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EN
Variability of stress proteins concentration in caged carp exposed to transplantation experiment model dam reservoir was caused only by natural (climatic and biological) conditions. Thus, the reference data of stress proteins concentration range in young carp individuals were obtained. Metallothionein, HSP70 and HSP90 protein concentrations as biomarkers were assayed in the livers, gills and muscles of six-month-old (summer) or nine-month-old (autumn) carp individuals in relation to the site of encaging, season (summer or autumn), the term of sampling (1, 2 or 3 weeks after the transplantation) and tissue. Physicochemical analyses of the condition of water as well as pollution detection were conducted during each stage of the experiment. As the result of this study, the range of the variability of the stress protein concentration in young carp individuals was obtained. According to the analyses of the aquatic conditions of a reservoir with no detectable pollutants, we conclude that the variability in the stress protein concentration levels in the groups that were compared is solely the result of the natural conditions. Future regular monitoring of the reservoir using the transplantation method and young carp individuals will be both possible and reliable. Moreover, the range of variability in the stress protein concentrations that were measured in the young C. carpio individuals acquired from the model dam reservoir in relation to all of the studied factors may be applied in the monitoring of any other similar reservoir.
EN
The results of a research into the scale and consequences of the degradation of aquatic ecosystems in Ukrainian Polesie have been detected in article, and the areas of increased anthropogenic pressure have been identified which greatly affect the condition and number of aquatic macrophytes. The biodiversity of sites with different anthropogenic load was evaluated using the biodiversity criteria. In the research, the structural and functional features of macrophytic species diversity within Teteriv River ecological corridor as a typical river landscape of Ukrainian Polesie were determined and described, the floristic composition was determined. Within the ecological zones, the number of species and their projective coverage in areas with different anthropogenic pressures within Teteriv River ecological corridor were determined. The basic criteria for the implementation of deferred biomonitoring based on the analysis of the dynamics of the species composition of the phytocoenoses of Teteriv River ecological corridor on the indicators of ecological stability and plasticity using the species-specific criteria, are: Margalef species richness index, Sørensen–Dice index, Shannon diversity index, Simpson’s index, and Pielou’s evenness index. Based on the results, correlation dependencies have been constructed, which will allow to obtain data on the stability of the development of aquatic ecosystems according to the data of species surveys. Interconnections between biodiversity indicators and indicators of surface water quality within the Ukrainian Polesie were found; they are the fundamental component of a long-term monitoring of the stability in the development of aquatic phytocenoses.
EN
In the year 2016, passive biomonitoring studies were conducted in the forest areas of southern and north-eastern Poland: the Karkonosze Mountains (Kark), the Beskidy Mountains (Beskid), Borecka Forest (P. Bor), Knyszynska Forest (P. Kny), and Białowieza Forest (P. Bia). This study used bark from the tree, Betula pendula Roth. Samples were collected in spring (Sp), summer (Su), and autumn (Au). Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were determined for the samples using the atomic absorption spectrometry method with flame excitation (F-AAS). Based on the obtained results, the studied areas were ranked according to level of heavy-metal deposition: forests of southern Poland > forests of north-eastern Poland. Some seasonal changes in the concentrations of metals accumulated in bark were also indicated, which is directly related to their changing concentrations in the air during the calendar year, for instance, the winter heating season produces higher concentrations of heavy metals in the bark samples taken in spring. When deciding to do biomonitoring studies using bark, but also other biological materials, it is necessary to take into account the period in which the conducted research is done and the time when the samples are taken for analysis, because this will have a significant impact on the obtained results.
EN
The aim of this study is to test two plant species, the common dandelion Taraxacum officinale and moss Pleurozium schreberi, as bio monitors of trace metal pollution emitted by motor vehicles. The samples of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (green segments) and the common dandelion Taraxacum officinale (leaves) were collected within 12 transects along the state road No. E77 near Chyzne, Sothern Poland. The transects were located on the eastern and western side of the road (downwind and upwind towards prevailing winds), at the following distances from the road: 5, 50, 100, 300 500 and 600 m. Total concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn in the plant material were determined. The studied species accumulated trace metals in the similar amounts. Statistically significant differences in metal concentrations between two plant species were observed only in the case of Cu and Pb. Copper concentrations were higher in the common dandelion, while the moss Pleurozium schreberi accumulated considerably higher amounts of Pb. There is a statistically significant negative correlation between the trace metal concentrations in plants and the distance to the road. There are also statistically significant differences in concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the common dandelion between the samples collected from the opposite sides of the road: upwind/downwind towards the prevailing wind direction at the distance up to 300 meters. The concentrations are higher on the downwind side of the road.
EN
In Europe the monitoring of lakes with regard to benthic diatoms is still conducted in line with the European Water Framework Directive. Ribbon lakes are a special case as extremely steep slopes of the lake basin cause their littoral zone to be narrow. The Durowskie ribbon lake was chosen as a model for the assessment of the ecological status of waters based on its Diatom Index. Given its use in recreation, it is under heavy anthropogenic pressure. Physicochemical and biological parameters were monitored in the peak of the vegetational season (July, August) between 2010 and 2018 at 12 varied littoral sites across the full length of the shoreline. This long-term analysis of the Diatom Index, despite showing an improvement in the quality of water, demonstrated the ecological state of Lake Durowskie to be weak (southern, deep part) to moderate (north, shallow part). The taxonomic structure of diatoms (referral and indicator taxa) in phytobenthos communities allowed to show the changes in physicochemical parameters of the environment such as pH, oxygen dissolved in water and its trophic status. Research results are shown in relation to the anthropogenic changes to the lake’s direct catchment area and the results of the physicochemical monitoring of waters.
EN
The aim of the carried out research was to assess atmospheric aerosol pollution levels in the area of three apiaries located in the Opole Province and to analyse heavy metals pollution in bee honey and western honey bees. Pleurozium schreberi moss was used in analysing atmospheric aerosol pollution with the active biomonitoring method, whereas heavy metals levels were determined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry method (F-AAS). Relative Accumulation Factors (RAF) were used in determining increases of analytes concentrations in the moss samples. As a result of the carried out study, the following conclusions have been reached: mosses are good bioindicators of environment pollution thanks to their sorption qualities, similarly to honey bees, which are a bioindicator of environment pollution. According to the Commission Regulation of European Union of 2015 regarding the maximum levels of lead in certain foods (honey), it should not exceed 0.1 mg/kg. On the basis of the carried out study it can be stated that the concentration of this analyte in the analysed honey was below the limit of quantification of the applied analytical method.
PL
Celem przeprowadzonych badań była ocena możliwości wykorzystania kory brzozy brodawkowatej (Betula pendula Roth) w biomonitoringu terenów leśnych. Do badań wykorzystano korę drzew rosnących na obszarze Beskidów i Puszczy Boreckiej. W korze, metodą absorpcyjnej spektrometrii atomowej ze wzbudzeniem w płomieniu (F-AAS), oznaczono stężenia metali ciężkich: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd oraz Pb. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono sezonowe zmiany stężenia analitów. Wykazano również, że kora brzozy brodawkowatej może być wykorzystywana jako bioindykator do oceny zanieczyszczenia aerozolu atmosferycznego na tych obszarach np. metalami ciężkimi. Ważne jest jednak, aby dokonać walidacji poszczególnych etapów procedury analitycznej z wykorzystaniem kory drzewa oraz uwzględnić czas pobierania materiału do badań.
EN
The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of using silver birch bark (Betula pendula Roth) in biomonitoring of forest areas. The research involved the use of tree bark growing in two areas - the Beskidy and the Borecka Forest. In the bark, by the method of atomic absorption spectrometry with flame excitation (F-AAS), concentrations of heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb were determined. On the basis of the conducted study, there were determined seasonal changes in the concentration of analytes. It was shown that the bark of a silver birch can be used as a bioindicator to assess atmospheric aerosol contamination in these areas, e.g. with heavy metals. It is important to validate the individual stages of the analytical procedure using the tree bark and take into account the time of collecting the material for testing.
PL
Bioindykacja pozwala na wykrycie sumarycznej toksyczności wszystkich szkodliwych substancji, co ma szczególne znaczenie w przypadku substancji, których toksyczność objawia się w działaniu synergistycznym. Jest to zatem metoda oceny ogólnej toksyczności kontrolowanego układu i stanowi doskonałe uzupełnienie wykonywanych okresowo analiz laboratoryjnych wody.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy było pilotażowe określenie stanu zanieczyszczenia pozostałościami środków ochrony roślin ekosystemów słodkowodnych na obszarach intensywnie użytkowanych rolniczo województwa podlaskiego. W badaniach analitycznych poszukiwano pozostałości 431 substancji czynnych (s.cz.) pestycydów. Oznaczenie jakościowe i ilościowe wykonano techniką chromatografii cieczowej sprzężonej z tandemową spektrometrią mas. W 85% ogółu badanych próbek stwierdzono obecność pozostałości pestycydów. Spośród 431 badanych substancji wykryto tylko 23 substancje czynne, z czego najliczniejszą grupę stanowiły herbicydy (11 s.cz.). Wyniki przeprowadzonych wskazują na występowanie znacznych stężeń pestycydów w rzęsie wodnej (Lemna L.), co potwierdza, iż roślina ta jest doskonałym bioindykatorem zanieczyszczeń ekosystemów słodkowodnych.
EN
The aim of this study was to pilot the determination of the contamination state with residues of plant protection products of freshwater ecosystems in the areas of Podlasie voivodship characterized by intensive agriculture. The analytical studies indicated residues of 431 active ingredients (a.i.) of pesticides. The qualitative and quantitative determination was performed using liquid chromatography technique coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. The presence of residues was found in 85% of the samples tested . Out of the 431 substances tested, only 23 active substances were detected, with herbicides as the most numerous group (11 (a.i.). The results show that there are significant concentrations of pesticides in the water lance (Lemna L.), which confirms that this plant is an excellent bioindicator of freshwater ecosystems contamination.
EN
Environmental monitoring of potentially toxic trace elements is important to control their concentrations in the environment. The suitability of bark and topsoil for monitoring of these heavy metals and acidifying gases pollution was investigated. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni were determined in topsoil and in samples of necrotic bark of Pinus sylvestris L. collected along transects around the Skawina industry center and in parts of Bielansko-Tyniecki Landscape Park in Krakow. After comparing the concentration of heavy metals and pH value in pine bark with topsoil, it was observed that topsoil is better biomonitor for lead and nickel than bark of Pinus sylvestris and that bark appear to be suitable bioindicator of atmospheric deposition only for cadmium and acidifying components. The results obtained confirm the negative impact of aluminium work, power plant and transport on quality and number of environmental pollutants at the sites situated near these industries and road with intensive traffic. Therefore, the constant monitoring of these localities is necessary.
PL
Monitorowanie stężenia potencjalnie toksycznych pierwiastków śladowych w środowisku jest bardzo ważne. W tym celu zbadano przydatność kory sosny i wierzchniej warstwy gleby do monitorowania metali ciężkich i związków zakwaszających w środowisku. Stężenia Pb, Cd, Ni określano w glebie oraz w próbkach kory Pinus sylvestris L. zebranych wokół centrum przemysłowego Skawiny oraz na terenie Bielańsko-Tynieckiego Parku Krajobrazowego w Krakowie. Badania porównawcze wykazały, że gleba jest lepszym wskaźnikiem zanieczyszczenia ołowiem i niklem niż kora sosny, natomiast kora wydaje się być odpowiednim bioindykatorem tylko dla kadmu i związków zakwaszających. Uzyskane wyniki potwierdzają negatywny wpływ huty aluminium, elektrowni i transportu na jakość i wielkość zanieczyszczeń środowiska w miejscach położonych w pobliżu tych gałęzi przemysłu i drogach o intensywnym ruchu. Dlatego konieczne jest stałe monitorowanie tych miejsc.
EN
The aim of the carried out research was the assessment of the possibility to use a popular bioindicator - Pleurozium schreberi mosses as a biosensor of the air pollution in living quarters with the analytes originating from tobacco smoke. The moss bag method of active biomonitoring, popular in environmental studies, was applied; the method is based on exposing mosses collected in clean areas in the locations polluted with, for example, heavy metals. However, this experiment involved exposing mosses in living quarters, in which approximately 10 cigarettes were smoked daily (first room - kitchen). For the purpose of comparison, moss samples were also placed in another room (bedroom), which was potentially not polluted. After three months of exposure, the following heavy metals were determined in mosses: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg, using the atomic absorption spectrometry method. Additionally, these analytes were also determined in hair samples from the persons smoking in the room and from other smokers; the determined metal concentrations were compared with the results of the studies carried out using hair samples collected from non-smokers. On the basis of carried out research it was confirmed that, among others, the mosses exposed in living quarters accumulate heavy metals, such as Ni, Zn, Pb and Hg, which originate from tobacco smoke. Higher heavy metal concentrations were determined in hair samples from smokers, compared to hair samples from non-smokers.
PL
Celem przeprowadzonych badań była ocena możliwości wykorzystania popularnego bioindykatora mchów z gatunku Pleurozium schreberi jako bioczujnika zanieczyszczenia powietrza w pomieszczeniach mieszkalnych analitami pochodzącymi z dymu tytoniowego. Zastosowano popularną w badaniach środowiskowych metodę woreczkową biomonitoringu aktywnego (moss bag), polegającą na eksponowaniu mchów pobranych z terenów czystych na obszarach zanieczyszczonych np. metalami ciężkimi. Jednak w tym eksperymencie mchy eksponowano w lokalu mieszkalnym, w którym codziennie wypalanych było około 10 papierosów (pierwsze pomieszczenie - kuchnia). Dla porównania, próbki mchów były również umieszczone w drugim pomieszczeniu (w sypialni) - w pomieszczeniu potencjalnie niezanieczyszczonym. W mchach po trzymiesięcznej ekspozycji oznaczono metale ciężkie: Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb i Hg metodą absorpcyjnej spektrometrii atomowej. Dodatkowo anality te również oznaczono w próbkach włosów osoby palącej w tym pomieszczeniu oraz innych osób palących, a stężenia metali w nich oznaczone porównano z wynikami badań przeprowadzonych z wykorzystaniem próbek włosów pobranych od osób niepalących. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań stwierdzono m.in., że mchy eksponowane w pomieszczeniach mieszkalnych akumulują metale ciężkie, m.in. Ni, Zn, Pb i Hg, pochodzące z dymu tytoniowego. Oznaczono większe stężenia metali ciężkich w próbkach włosów palaczy w porównaniu do próbek włosów pobranych od osób niepalących.
EN
The heat of combustion and calorific value of empty seeds and seed wings were determined. The structure of seed and wing cells and the content of toxic metals and other elements (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, Na) were described. Heat of combustion was measured in a bomb calorimeter. Cell structure was described based on microscopic images acquired with the Nikon Alphaphot -2- TRIN microscope and camera and the Quanta 200 scanning electron microscope. The elemental analysis was performed in the Elementar Vario Macro Cube analyzer and the Milestone Start D microwave digestion system. The mean calorific value of the tested materials ranged from 19.20 to 19.49 MJ×kg-1. Heavy metal content was higher in pine and spruce seeds than in wings, but the noted concentrations should not have adverse environmental effects. Metal concentrations were similar to those reported by other authors. The tested seeds were abundant in potassium, calcium and magnesium. Wings and empty seeds from extraction residues can be burned and used as sources of renewable energy.
PL
W przedstawionych badaniach określono ciepło spalania i wartość opałową pustych nasion i ich skrzydełek, które mogą być wykorzystane na cele energetyczne. Opisana została ich budowa komórkowa oraz zawartość toksycznych metali i innych pierwiastków (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Mo, Co, Fe, Mn, Ca, Mg, K, Na), które mogą być emitowane do środowiska. Ciepło spalania wyznaczono metodą kalorymetryczną, budowę komórkową określano na podstawie zdjęć z mikroskopu z kamerą Nikon Alphaphot -2- TRIN i mikroskopu skaningowego Quanta 200. Analizę elementarną i pierwiastkową wykonano analizatorem Elementar Vario Macro Cube oraz mineralizatorem mikrofalowym Milestone Start D. Uzyskano średnią wartość opałową badanych materiałów w zakresie 19,20-19,49 MJ×kg-1. Zawartość metali ciężkich w nasionach sosny i świerka jest wyższa niż w skrzydełkach, jednak ich ilość nie powinna powodować negatywnych skutków ekologicznych. Zawartość metali była zbliżona do wartości podawanych przez innych autorów. Nasiona były zasobne w potas, wapń i magnez. Skrzydełka i puste nasiona po procesie wyłuszczenia szyszek można spalać i wykorzystywać jako paliwo pochodzące z OZE.
EN
The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of nitrogen fertilizer industry pollution on epiphytic lichen communities. The study plots are located in Scots pine Pinus sylvestris stands at different distances (up to 12 km) to the northeast and southwest of the nitrogen fertilizer producer plant in central Lithuania. The stands were semi-mature and mature and growing on sandy sites of the Vaccinio-myrtillosa site type. Species richness, composition and index of atmospheric purity (IAP) were assessed at each site. Species diversity was calculated by grouping species by their ecological values for eutrophication. Species frequency was calculated according to lichen life strategies (growth forms, photobionts, reproductive strategies). Twenty lichens species were recorded in the surrounding of the pollution source. An increase in species richness and diversity was found with increasing the distance up to 10 km from the plant. Based on IAP values three zones (< 5, 5–10, > 10 km) with different air pollution were distinguished. The increase in species richness was related to the increase in eutrophication-tolerating species along with sensitive to pollution species. The lichen diversity value of nitrophytic species (LDVnitro) increased with increasing distance from the pollution source. Foliose and fruticose growth forms were both positively significantly related with the distance, being common in the plots with lower level of pollution. Crustose lichens are less sensitive to this factor and the prevalence of crustose thalli was found in the nearest vicinity to the plant.
PL
Biologiczne systemy wczesnego ostrzegania bazują na behawioralnej reakcji ryb, małży, bezkręgowców, bakterii lub ich połączeniu. Pozwalają na natychmiastową detekcję zanieczyszczeń na podstawie prawidłowej interpretacji zmian zachowania wykorzystywanych organizmów wskaźnikowych.
EN
Heavy metals and radioactive compounds are potentially hazardous substances for plants, animals and humans in the Arctic. A good knowledge of the spatial variation of these substances in soil and primary producers, and their sources, is therefore essential. In the samples of lichen Thamnolia vermicularis, Salix polaris and Cassiope tetragona, and the soil samples collected in 2014 in Svalbard near Longyearbyen, the concentrations of the following heavy metals were determined: Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Hg, as well as the activity concentrations of the following: K-40, Cs-137, Pb-210, Pb-212, Bi-212, Bi-214, Pb-214, Ac-228, Th-231 and U-235 in the soil samples. The differences in the concentrations of the analytes accumulated in the different plant species and soil were studied using statistical methods. Sea aerosol was indicated as the source of Pb, Hg, Cs-137, Pb-210 and Th-231 in the studied area. A relatively high concentration of nickel was determined in the biota samples collected near Longyearbyen, compared to other areas of Svalbard. It was supposed that nickel may be released into the atmosphere as a consequence of the local coal mining around Longyearbyen.
PL
Pióra ptaków skutecznie mogą być wykorzystane jako narzędzie biomonitoringu. Ze względu na specyfikę wzrostu pióro ma zapis narażenia danego osobnika na związki toksyczne w dłuższym czasie, zwykle kilku tygodni.
PL
Celem przeprowadzonych badań był biomonitoring zanieczyszczenia wybranymi metalami ciężkimi: Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni i Pb terenu w pobliżu zbiornika Janów (woj. świętokrzyskie) oraz wody w niecce zbiornika. Metale ciężkie w matrycach środowiskowych, takich jak glony Palmaria palmata, mchy Pleurozium schreberi i gleba, oznaczano metodą absorpcyjnej spektrometrii atomowej. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych badań i wyznaczonych współczynników akumulacji względnej (RAF) dla eksponowanych próbek glonów wykazano niejednorodne zanieczyszczenie wód zbiornika, szczególnie miedzią i kadmem. Wartości RAF dla tych metali wynosiły odpowiednio od 0,08 do 0,51 i od 0,17 do 0,91. W nielicznych miejscach pomiarowych odnotowano duże stężenia ołowiu i niklu zakumulowanych w mchach, odpowiednio powyżej 6,39 i 3,33 mg/kg s.m. (s.m. - sucha masa). Największe stężenie kadmu i ołowiu w glebie oznaczono w próbce pobranej z punktu położonego w pobliżu stanowiska biwakowo-wędkarskiego (cCd = 2,10 mg/kg s.m., cPb = 256 mg/kg s.m.). Dopuszczalne stężenie ołowiu w powierzchniowych warstwach gleby na terenach zurbanizowanych wynosi 100 mg/kg s.m. Wyniki badań wskazują, iż glony, mchy i gleba mogą być istotnym źródłem informacji o zanieczyszczeniu środowiska metalami ciężkimi.
EN
The aim of the study was the biomonitoring of contamination with selected heavy metals: Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Pb of an area near the Janow water reservoir (Swietokrzyskie Province) and the water in the basin of the reservoir. Heavy metals in environmental matrices such as algae Palmaria palmata, moss Pleurozium schreberi and soil were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. The determined relative accumulation factors (RAF) of heavy metals in algae indicate a heterogeneous contamination of the reservoir, particularly with copper and cadmium. RAF values for these metals ranged from 0.08 to 0.51, and from 0.17 to 0.91. In a few measurement sites were recorded high concentrations of lead and nickel accumulated in mosses, respectively above 6.39 mg/kg d.m. and 3.33 mg/kg d.m. (d.m. - dry mass). The highest concentrations of cadmium and lead in the soil were determined in a sample collected near camping-fishing site (cCd = 2.10 mg/kg d.m., cPb = 256 mg/kg d.m.). It should be noted that the allowable concentration of lead in the surface layers of soil in urbanized areas is 100 mg/kg d.m. The results show that algae, moss and soil can be an important source of information about environmental contamination with heavy metals.
EN
Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni were determined in topsoil and in samples of necrotic bark of Pinus sylvestris L. collected along transects around the Skawina industry center and in parts of Bielansko-Tyniecki Landscape Park in Krakow (southeast Poland). The suitability of bark and topsoil for monitoring of these heavy metals and acidifying gases pollution was investigated. After comparing the concentration of heavy metals and pH value in pine bark with topsoil, it was observed that topsoil is better biomonitor for lead and nickel than bark of Pinus sylvestris and that bark appear to be suitable bioindicator of atmospheric deposition only for cadmium and acidifying components.
PL
W wierzchniej warstwie gleby oraz w próbkach kory sosny zwyczajnej Pinus sylvestris L. zebranych wokół centrum przemysłowego w Skawinie oraz na terenie Bielańsko-Tynieckiego Parku Krajobrazowego w Krakowie, położonego w południowo-wschodniej Polsce, oznaczono stężenia takich metali ciężkich, jak, Pb, Cd, Ni. Celem badań było wykazanie przydatności kory martwicowej i wierzchniej warstwy gleby do monitorowania zanieczyszczenia środowiska tymi metalami ciężkimi i związkami zakwaszającymi. Na podstawie porównania stężenia metali ciężkich w wierzchniej warstwie gleby i korze sosny oraz wartości pH kory sosnowej stwierdzono, że gleba jest lepszym biomonitorem dla ołowiu i niklu, natomiast kora sosny zwyczajnej Pinus sylvestris L. wydaje się być odpowiednim bioindykatorem depozycji atmosferycznej tylko dla kadmu i składników zakwaszających.
PL
Wśród organizmów bytujących w środowisku gruntowo-wodnym, bardzo wrażliwą na zmiany jakości wody grupę zwierząt stanowią płazy. Te ważne bioindykatory środowiska gruntowo-wodnego należą do kręgowców najbardziej zagrożonych wyginięciem. W związku z tym podjęto próbę oceny stanu populacji płazów na wybranym obszarze użytkowanym rolniczo, analizując jakość wód powierzchniowych w zbiornikach będących ich siedliskami, a także wód gruntowych z sąsiednich terenów rolnych. Biomonitoring jakości środowiska gruntowo-wodnego obejmował dwa siedliska płazów na obszarach gminy Stare Czarnowo (woj. zachodniopomorskie, Polska). Przeprowadzone analizy składu wód powierzchniowych i wód gruntowych wykazały dobry stan jakości siedlisk płazów, co potwierdziło liczne występowanie tych zwierząt. W obu siedliskach dominowały żaby zielone (P. lessonae/P. esculentus) i żaby brunatne (R. arvalis). Współczynnik podobieństwa Jaccarda wykazał zróżnicowanie badanych siedlisk, a ocena wskaźnika dogodności siedliska (HSI) dowiodła, że tylko jedno siedlisko stwarzało odpowiednie warunki do bytowania płazów. Wykazano, że nie tylko jakość wód miała znaczenie w doborze siedliska płazów, ale również inne elementy środowiskowe. Powinno to skłaniać do prowadzenia stałego biomonitoringu płazów w Polsce, ponieważ wiedza na temat ich rozmieszczenia nie jest wystarczająca.
EN
Amphibians as a group are very sensitive to water quality changes among organisms inhabiting soil-water environment. Those important bioindicators of soil-water environmemt are among the most endangered vertebrates. Therefore, an attempt was made to assess amphibian population status in the selected agricultural area. It was performed by analyzing surface water quality in the amphibian pond habitats as well as groundwater from the neighboring agricultural land. Biomonitoring of the soil-water environment quality included two selected amphibian habitats in the area of Gmina Stare Czarnowo (West Pomeranian Voivodeship, Poland). Content analyses of the surface and groundwaters demon-strated a good quality of amphibian habitats, confirmed by numerous amphibian occurrence. Both habitats wered dominated by green frogs (P. lessonae/P. esculentus) and brown frogs (R. arvalis). Jaccard similarity coefficient showed diversity of habitats investigated and Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) proved that only S1 was an appropriate habitat for amphibians. It was demonstrated that not only played water quality a role in amphibian habitat selection, but other environmental factors were important as well. Constant biomonitoring of amphibians in Poland would be recommended as knowledge about their distribution is still not adequate.
EN
Tightening of norms for air protection leads to a development of new and significantly more effective techniques for removing particulate matter, SOx and NOx from flue gas which originates from large solid fuel combustion. Recently, it has been found that combinations of these environmental technologies can also lead to the reduction of mercury emissions from coal power plants. Now the greatest attention is paid especially to the coal power plant in Opatovice nad Labem, close to Hradec Kralove. Its system for flue gas dedusting was replaced by a modern type of cloth fabric filter with the highest particle separation efficiency which belongs to the category of BAT. Using this technology, together with modernization of the desulphurisation device and increasing of nitrogen oxides removal efficiency, leads also to a reduction of mercury emissions from this power plant. The University of Hradec Kralove, the Opole University and EMPLA Hradec Kralove successfully cooperate in the field of toxic metals biomonitoring almost 20 years. In the Czech-Polish border region, comprehensive biomonitoring of mercury in bioindicators Xerocomus badius in 9 long-term monitored reference points is done. The values of mercury concentration measured in 2012 and 2016 were compared with values computed by a dispersion model SYMOS′97 (updated 2014). Thanks to modern methods of dedusting and desulphurisation, emissions of mercury from this large coal power plant are now smaller than before and that the downward trends continues. The results indicate that Xerocomus badius is a suitable bioindicator for a long-term monitoring of changes in mercury imissions in this forested border region. This finding is significant because it shows that this region is suitable for leisure, recreation, and rehabilitation.
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