywistego. Celem jest wyeliminowanie niespójności oraz unifikacji istniejących taksonomii usterek.
EN
Early to Late Eocene bryozoans from the La Meseta Formation of Seymour Island were collected at two localities within the Cucullaea I Allomember (Telm4 and Telm5) on the northwestern side of the island and in two localities within the Submeseta Allomember (Telm6 and Telm7) on the northeastern side. This fauna is represented by cyclostomes of the suborders Tubuliporina and Cerioporina and suborders of Neocheilostomata, among which nine species have been recognized. The following new species are introduced: Micropora nordenskjoeldi sp. nov., Lunulites marambionis sp. nov., Otionellina antarctica sp. nov. and Otionellina eocenica sp. nov. Some other taxa recognized in the studied material, such as Reticrescis plicatus, Uharella seymourensis and Celleporaria mesetaensis, were previously described from the lowermost (Telm1) or uppermost parts (Telm6-7), thus their stratigraphical ranges within the La Meseta Formation are extended. The diverse growth-forms of the bryozoans include a sole ball-shaped celleporiform colony and reticulated and bilamellar-foliaceous colony, as well as rich encrusting and free-living forms (so-called sand faunas), indicating the existence of locally restricted shallow-marine environments. This is particularly true in the middle and upper parts of the La Meseta Formation (Telm4-7). Reticulated, spheroidal and robust, branched colonies, which thrived in the environmental conditions of the lower part (Telm1), are represented only by a sparse bryozoan biota in the upper part of the La Meseta Formation. Lunulitiforms, such as Lunulites and Otionellina which are warm water, free-living bryozoans, dominate in the siliciclastic sediments of Telm5, but erect folded sheets forming a shell bed composed of ?Goodonia occur in Telm6-7. These three genera are recognized in Antarctica for the first time. The austral genus Otionellina has its earliest fossil record here, showing close biogeographical links with the Late Eocene-Miocene faunas of Australia and New Zealand. The taxonomic composition of the studied fauna together with their growth forms is a very good tool for reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions in the middle and upper parts (Telm4-7) of the La Meseta Formation, deposited during the Late Ypresian-Priabonian.
EN
About twenty species of scleractinian corals are known from the shallow marine epicontinental deposits (Middle Triassic: Anisian, Muschelkalk) of Kraków-Upper Silesia region. Four of them require taxonomic revision. On the basis of partly preserved micromorphological features and the microstructure of the skeletons two of them are corrected, i.e. Coelocoenia? assmanni Weissermel, 1925 and C. exporrecta Weissermel, 1925, from Kamień Śląski, near Opole (Upper Silesia). Coelocoenia? assmanni was incorporated into Eckastraea prisca (Weissermel, 1925), family Eckastraeidae Morycowa, 2006, in Morycowa and Szulc (2006) and C. exporrecta is assigned to a new genus Opolestraea nov. gen., family Eckastraeidae.
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