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EN
To date, 36 moldavites have been found in 9 sites from south-western Poland. The newest ones, i.e. 2 tektites, presented herein come from the Turów Mine in the Zittau Basin. Both moldavite specimens were collected from the fluvial sandy gravels of the Gozdnica Formation, of late Miocene age. Taking into account the macroscopic features of the studied glass, it should be assumed that one of them had been reworked over a maximum distance of several kilometres, while the other one had overcome a further reworking, not exceeding50 km though. The moldavites considered herein were most probably ejected from the Ries crater into the Zittau Basin within the Badenian sediments, later transported by the Lusatian Neisse river and finally redeposited within Pannonian sediments.
EN
The foraminiferal contents of the lower–middle Miocene succession exposed in three sections in north Nur Abad on the northwestern side of the High Zagros Thrust Belt were studied. Assemblages of larger foraminifera from these sections can be referred to Zone SBZ 25 (and the Miogypsina globulus and Miogypsina intermedia subzones), which correlates with the Burdigalian Stage. For the first time, planktonic foraminifera documented from the Nur Abad area document Langhian deposits in the High Zagros, the upper 20 metres of the upper Sayl Cheshmeh section being characterised by the occurrence of planktonic foraminifera such as Globigerina concinna (Reuss), Globigerina diplostoma (Reuss), Globigerinoides obliquus (Bolli), Orbulina bilobata (d’Orbigny) and O.universa (d’Orbigny). This association characterises the Orbulina suturalis Interval Zone.
EN
The Gdów “embayment” is the most pronounced deflection along the northern boundary of the Carpathians. It is filled by the sandy clay deposits which used to be named the Skawina Formation or Chodenice beds or, locally, conglomerates (of Sypka Góra). Their stratigraphic position according to studies of foraminifers had been determined as Badenian. New results obtained from micropalaeontological material sampled at three exposures near Wiatowice, Jawczyce (Giewont) and Gdów (Sypka Góra), and based on boreholes, indicate a much younger age of for the deposits infilling the Gdów “embayment”. These studies show that the surface deposits are not older than Late Sarmatian/Pannonian (Serravalian/Tortonian). They also suggest a much later time for the last stages of the thrusting of the Carpathian Mountains over the Carpathian Foredeep.
PL
Parametry sprężyste minerałów ilastych są słabo rozpoznane głównie z powodu niewielkich rozmiarów ziaren tych minerałów i trudności w wyizolowaniu pojedynczych kryształów tak, aby pomierzyć ich własności akustyczne. Do tej pory własności sprężyste minerałów ilastych określano za pomocą obliczeń teoretycznych lub przez połączenie wyników badań eksperymentalnych i obliczeń teoretycznych. Celem artykułu było określenie wpływu zawartości minerałów ilastych na wartości prędkości fali P oraz fali S. Jak wiadomo, wartości parametrów sprężystych ściśle zależą od porowatości. Jednak niebagatelny wpływ na te wartości ma także zawartość minerałów ilastych. W badanym ośrodku do głównych minerałów ilastych zaliczamy: illit (25–30%), minerały mieszanopakietowe illit/smektyt (5–10%) oraz kaolinit (0,5–1,3%). Występują także krzemiany warstwowe w postaci chlorytu (2–9%). Pierwszym etapem pracy było przeprowadzenie badań laboratoryjnych na dziewięciu próbkach pochodzących z osadów miocenu z profilu odwiertu R-1. Pomiary zawartości poszczególnych minerałów wykonano metodą spektroskopii w podczerwieni FTIR (Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy) za pomocą przystawki ATR (attenuated total reflectance). Ponadto przeprowadzono pomiary prędkości fali P i fali S. Z uwagi na wysoką kruchość badanych próbek pomiary prędkości wykonano w warunkach statycznych. Na podstawie otrzymanych prędkości policzono wartości modułów sprężystości. W oparciu o pomierzone parametry zbudowano model mineralogiczny oraz wyliczono porowatość. Pomierzone statyczne wartości prędkości fal P i S przeliczono do wartości dynamicznych. Korzystając ze wzoru Castagny, obliczono wartości prędkości fali S. Finalnym etapem pracy było określenie zależności pomiędzy zawartością minerałów ilastych a wartościami prędkości fali P, prędkością fali S oraz modułami sprężystości: modułem Younga i modułem sprężystości objętościowej. Przedstawiono także zależność prędkości fali P od wartości prędkości fali S dla różnych zakresów zawartości materii ilastej przy wykorzystaniu modelu Greenberga–Castagny dla utworów piaszczysto-ilastych.
EN
The elastic parameters of clay minerals are poorly recognized mainly due to the small size of clay minerals and the difficulty in isolating individual crystals to measure their acoustic properties. So far the effective elastic properties of clays have been derived either by theoretical computation, or by a combination of theoretical and experimental investigations on clay mixtures. The aim of the article was to determine the effect of clay mineral content on the values of P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity. In the research area, the main clay minerals are: illite (25–30%), interstratified clay minerals illite/smectite (5–10%) and kaolinite (0.5–1.3%). There are also silicates present in the formation in the form of chlorite (2–9%). The first stage of the work consisted in laboratory tests on nine samples from Miocene deposits from the R-1 well. The FTIR (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy) was used to measure the content of individual minerals using ATR (Attenuated Total Reflectace) technique. In addition, P- and S-waves velocity measurements were performed. Due to the high brittleness of the tested samples, the velocity measurements were performed under static conditions. The values of the elastic modulus were calculated based on measured velocities. The mineralogical model was built and calibrated based on the measured clay content and porosity was calculated. As is well known, the values of elastic parameters are closely related to the porosity. However, the content of clay minerals also has a considerable impact on the values of elastic parameters. Static values of P-wave and S-wave velocity were converted to dynamic values. Using the Castagna formula, the values of S-wave velocity were calculated. The final stage of the work consisted in determining the relationship between the clay mineral content and P-wave velocity values, S-wave velocity and elastic moduli: the Young modulus, the bulk modulus. The relationship between P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity for different ranges of clay content was presented using the Greenberg–Castagna model for clastic silicate rocks.
PL
Badania zostały przeprowadzone na siedmiu próbkach skał mioceńskich pobranych z rdzenia wiertniczego. Wybrany materiał reprezentował piaskowce, mułowce oraz iłowce. Głównym celem pracy było wydzielenie frakcji pylastej (silt) i określenie jej wpływu na poziom radioaktywności skał miocenu zapadliska przedkarpackiego. W badaniach została wykorzystana metoda wydzielania frakcji pylastej opracowana w Zakładzie Geofizyki Wiertniczej INiG – PIB. Do określenia wielkości siltu wykorzystano klasyfikację Wentwortha, przyjmując jego zakres od 4 µm do 63 µm. Wytypowany materiał skalny przygotowywany był wieloetapowo z zastosowaniem metod zamrażania, przesiewania, wirowania i sedymentacji. W celu określenia typu skał i ich własności wykonano badania pomocnicze, w tym analizy mineralogiczne XRD, chemiczne XRF oraz pomiary gęstości właściwej. Dla określenia zawartości naturalnych pierwiastków promieniotwórczych przeprowadzono szereg badań radiometrycznych. Analizy wykonano na niewielkiej liczbie prób z powodu ich długotrwałego przygotowywania oraz ograniczonej dostępności materiału. Wiarygodne wyznaczenie parametrów poszczególnych frakcji ziarnowych wymagało weryfikacji i udoskonalenia zastosowanych metod badawczych. Pomiary radiometryczne określające naturalną zawartość potasu 40K, uranu 238U oraz toru 232Th wykonano w aparaturze RT-50, wyposażonej w trzycalowy kryształ NaI(Tl). W pierwszej kolejności przeprowadzono standardowe analizy wysuszonych i skruszonych próbek iłowców, mułowców i piaskowców mioceńskich. Kolejne pomiary wykonano na wydzielonej frakcji siltowej oraz – w przypadku jednej próbki – także na pozostałych frakcjach (ilastej i piaszczystej). W tym wypadku analizy prowadzone były wielokrotnie z zastosowaniem nowej procedury umożliwiającej wyznaczenie pierwiastków promieniotwórczych w próbkach o niskiej masie. Wyniki pracy pozwoliły na przybliżone określenie naturalnej promieniotwórczości gamma frakcji pylastej (siltu). Istotnym wnioskiem z pracy jest to, że sam silt nie jest bardziej promieniotwórczy od pozostałych składników skały. W pracy podjęto również próbę określenia wpływu zawartości minerałów ciężkich na naturalną promieniotwórczość badanych skał. W tym celu z próbek skał odseparowano minerały o gęstości powyżej 2,85 g/cm3 i ponownie przeprowadzono serię analiz. Otrzymane wyniki były minimalnie zaniżone, jednak na tyle zbliżone do uzyskanych na próbkach przed separacją, że można wyciągnąć wniosek o braku wpływu minerałów ciężkich na całkowitą radioaktywność skał w badanym rejonie.
EN
The research was performed on seven samples of Miocene rocks collected from the core. The selected material was represented by sandstones, mudstones and claystones. The main goal of the work was to separate the silt fraction and to determine its impact on the level of radioactivity of the Miocene rocks of the Carpathian Foredeep. In this study, the silt fraction separation method developed in the Well Logging Department of INiG – PIB was used. Wentworth classification was used to determine the size of the silt, assuming its range from 4 to 63 µm. The selected rock material was prepared in several stages using the methods of freezing, sieving, centrifugation and sedimentation. Additional tests, including mineralogical XRD, chemical XRF and matrix density measurements were performed to determine the rock types and their properties. A number of radiometric tests were performed to determine the content of natural radioactive elements. The analyses were carried out on a small number of tests because of their long preparation and limited material availability. Reliable determination of the parameters of individual grain fractions required verification and improvement of the applied research methods. Radiometric measurements determining the natural content of potassium 40K, uranium 238U and thorium 232Th were carried out in the RT-50 equipped with a three-inch NaI(Tl) crystal. In the first place, standard analyses were conducted for dried and crushed samples of Miocene claystones, mudstones and sandstones. Further measurements were made on the separated silt fraction and in the case of one sample, also on the remaining fractions (clay and sand). In this case, the analyses were carried out repeatedly using a new procedure enabling the determination of radioactive elements in low-mass samples. The results of the work allowed approximate determination of the natural gamma radioactivity of the silt. An important conclusion is that, silt is no more radioactive than the other components of the rock. This paper also attempted the estimation of the impact of heavy mineral content on the natural radioactivity of the Miocene rocks. For tests purpose, minerals with a density above 2.85 g/cm3 were separated from the rock samples and a series of analyses were carried out once again. The obtained results were minimally understated but close enough to the samples before separation. It can be concluded that the heavy minerals in the tested samples do not affect the total radioactivity of the rocks in the research area.
PL
Obszar badań położony jest w rejonie centralnej części zapadliska przedkarpackiego, około 12 km na południe od północnego brzegu Karpat. W podłożu miocenu autochtonicznego zalegają węglanowe utwory mezozoiku (kredy górnej i jury górnej), a w jego nadkładzie występują utwory miocenu allochtonicznego oraz utwory fliszowe jednostek karpackich. Główny element strukturalny, z którym związana jest akumulacja gazu, ograniczony jest od strony północnej regionalną płaszczyzną dyslokacji. Omawiany obszar od kilkudziesię- ciu lat stanowi przedmiot intensywnych badań geologicznych, geofizycznych i prac wiertniczych, czego efektem było odkrycie kilku złóż gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej. W obszarze badań i jego sąsiedztwie wykonano dotychczas szereg prac sejsmicznych, które pozwoliły na lepsze rozpoznanie budowy geologicznej. Skomplikowana budowa geologiczna związana z nasunięciem Karpat nie zawsze pozwala na jednoznaczną ocenę materiału sejsmicznego, szczególnie w przykarpackiej strefie zapadliska przedkarpackiego. Duża zmienność litofacjalna utworów miocenu ma związek z molasowym typem sedymentacji. Zasadniczym celem artykułu jest wykazanie możliwości wykorzystania wyników otworowych pomiarów geofizycznych do przedstawienia ilościowej i statystycznej zmienności analizowanych wartości pomiarowych. Otrzymane wyniki posłużyły do skonstruowania map zmienności litologicznej, wykresów zapiaszczenia, przekroju geologicznego i przeprowadzenia analizy statystycznej. W trakcie realizacji tematu wykonano korelację międzyotworową dla wybranych odwiertów, co pozwoliło na rozpoznanie facjalne utworów miocenu, który rozwinięty jest w facji ilasto-mułowcowej, z większym lub mniejszym udziałem piaskowców.
EN
The research area is located in the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep, about 12 km south of the northern bank of the Carpathians. The Mesozoic (Upper Cretaceous and Upper Jurassic) carbonate complex is located in the autochthonous Miocene basement. The upper stage is composed of the allochtonic Miocene sediments and flysch deposits belonging to the Carpathian units. The main structural element, to which the gas accumulation pertains, is limited from the north by a regional dislocation zone. The area in question has been the subject of intensive geological and geophysical research as well as drilling works for several decades, which resulted in the discovery of several deposits of natural gas and crude oil. A series of seismic works have been carried out so far in the research area and its vicinity, which allowed for better recognition of the geological structure. The complexity of the geological structure associated with the Carpathian overthrust does not always provide an accurate assessment of the seismic data, especially in the part of the Carpathian Foredeep which is located below the Carpathian overthrust. The high lithofacial variability of the Miocene deposits is related to the molasse type of sedimentation. The main aim of the article is to demonstrate the possibility of using the interpretation of well geophysical measurements to illustrate the quantitative and statistical variability of analysed values. The obtained results were used to construct maps of lithological variability, sand content graphs, geological cross-sections as well as statistical analysis. In the progress of the project, a well correlation was carried out for selected boreholes, which allowed for the facial recognition of the Miocene formations, which are developed especially in clay and silt facies with a diversified proportion of sandstones.
EN
The present study focuses on alternative methods of exploiting lignite in comparison to conventional opencast mining and combustion in power plants for the generation of electricity. In Poland, opencast lignite pits cover large areas, creating social and environmental conflicts. In order to stabilise the production level of electricity and reduce the negative effects of opencast mining, alternative ways of exploiting lignite are suggested, one of these being underground gasification in situ. The Złoczew lignite deposit, which will most likely be exploited in the near future, provides an opportunity to discuss the unconventional method of underground coal gasification (UCG). On the basis of technological and geological criteria that have been established to determine the suitability of Polish lignite for underground gasification, resources to be used this way have been estimated. Through gasification, over 15 million tonnes of lignite can be utilised, which is about 2.5 per cent of resources of the Złoczew deposit intended for opencast mining. With this in mind, we suggest to take action by starting a pilot installation, to be followed by a commercial one for underground gasification after completion of superficial mining. Naturally, any future application of this method will be preceded by assessment of geological conditions at the Złoczew opencast pit.
EN
Revision of the Silesian bear fauna, based on material from 152 sites, mainly cave and karstic localities, and also archaeological and open-air sites, shows the presence of 13 forms and species. These records encompass the last 16.5 Ma and may be divided into five main morphophyletic groups. The oldest bears, represented by the genera Ballusia and Ursavus, are dated to 16.5-11 Ma, and belonged to the stem forms of the subfamily Ursinae. After a break of 6 My, the earliest members of the genus Ursus appeared, and all known Pliocene bears in Silesia belong to the genus Ursus were identified as Ursus minimus. They represent one or two migration events. Additionally, between 3.6 and 3.2 Ma, a single occurence of Agriotherium insigne was recorded from the Węże 1 site. A few Early Pleistocene bear records are represented by U. etruscus, which was a probable ancestor of both arctoid and spelaeoid bear lineages. The oldest representative of Ursus ex gr. arctos known so far and assigned to U. a. suessenbornensis is known from one latest Early Pleistocene (1.2-0.9 Ma) locality, while other Polish records of this form require confirmation. The first occurrence of U. deningeri, the oldest taxon within the U. ex gr. deningeri-spelaeus lineage, was recorded from ~700 ka deposits in Silesia. During the pronounced cold period of MIS 12, the Scandinavian ice sheet covered almost the entire modern territory of Poland, with the exception of the Sudetes and the Carpathians. The accompanying drastic faunal turnover led to the formation of the pan-Eurasian Mammoth Fauna at ~460 ka. At that time a characteristic member of this fauna, the steppe brown bear Ursus arctos priscus, a specific ecomorph adapted to live in open grasslands, appeared in this region. It survived until the beginning of MIS 1, when modern Ursus arctos arctos appeared in Silesia and survived to the present day. U. deningeri was the most common bear during the Middle Pleistocene, while the first records of U. spelaeus spelaeus appeared since MIS 7. The latter form was replaced by U. ingressus during the Late Pleistocene (~110-100 ka). Spelaeoid bears totally dominated the cave assemblage, and finally vanished between 27 and 24 ka.
EN
Romania has a long history of hydrocarbon production and tens of thousands of boreholes have penetrated Miocene strata. Many well cores or cuttings have been either lost or damaged, but lab reports containing valuable petrographic, paleontological and structural data are still available. Most of the knowledge of the subsurface relies on old descriptions and interpretations used by the oil industry. These data have not been recently updated, while research results from the last decade suggest potential changes in stratigraphy, especially for the lower to middle Miocene succession. In order to update, calibrate, and reduce uncertainties regarding the subsurface stratigraphic record, we have reviewed the lab reports and used equivalent field samples for an updated interpretation of the lower to middle Miocene succession. Core and cutting descriptions from boreholes covering an area of ~10,000 km2 in the Diapir Fold Zone of the Eastern Carpathians have been selected and biostratigraphically re-evaluated based on microfossils and calcareous nannofossils. In many cases, highly uncertain ages were previously interpreted as Oligocene and early Miocene. Our recent data suggest that most of the lower Miocene is either difficult to determine or has been reinterpreted as middle Miocene (e.g., Cornu and Doftana formations). This significant change in ages requires an updated model for the timing of regional structural evolution and may open new exploration opportunities in this highly mature hydrocarbon area. This study demonstrates the need for a new complete and reliable stratigraphic framework for the whole Miocene stratigraphic record of the Eastern Carpathians.
EN
The first Polish moldavites were discovered in 2012. This paper is a summary of the distribution and inventory of these Polish tektites. Up to the present, 28 moldavites have been described from seven different sandpits. These moldavites were deposited in the upper Miocene fluvial deposits of the Gozdnica Formation, as well as in the Pleistocene river terraces. Apart from a typical bottle green colour, moldavites also have other diagnostics features for this class of tektites, such as the presence of bubbles, inclusions oflechatelierite, as well as the same, homogeneous chemical composition. Fluvial redeposition was interpreted as the main process which determined moldavite distribution. Despite the most recent find of one moldavite specimen in Bielawy, all of these specimens indicate both Lusatian as well as sub-strewn Czech fields as their supply area.
EN
The PGI research of lignite was primarily focused in the area of eastern Poland. An extensive research of the lignite deposit geology mmediately after the end of World War II led to numerous discoveries of large lignite deposits, including some of the biggest in Europe (Legnica, Bełchatów, Poznań Tectonic Trough). The data collected during exploration and prospection of lignite deposits made possible to elaborate stratigraphy (litho- and palynostratigraphy) of Paleogene/Neogene lignite-bearing association on the Polish Lowlands and prepare its detail correlation with the stratigraphic schemes of East Germany. Sedimentological studies of lignite-bearing association led to the definition of basic types of lignite-bearing facies, related to sedimentary conditions in different zones of alluvial sedimentary basins. They also allowed the establishment of relationships between lignite-bearing sedimentation and tectonic evolution of the lignite basins in tectonic depressions and cups of salt domes. Recently, the impact of climate change on the development of brown coal sediments has been subject to study and the critical thermal conditions for the most intense anthracogenesis in the Polish Lowlands, which took place in Miocene, were defined.
EN
Salt deposits in the Wieliczka area (Wieliczka Salt Deposit – WSD) in southern Poland comprise salt-rich strata belonging to an evaporite succession that originated in the Carpathian Foredeep basin in the Middle Miocene Badenian (Serravallian) times, ca 13.81–13.45 Ma. Although they have been mined since the 13th century and decades of investigations provided abundant data on their origin and structure, some aspects of their geological evolution are still not fully understood. This study presents current concepts on the lithostratigraphy and tectonics of the WSD. The salt-bearing facies developed near to the southern basin margin, delineated by the Carpathian orogenic front. Such a location triggered the redeposition of sediments and gravity-driven deformation followed by tectonic deformation related to the forelandward advancement of the Carpathian thrusts. As a result, the WSD consists of folds and slices composed of two main salt members: (1) the stratified salt member, with intercalating salt, sulphates and siliciclastics, and (2) the boulder salt member, built of clays with large, isolated blocks of salt. The stratified member contains abundant meso-scale tectonic structures recording the soft-sediment deformation and deformation related to the northward tectonic push exerted by the advancing Carpathian thrust wedge. The boulder member originated due to the syntectonic erosion of evaporites along the basin margins and their redeposition during progressive northward migration of the Carpathian front. Recent interpretations of seismic data imply that the WSD constitutes the core of a triangle zone developed at the contact of the Carpathian orogenic wedge with the backthrust-displaced foredeep sedimentary fill. Meso-scale examples of sedimentary and tectonic structures in the salt-bearing succession exposed in the underground Wieliczka Salt Mine are described and their formation modes discussed.
EN
The succession of bioevents in planktonic foraminifer and calcareous nannoplankton communities is reviewed and summarized for the Carpathian Foredeep and northern Pannonian Basin in the time interval between ~16 and 13.5 Ma. This succession can be subdivided into three principal intervals: (1) an interval with rare Praeorbulina sicana and P. glomerosa. It was characterized by a limited immigration of index taxa linked to the lack of a warm surface water layer in the Central Paratethys. This interval can be correlated with the first Badenian transgression near the Burdigalian/Langhian boundary. The rare occurrence of biostratigraphical markers does not allow its precise dating and interregional correlation; (2) a brief interval of the first occurrences of Praeorbulina circularis, Orbulina suturalis and Helicosphaera waltrans. This can be related to the formation of a warm surface water layer suitable for the survival of orbulinas and praeorbulinas and a change from estuarine to anti-estuarine circulation. This interval can be correlated with the second Badenian transgression, which, however, was not isochronous over the area as inferred from different successions of these first occurrences; (3) a limited appearance of new index taxa in the Central Paratethys prior to the Wielician Salinity Crisis. This time interval was characterized by increased seasonality and salinity oscillations followed by climate cooling. A “reverse” migration of the stress-tolerant species Helicosphaera walbersdorfensis from the Central Paratethys to the Mediterranean is suggested. Several local bioevents with limited stratigraphic correlation potential have been recognized in this interval.
EN
The early Badenian interval in the Central Paratethys realm is characterized by a major marine transgression into the Pannonian and Carpathian Foredeep basins. In the western part of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep, Badenian sedimentation started generally with conglomerates (Dębowiec Formation) passing into a thick succession of claystones and mudstones with rare sandstone interbeds (Skawina Formation). Profiles containing a full sequence of lower Badenian strata are relatively rare, and are mainly known from boreholes. In this paper, we present new results on samples taken from such a borehole (Kaczyce K2/07) located near the town of Cieszyn. We focus on reconstructing the chronology of the lower Badenian marine sediments at the beginning of the transgression in the Carpathian Foredeep (lower Skawina Fm.) using radio-isotopic dating (40Ar/39Ar) of a volcanoclastic layer (tuff and tuffite) and biostratigraphy of calcareous nannoplankton and foraminifera.The weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar age for sanidine separates from the tuff provided an age of 14.27 ± 0.03 Ma. This age is consistent with the NN5 and MNN5a nannofossil zones determined in this study. Our foraminiferal assemblages show that the basal beds of the Skawina Formation up to the tuffites correspond to the Orbulina suturalis–Praeorbulina glomerosa Zone (according to Cicha et al., 1975) and cover the interval of the Lower Lagenidae Zone–lowermost Upper Lagenidae Zone (Grill, 1941). The petrographic data from the tuffite allow correlation of the tuffite from the Kaczyce K2/07 borehole to the level of the Chełmek Tuffite Bed (Alexandrowicz, 1997) providing a regional correlation horizon for future studies.
EN
The Neogene sedimentary succession of the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin directly overlies the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin deposits, the Magura Unit, and the Pieniny Klippen Belt. It provides an excellent geological record that postdates the main Mesoalpine structural and geomorphological processes in the Western Carpathians. Sedimentological, petrographical and geochronological investigations have allowed forthe re-examination of pyroclastic material, zircon dating, and a discussion on the relation of the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin to the exhumation of the Tatra Massif. The Bystry Stream succession is composed of NNW-inclined freshwater siltstones, sandstones and conglomerates. A few small, sometimes discontinuous, light grey intercalations of pyroclastic deposits and a single 1-2 m thick tuffite layer occur in the upper part of the succession. The tuffite contains an admixture of organic matter and siliciclastic grains (e.g., mica), suggesting that the volcanic ash fall was accompanied by normal deposition from weak currents. Sedimentation of deposits of the Bystry Stream succession took place in terrestrial settings, predominantly on floodplains and in rivers, in the vicinity of a hilly area supplying the basin with eroded material. The age of the tuffite layer from the Bystry Stream succession was determined at 11.87 +0.12/-0.24 Ma. The source of volcanogenic material in the tuffite was probably volcanic activity in the Inner Carpathians-Pannonian region, where effusive and volcanoclastic sillca-rich rocks were being produced by extrusive and explosive activity ~12 Ma. Obtained result connects the development of the Orava-Nowy Targ Basin at ~12 Ma with the late stage of the main episode of the Tatra Massif exhumation between ~22-10 Ma.
EN
The paper presents results of a study of crevasse splay deposits from the Miocene of central Poland near Konin. These mineral deposits occur within the 1st Middle-Polish lignite seam of Middle Miocene age, which is exploited from the Tomislawice lignite opencast mine. They consist of fine-grained sands with an admixture of plant detritus at the top and bottom layers, where the muddy-sandy clasts are present. The investigated crevasse splay deposits are predominantly massive or horizontally stratified, and they occasionally reveal small- to large-scale (planar, trough and ripple) cross-stratification. Thus, they are interpreted as representing dense gravity flows, sheet flows, and channelized flows of variable energy. The crevasse splay was formed subaerially during sudden flood conditions on the floodplain covered by a low-lying mire with predominant herbaceous vegetation. The description of the crevasse splay deposits from the Miocene of central Poland can be helpful in better understanding the sedimentation conditions of relatively thick lignite seams.
PL
Stratygrafia sekwencji jest multikompontentowym narzędziem służącym do odwzorowywania architektury depozycyjnej, środowisk sedymentacji, litofacji i ich przestrzennego rozmieszczenia. Podstawową jednostką wyróżnianą w tej metodzie jest sekwencja depozycyjna, definiowana jako genetyczne następstwo powiązanych ze sobą warstw, ograniczone w spągu i stropie poprzez subaeralne niezgodności lub ich korelatywne zgodności (granic sekwencji), które są wynikiem zmian względnego poziomu morza, towarzyszących wypełnianiu basenów sedymentacyjnych. Przedstawiona próba interpretacji materiałów sejsmicznych, obejmująca mioceńską sukcesję nadewaporatową w rejonie Brzeska, na podstawie założeń tej metodyki i przy wykorzystaniu pomiarów geofizyki otworowej i ich wzajemnym dowiązaniu, pozwoliła na zidentyfikowanie 11 granic sekwencji (SB) i 9 powierzchni maksimum zalewu (MFS). W obrębie tych sekwencji, w zapisie sejsmicznym, karotażowym i w oparciu o dane literaturowe, zinterpretowano elementy architektury depozycyjnej zdominowane litofacją piaskowcową, deponowaną głównie w trakcie niskiego stanu WMP. Zostały one zinterpretowane jako nasypy przyujściowe/bary piaszczyste oraz fragmenty wciętych dolin w strefie szelfu.
EN
Sequence stratigraphy is a multi-component tool for mapping the depositional architecture, sedimentary environments, lithofacies and their spatial distribution. The basic unit of distinction in this method is a depositional sequence, defined as a genetic consequence of interconnected layers, limited in the bottom and top by unconformities or corelative conformities (sequences borders). They are the result of changes in relative sea level that accompanies filling sedimentary basins. The study area included upper Badenian-lower Sarmatian (Miocen) strata in the region of Brzesko. Methodology used in conjunction with well logs and geological data allowed identification in the seismic 11 sequence boundaries (SB) and 9 of the maximum flooding surface (MFS). Within the sequence the elements of depositional architecture were interpreted. They were dominated by sandstone facies that had been deposited mainly during the low state of relative sea level.
EN
Different diagenetic environments have been recognized in the Early Miocene carbonate platform of Musayr Formation in the Red Sea rift area. Early marine diagenesis includes micritisation that occurs as thin envelope around skeletal and non-skeletal grains in low-energy mud dominated facies and isopachous fibrous calcite in high-energy grain-dominated facies. Pervasive meteoric water diagenesis resulted in cementation of the carbonates by coarse-crystalline blocky-drusy calcite and meniscus cements. Depletion of oxygen (avg. –9.08‰), carbon (avg. –1.6‰) isotopes and trace elements concentrations (avg. values of Fe: 1387 ppm; Mn: 1444 ppm; Sr: 419 ppm; Na: 1194 ppm) in conjunction with negative correlation between Mn2+ and oxygen isotope data suggest variable degrees of fluid-rock interactions and pervasive meteoric diagenesis. The formation of meteoric diagenesis in the Musayr Formation can be explained by two subsequent mechanisms: (1) the presence of meteoric lenses during the time of deposition might have been associated with active freshwater input from the hinterland (NE) due to fall in the relative sea level; (2) later uplift episode during Plio-Pleistocene may have also contributed to the pervasive meteoric diagenetic alterations of the carbonates of the Musayr Formation. The first mechanism is supported by the cement stratigraphy where the blocky-drusy cements postdate the meniscus cement. The latter mechanism seems to have more pronounced effect on the alteration of Musayr carbonate sequence by observing the occurence of late cements such as blocky calcite in most of the samples. The impact of meteoric diagenesis on the studied samples suggest that dissolution is less severe than cementation, hence the visible porosity is very low. Understanding the timing of meteoric diagenesis provides useful information about the reservoir quality distribution in syn-rift carbonate sequences.
EN
The Badenian Salinity Crisis took place at the early/late Badenian boundary and resulted in massive chemical sedimentation in the central Paratethys. The evaporating basin of the northern Carpathian Foredeep left behind gypsum and halite deposits tens of meters thick. As a very good medium for preservation, these evaporites are a fine source of diversified terrestrial palynomorphs. Plant communities reconstructed on the basis of both palynological analysis of sediments from the Bochnia and Wieliczka salt mines, as well as previously published studies from different localities within the evaporite basin, reveal the presence of wetland and mesic environments along the coasts of the northern part of the central Paratethys during the evaporative event. Among the most important taxa are Engelhardia, Ericaceae, Fagus, Liquidambar, Quercus, Taxodium/Glyptostrobus, Tricolporopollenites pseudocingulum, and Ulmus. The most characteristic feature of the palynofloras studied is the large amount (up to even 50%) of Ericaceae pollen in the spectra. Taxa representing a warm-temperate climate predominate in the palynofloras examined; however, representatives of a tropical/subtropical climate (i.a. Mastixiaceae) are also present. The presence of plant communities associated with wetland areas shows that the climate remained humid.
EN
In this article, the most recent moldavite discoveries in Poland and their host sediments are characterised and discussed. They were discovered at Lasów, located about 8 km north of Zgorzelec (Poland) and Görlitz (Germany), about 700 m from the Polish-German border, close to the Lusatian Neisse (Nysa) River. The tektites were collected from Vistulian (Wiechselian) glacial age sand and gravel of a closed quarry pit, associated with the river terraces. In the Lasów area, the moldavite-bearing sediments are Pleistocene in age and represent Lusatian Neisse terrace deposits. They were redeposited from the upper part of the drainage basin of the Lusatian Neisse, probably washed out from the Miocene sediments that filled the Zittau Depression, the Berzdorf–Radomierzyce Depression, the Višňová Depression and the tectonically uplifted Izera Mts. and Działoszyn Depression. The erosion of Miocene deposit occured on a large scale in the uplifted foothills of the Upper Miocene Izera, Lusatia and Kaczawa complexes. The sediment cover was removed from the Działoszyn Depression. The drainage basin of the Lusatian Neisse is the area where moldavites were formed by the Nördlinger Ries impact. The source area of moldavite is the same for the Miocene deposits around Gozdnica, as well as for the Pleistocene sediments at Lasów.
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