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The numerous dystrophic (humic) lakes are a very important feature of Wigry National Park, NE Poland. As the most recent palaeoecological data indicate, at the beginning of its development (in the Late Glacial and Early and Middle Holocene) these water bodies functioned as harmonious lakes, and their transformation into dystrophic lakes and the stabilization of the trophic state took place at the beginning of the Subboreal. Palynological analysis of sediments from two such lakes (Lake Ślepe and Lake Suchar II), with special emphasis on non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), was aimed at a detailed biological characterization of dystrophic lakes during their long-lasting existence. The obtained results allowed for the designation of organisms characteristic for dystrophic lakes, of which representatives appeared with the decreasing pH of the water and the formation of Sphagnum peat around lakes. These organisms were divided into four groups: algae, fungi, testate amoebas, and animals. Their representatives appear in various developmental stages of dystrophic lakes.
A new palaeopalynological investigation was conducted on 15 samples from four test-pits at the Gray Fossil Site (Bear Pit, Elephant Pit, Test Pit 2-2010, and Rhino Pit). In total, 50 morpho-species of miospores (including five species of spores, eight species of gymnosperm pollen, and 37 species of an giosperm pollen) and 18 morpho-species of fresh water algal micro-remains were identified. One new morphological species, related to zygospores of the Zygnemataceae, Stigmozygodites grayensis sp. nov., is proposed. The assemblage of fossil algae recovered provides in sights into the palaeoenvironmental conditions of the uppermost (125 cm) part of the Gray Fossil Site sedimentary cover, deposited after the formation of a number of sink holes, and the fill of the palaeosinkholes. Most of the algae identified prefer meso- to eutrophic conditions and are characteristic of stagnant to slowly flowing shallow fresh water. Therefore, the lacustrine fossiliferous sediments at the Gray Fossil Site represent pond deposits. The palaeopalynological analysis revealed differences in the composition of the miospore and algal assemblages of the pits studied, suggesting that the Test Pit 2-2010, Bear, and Elephant pits are similar and may have been formed in the same pond, while the presence of a higher percentage of algae in the Rhino Pit may indicate sedimentation in a separate waterbody.
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