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EN
The major goal of the project “The evolution of terrestrial environments of the Upper Silesian Keuper as biotopes of vertebrates”, granted for Grzegorz Racki by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (2009-2013), was an exhaustive, integrated study of the bone-enriched middle Keuper interval in terms of stratigraphy, sedimentology, mineralogy and geochemistry. The new website “Bone-bearing Keuper of the Upper Silesia, southern Poland” (http://www.ing.pan.pl/Keuper/Bone-bearing_Keuper-1.htm)presents in English the results of this project. The significant achievements are only a starting point to a comprehensive presentation of the complex Keuper themes, jointly with an extensive repository of regional literature (above 420 full-texted publications since 1790). In addition, the main results of the grant, as well as diversity of their implications for future studies are summarized herein, with emphasis on controversial geochronological aspects in vertebrate paleontology (how many bone-rich levels?), and in a broad historical context.
EN
Lithostratigraphic division of the Upper Silesian Keuper continental succession belongs to abandoned matters, even if newly-discovered sites with unique vertebrate faunas highlight an increasing request to more precise designation of their stratigraphic setting. As a result of multidisciplinary grant and with a guide use of new borehole sections, a major lithostratigraphic unit is formally proposed for the middle Keuper (i.e., above the Schilfsandstein; Stuttgart Formation in Stratigraphische Tabelle von Deutschland, 2002), based on previously inaccurately used unit, Grabowa Formation of Bilan (1976). The re-defined Formation of Variegated Mudstones and Carbonates from Grabowa includes Upper Gypsum Beds and Steinmergelkeuper in traditional scheme from Germany (=Weser and Arnstadt Formations), and generally correlates with the Norian stage. Two bone-bearing horizons (Krasiejów and Lisowice) are placed within the unit, which is completely subdivided in three members: Ozimek (mudstone-evaporate), Patoka (marly mudstone-sandstone) and WoŸniki (limestone).
EN
The Upper Triassic Kågeröd Formation of Bornholm consists of clays, sandstones and conglomerates of floodplain and fluvial origin, but details of the depositional environment are poorly understood. Trace fossils are described for the first time from the red and green clays (floodplain with lake deposits) and cross-stratified sandstones (fluvial channel deposits) of the Upper Triassic Kågeröd Formation on Bornholm, Denmark. The sparse ichnofauna consists of large, mud-filled shafts and tunnels in caliche-bearing conglomerate, determined as Camborygma and attributed to the burrowing activity of cray fish. The sandstones preservevertical U-shaped burrows passively filled with sand, assigned to Arenicolites and probably produced by insects. Furthermore, they contain winding, horizontal, oblique and vertical unbranched burrows with an active meniscate sandfill, referable to Taenidium and supposedly produced by burrowing beetles. The clays and the sandstones contain numerous caliche nodules of centimetre to decimetre size, some of which contain root traces in the form of rhizoliths. This trace-fossil association reflects deposition on a vast floodplain with shallow lakes and fluvial channels, under semiarid conditions.
EN
The results of the palynostratigraphical studies presented in this paper come from five boreholes Patoka 1, Czarny Las, Woźniki Śląskie K1, Kobylarz 1 and Poręba as well as from four outcrops at Lipie Śląskie, Patoka, Zawiercie and Poręba, in Upper Silesia (southern Poland). The palynostratigraphical zonation presented by Orłowska-Zwolińska (1983) for the epicontinental Upper Triassic of Poland was applied. The palynomorph spectra are marked by different preservation states, combined with the frequent occurrence of reworked specimens, probably even from Palaeozoic strata. The spore-pollen assemblage recognized in the “Chrzanów Formation” belongs to the early Carnian verrucata Subzone of the palynological longdonensis Zone. The spectrum from the Stuttgart Formation represents the Carnian astigmosus Zone. Spectra in the Patoka Marly Mudstone-Sandstone Member (Grabowa Mudstone-Carbonate Formation), with the Lisowice bone-bearing horizon, represent the middle and late Norian meyeriana b Subzone. The Rhaetian age of the bone-bearing succession in the Lisowice–Lipie Śląskie clay-pit suggested in the literature was not confirmed. The age of assemblages from the “Połomia Formation”, which overlies the Patoka Member, was not determined, owing to the poor state of miospore preservation. Moreover, three types of palynofacies were recognized as being characteristic for a fluvial channel (1), a flood plain (2), and lacustrine and playa environments (3) as well as for an undetermined milieu. Type 1 was found in the deposits of the Stuttgart Formation, the Patoka Member and the “Połomia Formation”, type 2 in the Patoka Member and the “Połomia Formation”, type 3 in the “Chrzanów Formation”, the Stuttgart Formation and the Patoka Member.
EN
Nd and Sr isotope data were used to characterize the sources of the Upper Triassic (Keuper) siliciclastic rocks of Silesia in southern Poland. This continental succession, consisting predominantly of fine-grained mud- stones and siltstones, yields a remarkably uniform Nd isotopic composition. Nd model ages T2DM vary from 1.56 to 1.69 Ga and εNd values are in the range from –8.9 to –11.2, documenting old crust contribution in the provenance. In contrast, the Sr isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of the clastics exhibits a relatively large variation from 0.710 to 0.723. The isotopic compositions indicate that the southern part of the Germanic Basin in Silesia was supplied with clastic material from the Bohemian Massif. The axis of the drainage area must have crossed from SW to NE the Saxothuringian units of the East Sudetes and most probably also the area of the Tepla–Barrandian Unit. There is no indication of any sediment transport from the Moravo-Silesian Belt and the Fore-Sudetic Block. It seems, that the Palaeozoic rocks of the latter domain must have been buried completely during Late Triassic times.
EN
Palaeomagnetic results are presented for 205 samples of cores from the Książ Wielkopolski IG-2, Woźniki K1 and Patoka 1 wells, drilled in the Polish part of Germanic Basin. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy is based on the inclination of the characteristic remanent magnetization, isolated in 60% of the total samples and found to be in general agreement with the expected Late Triassic inclination at the sampling sites. A total of 22 magnetozones from the integration of the three records correspond to about 25% of the published polarity zones for the Upper Triassic sediments that were combined in the worldwide composite polarity-time scale. The magne- tic polarity pattern, defined for the Schilfsanstein, fits very well with the one defined in the Tethys area for the upper part of the Julian sub-stage. According to the magnetostratigraphic data, the uppermost part of the Upper Gypsum Beds (equivalent to the Ozimek Member of the redefined Grabowa Formation) and the lowermost part of the Patoka Member, containing the Krasiejów bone-breccia horizon, can be correlated with the latest Tuvalian (~228.5 Ma) or with the middle part of Lacian (~225 Ma). However, if the “Long-Tuvalian” option for the Late Triassic Time Scale is taken into consideration, the parts of these substages mentioned above should be correlated with ~221.5 Ma and ~218.5 Ma, respectively.
EN
Charcoals from the Upper Triassic vertebrate-bearing clays of the Zawiercie area (Upper Silesia, S-Poland) were analyzed using petrographic methods, to reconstruct burning temperatures as well as taphonomic processes. SEM and reflected light microscopy show excellent preservation of charcoals most probable connected with early diagenetic permineralization by calcite. The charcoal was assigned to three morphotypes, probably corresponding to three different fossil taxa. Fusinite reflectance data suggest, that the highest temperature reached above 600 °C (fusinite reflectance of 3.59%), what counterparts to the lower limit crown fire temperature. The values for most of the samples are lower (ca. 1% to 2.5%) what is typical for surface fires. In many cases fusinite reflectance values depends on the measured zone within the sample. Such zonation formed due to charring tem- perature differences. In zones remote from the potential fire source, reflectance values gradually decreases. It implies that calculation of fire temperatures based on average fusinite reflectance values might be too far-reaching simplification. Occurrence of fungal hyphae within the charcoal supports the interpretation of a predomination of surface fire, consuming dead twigs and stems. The low content of micro-charcoals in charcoal-bearing rocks as well as rounded to sub-rounded shapes of large specimens indicates that they were transported after burning, deposited away from the burning area, and finally early diagenetic mineralization.
EN
The first Upper Triassic vertebrate fossil tracks are documented from the Zawiercie locality, Kraków–Częstochowa Upland, southern Poland. The most characteristic components of the assemblage are tracks, assig- nable to archosaurs and dicynodonts. The inferred composition of the fauna is comparable to those of much better studied, contemporaneous sites in Italy, Argentina and the USA.
PL
W artykule podsumowano wyniki ponad 220 badań dyfraktometrycznych, wykonanych we frakcji o śr mniejszej 0,002 mm triasowych i jurajskich kompleksów ilastych w basenie polskim. W przypadku niektórych próbek przeprowadzono także obserwacje w mikroskopie elektronowym. Skład detrytycznych minerałów ilastych warstw zbąszyneckich (noryk), warstw wielichowskich (retyk dolny–środkowy), formacji zagajskiej (retyk górny i hetang dolny), przysuskiej formacji rudonośnej (hetang górny), formacji ciechocińskiej (toark dolny) i częstochowskiej formacji iłów rudonośnych (bajos górny–baton) był przeważnie kontrolowany przez reżim wietrzenia i pośrednio warunki klimatyczne. Przerabianie i resedymentacja osadów starszych (spowodowana przez procesy tektoniczne i/lub wahania poziomu morza), jak również sortowanie hydrauliczne, mogły modyfikować skład mineralny i nieco zacierać sygnał paleoklimatyczny. Zmiany składu minerałów ilastych we frakcji <0,002 mm potwierdziły długookresową ewolucję od klimatu suchego lub półsuchego do wilgotnego. Główna zmiana paleoklimatyczna zachodziła w retyku. Chlorytowo-illitowa asocjacja noryku została zastąpiona we wczesnym–środkowym retyku przez zespół illitowo-smektytowy (lub kaolinitowo-smektytowy). W późnym retyku dominowała już asocjacja illitowo-kaolinitowa. W trakcie jury ustaliła się asocjacja chlorytowo-illitowo-kaolinitowa, odpowiadająca warunkom klimatu umiarkowanego, ciepłego. Wahania temperatury, a zwłaszcza wielkości opadów, zapisywały się tylko w zmianach proporcji kaolinitu i illitu. Odcinki profilu zubożone w kaolinit występowały w późnym pliensbachu, najwcześniejszym toarku oraz w bajosie i batonie, odpowiadając fazom klimatu chłodniejszego i mniej wilgotnego. Mniejsze, cykliczne zmiany składu minerałów ilastych były najprawdopodobniej kontrolowane astronomicznie, głównie przez cykle ekscentryczności orbity ziemskiej. Niektóre warstwy z retyku górnego, początku hetangu i toarku dolnego, wykazujące bardzo wysoki stosunek kaolinit/illit, sugerują ekstremalne wietrzenie chemiczne w klimacie tropikalnym lub subtropikalnym wilgotnym, w następstwie silnego efektu cieplarnianego.
EN
This paper summarizes over 220 results of XRD research carried out on <0.002 mm fraction of Triassic and Jurassic clay successions from the Polish Basin. SEM observations of some samples were also performed. The composition of detrital clay minerals of the Zbąszynek Beds (Norian), Wielichowo Beds (Lower–Middle Rhaetian), Zagaje Fm. (Upper Rhaetian and Lower Hettangian), Przysucha Ore bearing Fm. (Upper Hettangian), Ciechocinek Fm. (Lower Toarcian) and Częstochowa Ore-bearing Clay Fm. (Upper Bajocian and Bathonian) was controlled mostly by a weathering regime and, indirectly, by climatic conditions. Reworking and redeposition of ancient sediments (caused by tectonic processes and /or sea-level changes) and differential settling might have modified the mineral composition and partly erased the palaeoclimatic signal. A long-term evolution from arid or semi-arid to humid climatic conditions was confirmed by changes in the clay mineral composition of the <0.002 mm fraction. The major change of palaeoclimate took place during the Rhaetian. The Norian chlorite-illite association was replaced by the Early–Middle Rhaetian illite-smectite (and kaolinite-smectite) assemblage. Next, in the Late Rhaetian the illite-kaolinite association predominated. In the Jurassic, the chlorite-illite-kaolinite association was established due to a warm-temperate climate. Only changes in the kaolinite/illite ratio recorded the fluctuations in temperature and especially rainfall. Kaolinite-depleted intervals occurred in the Late Pliensbachian, Earliest Toarcian and Bajocian–Bathonian, due to cooler and less humid climatic phases. Minor cyclic variations in the clay mineral composition were most probably astronomically controlled, mainly due to the orbital eccentricity cycles. Some levels of the very high kaolinite/illite ratio in the Upper Rhaetian, at the beginning of Hettangian and in the Lower Toarcian suggest extreme chemical weathering in a humid-subtropical to tropical climate in the aftermath of a powerful greenhouse effect.
EN
Upper Triassic macroflora from Lipie Śląskie near Lublin in Poland was investigated. Five different morphological types of cuticulae dispersae were found. One type belongs to Lepidopteris ottonis (Goeppert) Schimper (Pteridospermae), an index species for uppermost Triassic. Other types probably belong to Coniferales e.g. Cheirolepidiaceae.
PL
Utwory triasu górnego na obszarze monokliny śląsko-krakowskiej wykształcone są przede wszystkim w postaci iłowców i mułowców z wkładkami wapieni i piaskowców. Miąższość tych utworów w północnej części monokliny osiąga około 260 m. Z uwagi na charakter wykształcenia litologicznego w praktyce hydrogeologicznej utwory te były traktowane jako słabo wodonośne, a w kontekście zasobnych zbiorników wód w utworach węglanowych wapienia muszlowego i retu jako izolujący nadkład. Analiza profili litologicznych otworów badawczych oraz dane ze studni odwierconych na obszarze badań pozwoliły wydzielić w profilu triasu górnego 5 horyzontów wodonośnych o ograniczonym zasięgu, związanych z piaskowcami występującymi w stropowych partiach formacji woźnickiej i lisowskiej, wapieniami woźnickimi, brekcją lisowską, piaskowcami trzcinowymi i dolomitem granicznym. Poziomy te mogą pozostawać w łączności hydraulicznej. W artykule przedstawiono charakterystykę warunków hydrogeologicznych triasu górnego na obszarze północnej części monokliny śląsko-krakowskiej na podstawie danych z archiwalnych otworów badawczych oraz własnych badań i obserwacji hydrogeologicznych w studniach i piezometrach.
EN
The Upper Triassic formations from the Silesian-Cracow Monocline are composed mainly of claystones and mudstones interbedded by limestones and sandstones. In the north of the monocline, these formations are up to about 260 m thick. From their lithologic characteristics, these would be treated in the hydrogeological practice as low water-bearing capacity rocks, and as a capping aquitard in the context of water-rich aquifers in the Muschelkalk and Roethian carbonate formations. Analysis of lithologies in exploratory wells drilled in the study area allowed separating 5 groundwater horizons in the Upper Triassic, which are connected with the sandstone formations occurring at the top portions of the Woźniki and Lisów formations, Woźniki limestones, Lisów breccia, reed sandstones and boundary dolomite. These aquifers may have hydraulic connections. This contribution presents a characterisation of the hydrogeologic conditions within the Upper Triassic in the north of the Silesian-Cracow Monocline, based on archival data from exploratory wells and own hydrogeologic investigations and observations performed in wells and piezometers.
PL
Badania dotyczyły słabo przepuszczalnych utworów triasu górnego występujących na obszarze GZWP Lubliniec-Myszków. Ocena właściwości hydrogeochemicznych tych utworów stanowi podstawę do określenia ich roli w zasilaniu i kształtowaniu chemizmu wód serii węglanowej triasu. Wykonanie otworu badawczego K-1 o głębokości 99,5 m, zlokalizowanego w Woźnikach, umożliwiło przeprowadzenie badań właściwości hydrogeochemicznych utworów triasu górnego (noryk-retyk), wykształconych głównie jako iły, iłowce i mułowce, lokalnie przewarstwionych utworami węglanowymi i piaskowcami. W profilu triasu górnego stwierdzono występowanie dwóch horyzontów wodonośnych w spękanych iłowcach przewarstwionych utworami węglanowymi i piaskowcami. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań wilgotności, porowatości i wyciągów wodnych z utworów triasu górnego oraz składu chemicznego i izotopowego wód podziemnych występujących w tych utworach.
EN
The investigations deal with Upper Triassic low permeability formations located in the Lubliniec-Myszków area of MGWB. The assessment of hydrogeochemical properties of these formations is a basis for determining their role in recharging groundwater of the Triassic carbonate aquifer and their influence on the groundwater chemistry. Drilling of the borehole K-1(located in Woźniki) down to a depth of 99.5 m made it possible to perform investigations on hydrogeochemical properties of the Upper Triassic formations (Norian-Rhaetian) composed mainly of clays, claystones and mudstones, locally interbedded by carbonates and sandstones. It was affirmed that the Upper Triassic interval contains two aquifers located in fissured claystones interbedded by carbonates and sandstones. This contribution presents the results of water content and porosity tests, water extracts from the Upper Triassic formations as well as chemistry and isotopic contents of the groundwater from these formations.
13
Content available remote Nowe znalezisko śladów dinozaurów w górnym triasie Tatr
EN
New material of dinosaur footprints has been found in the Late Triassic fluvial-lacustrine deposits of the Tatra Mountains, Poland. Footprints discovered in a well-known Rhaetian strata of the Tomanová Formation represent pedal ichnites of Kayentapus sp. and Anomoepus sp. These are the second reported record of dinosaur footprints in the Tatra Mountains.
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