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EN
In this study, the influence of a combination of different photoperiods and temperatures on the final maturation and social interactions in three-spined sticklebacks was investigated. Water temperature appears to be the principal signal affecting gonadal development and breeding activity of sticklebacks in pre-spawning and spawning periods. Males can mature independently of photoperiod and a stimulatory effect of high temperature is not diminished by light deprivation. On the other hand, low temperature can inhibit the development of secondary sexual characters in males exposed to long day or constant light. In females, lighting seems to be more decisive for complete maturation and the lack of light delays the maturation rate, even in high temperature. While kept under the same conditions, males mature quicker than females. The presence of light and visual information are crucial to establish the social position of individuals in the group. In light, a rigid social hierarchy with one dominant, sexually active male is observed. In constant darkness, however, several males in the group demonstrate every sign of sexual activity.
EN
The annual reproductive cycle in two wild populations of three-spined stickleback was studied. Sticklebacks from the Dead Vistula River (Martwa Wisła) (brackish water) and the Oliva Stream (Potok Oliwski) (freshwater) were exposed to annual environmental changes in their natural habitats. Ovaries and livers (females), and testes and kidneys (males) were collected during 1-2 years. The gonadosomatic IG, hepatosomatic IH, nephrosomatic IN indices, kidney epithelium height (KEH) and size of oocytes were calculated.The number of mature oocytes and percentage of ovulating females were determined during the spawning season. Histological changes in the ovaries and testes were described throughout a year. Annual reproductive cycles were similar in both populations of sticklebacks. This is the first histological and morphological study carried out throughout a year, simultaneously in two wild populations of three-spined sticklebacks inhabiting different environments. An improved scale of gonadal development in conjunction with the determined indices and fecundity give a comprehensive description of the reproductive cycle. These new observations, in combination with previously reported features, provide a universal scale that can be successfully used to distinguish all phases of gametogenesis in sticklebacks in different habitats.
EN
Presence of fish from 10 species was confirmed in shallow close to shore waters on the tip of the Hel Peninsula, in period from early spring to late autumn. Zone from shore to 5 meter depth was investigated. The highest number and biomass were noticed in summer on 3 meter depth. As general biodiversity taking into account number increases with increasing depth, whereas biodiversity taking into account biomass is not so depth dependent. Flounder is the absolute dominant at all depths in investigated region. Common goby and three spined stickleback are two other significant species. Comparison of data from all investigated depths shows that sampling in the most close to shore zone (1 meter depth) let well describe fish community of near shore shallow waters in investigated area.
EN
In this study the concentrations of trace metals in typical parasites of the three-spined stickleback, i.e. Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda) and Thersitina gasterostei (Copepoda), and in the sticklebacks (infected or uninfected) were compared. Concentrations of Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were determined. The accumulations of metals suggested that S. solidus, T. gasterostei and their hosts could serve as biological indicators of heavy metal contamination.
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