Zmienność w czasie i przestrzeni danych stanowi kluczowy element różnych zjawisk zachodzących w środowisku przyrodniczym. W celu zbadania zmienności buduje się bazy danych, w których jedną z cech jest lokalizacja. W dobie automatyzacji i informatyzacji bazy danych to niezbędny element funkcjonowania wielu instytucji państwowych oraz firm prywatnych. Problematyczne wydaje się być przedstawienie informacji zawartych w bazach w taki sposób, by zmiany przed-stawione za pomocą liczb były łatwe i szybkie w analizowaniu. Z pomocą przychodzą rozwiązania technik GIS (z ang. Geographic Information System), stosowane obecnie na szeroką skalę w wielu branżach m.in. w transporcie, budownictwie, energetyce oraz w inżynierii i ochronie środowiska [1÷8]. Celem niniejszej pracy była wizualizacja i analiza przestrzenna danych dotyczących zanieczyszczenia powietrza atmosferycznego pyłem zawieszonym PM10 i PM2.5 na terenie województwa dolnośląskiego przy zastosowaniu techniki GIS.
Variability of data in time and space is a key element of the different phenomena occurring in the natural environment. In order to investigate the variability a databases in which one of the features is the location are built up. In the era of automation and computerization the databases are an essential element for the functioning of many public institutions and private companies. Problematic seems to be to present the information in databases in such a way as to amendments submitted by the numbers were easy and quick to analyze. In such a case the GIS technique can be helpful. The method of implementation of spatial analysis using ArcGIS soft-ware package was presented. It consisted of obtaining data on concentrations of pollutants, processed for the purposes of the program, the appropriate data management, analysis and graphical presentation of results. There were used functions that were needed to create the area and point type map layers. By use of the area type layers, zones according to which the concentrations classification was conducted. And with a point type layers measurement points used in the study were presented. For each layer is assigned the characteristics of the resource database, which allowed their subsequent interpretation by the spatial analysis. By combining point-type layer with polygons characteristics for the relevant areas was averaged. Ability to set the layer properties has allowed for classification and presentation of data assigned to them. In this study spatial analysis were conducted to show the possibility of using geoinformation techniques in monitoring of concentrations of selected air pollutants (PM10 and PM2.5). Developed data of measurements of concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 from the beginning of 2009 till September of 2010 were made available by the Regional Inspectorate for Environment Protection in Wroclaw. Using this set of data it was possible to present and to characterize air pollution by particulate matter PM10 and PM2.5 in the Lower Silesia province. It was observed that the zones characterized by the highest levels in selected averaging periods (monthly and annual) were: District Kłodzko, Wałbrzych, the city of Legnica and Wrocław agglomeration. In 2009, the observed average concentrations exceeded the limit of PM10 (40 ?g/m3) in the Kłodzko. The concentrations of PM10 in the range from 30 to 40 ?g/m3 near Legnica, district of Wałbrzych and Wrocław agglomeration were observed. In 2010, the concentrations of PM10 in ambient air over three mentioned areas has been exceeded the limit values. In the case of PM2.5 annual average concentration allowed value (25 ?g/m3) was exceeded in the district of Wałbrzych and Wrocław agglomeration. It was also examined the impact of volcanic eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland, which took place on April, 14th (2010), on air quality in the Lower Silesia province. The changes in concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 for 14 and 18 of April 2010 were studied. Prepared maps indicated that the PM 2.5 concentrations four days after the eruption, when the air space for air transportation in most countries in Europe, including Polish, was closed, over most concerned areas were lower compared with April 14th 2010. For a fraction of PM10 there were no significant changes in concentrations in Lower Silesia province.