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1
Content available Innovation as a determinant of current ecology
EN
Purpose: authors based on trends, goals, theses and examples of good practices presented in the article focus – both in theoretical and practical dimensions – on striving to identify need to develop eco-innovation as an element strengthening environmental policy in global, regional and national dimension. Design/methodology/approach: theses presented in the article have been verified using the following methods: literature review, critical literature analysis, document and comparative analysis, and examples of good practice. Findings: innovations in the field of ecology focus in particular on human activities in two areas. The first is use of existing living and inanimate natural resources resulting from need to maintain life expectancy. In the second area, focus on its protection and care for its duration. Therefore, it should be emphasized that associating innovations with them is extremely important in modern ecology. Striving to create new eco-friendly solutions of an eco-innovative nature both in the sphere of its social acceptance and in utilitarian dimension. Originality/value: the article enriches, and at the same time develops, knowledge and discussion in the field of defining eco-innovations – and their impact on the lives of communities and individuals. Thanks to knowledge presented in the article, the need to look for solutions that can strengthen the impact of eco-innovation on the natural environment is clearly justified.
2
Content available Eco-innovation and Sustainable Development
EN
The paper aims to encourage the creation of innovation policy by individual states and state institutions, management of companies in the energy sector, with the synergy of national and interstate institutions, to apply an integrative approach to eco-innovation. The purpose of this paper is to expand the existing potential for the development of eco-innovation in the business sector and industrial enterprises. The method used is based on the descriptive method, synthesis, and analysis of data collected by international organizations, as well based on research in academic circles. Appropriate incentives from governments to innovate green business models, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), would ensure a higher level of environmental quality, adequate quality of life for all people, and a greener future. To achieve the goals, future directions of development should be focused on the development of technology and knowledge, with an adequate policy of creating a green strategy for decarbonization and sustainable development.
EN
Purpose: The paper examines the mediating effect of dynamic capabilities (sensing, seizing, and reconfiguring) on the relationship between critical resources (financial, human, and physical) and Polish green innovative companies’ performance. Design/methodology/approach: The paper combines the Resource-Based View of the Firm with Dynamic Capabilities View and applies them to eco-innovation performance. The study is quantitative and was conducted among 54 Polish green innovative companies. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the research hypotheses. Findings: The results indicate that sensing and seizing opportunities mediate the relationship between all types of resources and eco-innovators’ performance. Moreover, reconfiguring the resource base mediates the relationship between human resources and Polish green innovative companies’ economic output. Research limitations/implications: The results of the study indicate that a specific set of resources is not always enough to enhance green innovative companies’ performance. Therefore, there is a need for dynamic capabilities. Such capabilities lead to the development of resources and their dynamic adaptation to technological and market changes. The findings may contribute to a broader scientific discussion on the specificity of eco-innovative activity and its conditions in the Polish economy. Originality/value: The paper is the first to examine – to the author’s best knowledge – the mediating effect of multidimensional dynamic capabilities on the relationship between critical resources and Polish green innovative companies’ performance.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to identify and assess the various factors – legal, technological or social, that determine the process of eco-innovation development in SMEs sector companies. Design/methodology/approach: The first part of this paper presents literature considerations on eco-innovation and its characteristics as well as types of determinants affecting its implementation. The occurrence and importance of particular determinants for the implementation of eco-innovation was then evaluated as a result of an own survey research carried out in 2020 on a sample of 96 SMEs implementing technologies for environmental protection from the Silesian Voivodeship. Findings: The analysis and the obtained results indicate a significant positive influence of managerial environmental awareness, slightly less significant impact of final consumers and communication style in the company and significant impact of legal regulations, which may be a barrier for eco-innovation implementation. Research limitations/implications: The results provide a basis for activities to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of eco-innovation in enterprises. Limitations of the study include the subjectivity of respondents' opinions and the relatively small research sample, which may limit the generalization of the results. Practical implications: The results provide a basis for activities to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of eco-innovation in enterprises. Limitations of the study include the subjectivity of respondents' opinions and the relatively small research sample, which may limit the generalization of the results. Originality/value: The contribution of the research to the development of management sciences mainly includes the formulation and empirical verification of a set of key factors determining the process of eco-innovation implementation in SMEs in post-industrial region.
PL
Państwa członkowskie UE są zobowiązane do zmniejszenia ilości tworzyw sztucznych kierowanych na składowiska odpadów. Zgodnie z zasadami nowoczesnej gospodarki odpadami oraz wymogami prawnymi obowiązującymi zarówno w Unii Europejskiej, jak i w Polsce należy dążyć do maksymalizacji m.in. odzysku materiałowego (recyklingu). Niekontrolowana gospodarka odpadami stwarza zagrożenia w środowisku, a ilość odpadów znacznie zwiększa się w ostatnich latach. W związku z tym technologicznie i ekonomicznie uzasadnione jest wykorzystanie odpadów jako surowców wtórnych oraz unieszkodliwianie ich w miejscu powstawania. Innowacyjnym rozwiązaniem jest modyfikacja chemiczna odpadów polistyrenu w kierunku uzyskania flokulantów polimerowych zastosowanych w procesach oczyszczania ścieków komunalnych. Pomimo że w procesach oczyszczania ścieków stosowane są małe ilości flokulantów polimerowych, to ich zużycie globalne jest stosunkowo duże. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań potwierdzają efektywne zastosowanie uzyskanych ekopolimerów, a w przyszłości ich produkcję.
EN
LCA anal. was performed for the newly synthesized flocculants obtained from polymer production waste (sulfone deriv. of polystyrene and phenol-formaldehyde resin and amine deriv. of novolac) used in the industrial wastewater treatment process. The anal. was performed with the use of the SimaPro program, using the Eco-indicator 99 method. The most beneficial product for the environment used for the treatment of metallurgical and mine wastewater was the Na salt of the sulfone deriv. of phenol-formaldehyde resin (T novolak).
EN
The development of eco-innovation is driven by globalisation processes, technological progress and climate change. It is also directly related to the pursuit of sustainable development, as well as to the reduction of negative impacts on the environment and the efficient use of natural resources. Monitoring progress towards sustainable development requires the systematic measurement of eco-innovation. An important theoretical and practical challenge is to develop methods and indicators to measure eco-innovation. Currently, there are different systems for measuring eco-innovation, which makes international comparative analysis difficult. This article aims to conduct a compar-ative analysis of the development of eco-innovation in selected European and Asian countries. The study uses a critical literature review as well as a comparative analysis and synthesis method based on the ASEM Eco-Innovation Index. The study provides evidence that there are a number of differences in eco-innovation between European and Asian countries. Measuring eco-innovation is particularly important in planning and implementing instruments to stimulate environmental innovation across countries.
PL
Na rozwój ekoinnowacji mają wpływ między innymi procesy globalizacyjne, postęp technologiczny i zmiany klimatyczne. Jest on również bezpośrednio związany z dążeniem do zrównoważonego rozwoju, a także z ograniczeniem negatywnego wpływu na środowisko i efektywnym wykorzystaniem zasobów naturalnych. Monitorowanie postępu w kierunku zrównoważonego rozwoju wymaga systematycznego pomiaru ekoinnowacji. Ważnym wyzwaniem teoretycznym i praktycznym jest opracowanie metod i wskaźników do pomiaru ekoinnowacji. Obecnie istnieją różne systemy pomiaru ekoinnowacji, co utrudnia międzynarodową analizę porównawczą. Celem artykułu jest analiza porównawcza rozwoju ekoinnowacji w wybranych krajach europejskich i azjatyckich. W opracowaniu wykorzystano krytyczny przegląd literatury oraz metodę analizy porównawczej i syntezy opartej na indeksie ekoinnowacji ASEM. Badanie dostarcza dowodów na istnienie szeregu różnic pod względem poziomu ekoinnowacyjności w krajach europejskich i azjatyckich. Pomiar ekoinnowacji jest szczególnie ważny przy planowaniu i wdrażaniu instrumentów stymulujących innowacje środowiskowe w poszczególnych krajach.
EN
This study used 2017-2019 Chinese A-share-listed automobile manufacturing companies as research samples to analyse the impact of the government-business relationship on eco-innovation. We found that a healthy government-business relationship had a positive impact on enterprise eco-innovation. The mediating effects test verified that a healthy government-business relationship affected enterprise eco-innovation through financing constraints. In addition, managerial ownership significantly increased the positive impact of a healthy government-business relationship on enterprise eco-innovation. We also found that a healthy government-business relationship had a more substantial impact on enterprise eco-innovation in non-state-owned enterprises when considering corporate property rights. The study results provide empirical evidence for the influence of the government-business relationship on enterprise eco-innovation and deepen our understanding of eco-innovation in China’s automobile manufacturing industry.
EN
Purpose: The primary aim of the article is to present, examine and discuss an alternative approach to the eco-innovation measurement of enterprises, based on the methodology of life cycle assessment (LCA). Design/methodology/approach: The simplified three-step approach, based on the LCA methodology, was applied to perform the analysis. It consists of the following subsequent stages: environmental assessment, environmental profile of an enterprise and contribution analysis. The environmental profile of the enterprise was calculated using the ReCiPe Midpoint (H) method. Findings: A medium size enterprise manufacturing rubber granulates (ethylene-propylene-diene monomer, EPDM and styrene-butadiene rubber, SBR) was covered by the research. The research proved that the analysed enterprise has the most detrimental impact on the environment in the following impact categories: marine ecotoxicity, natural land transformation and freshwater ecotoxicity. These result predominantly from SBR rubber granulate production. Consequently, due to the specificity of the manufacturing process to be more eco-innovative, the enterprise needs to apply more energy-efficient technologies. Originality/value: This is a fully original research paper that validates an alternative approach to measure and stimulate the implementation of eco-innovation at the micro-level. It complements the currently existing methodologies by taking life cycle and the supply chain perspective into consideration, and thus supports decision-makers in the implementation of the principles of circular economy
EN
This paper presents the possibilities of waste management originating from municipal wastewater treatment through the production of mineral-organic fertilizers based on sewage sludge. The original method created for this purpose was used in the study together with the environmental assessment of this method. Therefore, the purpose of this publication is twofold. On the one hand, the first goal of the paper is to draw attention to the need to choose the appropriate method of utilization of sewage sludge, taking into account its characteristics and potentially harmful effects on the environment. The second goal of the paper is to assess the environmental impact of the selected method and demonstrate its eco-innovation. The first part of the paper is a theoretical introduction to the issues of sewage sludge management, as well as theoretical considerations on the essence of eco-innovation. The second part of the paper presents practical issues of production and application of the organo-mineral granulated fertilizer subjected to research, while the third part – the methodology of the applied Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), including in particular the application of Material and Energy Flow Analysis (MEFA) at the Life Cycle Inventory stage. The fourth section presents the assumptions and results of the conducted research for four alternative solutions for the production of organic-mineral fertilizers. The fifth and final part summarizes the results and contains a number of conclusions and recommendations that should be considered in the context of the possibilities of further product optimization.
PL
W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono możliwości użytkowego wykorzystania odpadów z oczyszczania ścieków komunalnych, poprzez wytwarzanie nawozów mineralno-organicznych na bazie osadów ściekowych autorską metodą oraz ocenę środowiskową tej metody. Tak więc, cel niniejszej publikacji jest dwojaki. Z jednej strony, pierwszym celem artykułu jest zwrócenie uwagi na konieczność doboru odpowiedniej metody utylizacji osadów ściekowych z uwzględnieniem ich charakterystyki oraz potencjalnie szkodliwego oddziaływania na środowisko. Drugim celem artykuły jest ocena wpływu środowiskowego wybranej metody, celem wykazanie jej eko-innowacyjności. Pierwsza część pracy stanowi wprowadzenie teoretyczne do problematyki zagospodarowania osadów ściekowych, jak również teoretyczne rozważania nad istotą eko-innowacyjności. Druga część pracy przedstawia praktyczne zagadnienia produkcji i zastosowania organo-mineral granulated fertilizer poddanego badaniom, podczas gdy trzecia – metodykę zastosowanej analizy cyklu życia LCA, w tym szczególnie zastosowania analizy Material and Energy Flow Analysis (MEFA) na etapie Life Cycle Inventory. Czwarta sekcja przedstawia założenia i wyniki prowadzonego badania dla czterech alternatywnych rozwiązań technologii produkcji nawozów organiczno-mineralnych. Część piąta i ostatnia podsumowuje wyniki i zawiera szereg wniosków i zaleceń, które należy rozważyć w kontekście możliwości dalszej optymalizacji produktu.
EN
This paper presents the results of measurements of attitudes towards a demonstrative virtual-reality railway simulator for eco-driving techniques training. This device has been prepared for InnoTrans 2016 railway trade fair, and during this exhibition 144 railway professionals from 35 countries took part in the simulation and filled a questionnaire about their experience and whether they found this type of simulator a viable choice for railway driver training. The results have been very positive with barely any negative answers. This shows that a VR-based railway simulator could potentially be used as a low-cost solution supporting energy efficient train driving.
EN
The aim of the study is to indicate the essence and increasing importance of the ecologization of innovative development in the glocalization of economic processes as well as the potential benefits of eco-innovation for long-term objectives of regions development. The study systematize the knowledge on this topic, and indicate the necessity of their continuous development. The applied methodology is based on an analysis of scientific literature European countries. The research methodology is systematization of approaches to the direction of innovation processes for the development, creation and implementation of innovations in the form of new products, technology, method, form of production organization, etc., which directly or indirectly contributes to reducing the environmentally destructive effects of production and consumption on the environment and solving environmental problems. The authors hypothesis is that the glocalization on the basis of the implementation of environmental innovations will contribute to the sustainable development of the economy of the regions. This is a new way of looking at the region development, i.e. that looks at how ecologization of innovative development should be used for strategic advantage of region and how processes of ecologization of innovative development of the region can be a catalyst for the processes of market glocalization and promote sustainable development of the regional economy.
EN
This study investigates the eco-innovation variable which has the significant effect on creative industries center’s performance of marble and natural stone craft sector in Tulungagung, Indonesia. The object of the study is the creative industries center with the non-renewable raw material. Mostly, the companies are in form of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) which is ‘passive eco-innovator’ and their eco-innovation variables have not been investigated before in terms of their influence on their performance. The respondents were 81 craftsmen taken from the population. The data were collected through questionnaires which were tested, processed and analyzed by using Consistent Partial Least Square (PLSc). The eco-innovation variables which significantly effect on innovative performance are eco-organizational innovation and eco-product innovation. Eco-process innovation and eco-marketing innovation don’t directly affect on innovative performance, but its significant effect on eco-product innovation may influence innovative performance. Improving innovative performance will impact on financial performance through improvement of production performance, but market performance does not significantly affect financial performance. The findings of this study could be a reference for creative industries center’s of marble and natural stone craft sector to prioritize which type of eco-innovation should be improved so that its impact on performance is more significant.
EN
The basic goal of the research is to recognize the situation and the level of eco-innovation in Poland, including the MSME sector and to compare the obtained results with the ones from EU countries. The result of the research is indicating the barriers and opportunities to support the development of eco-innovation in the MSME sector in Poland. Moreover, there has been made an assessment of effectiveness of the financing of eco-innovation by micro-, small and medium enterprises, and in particular the assessment of determinants affecting the selection of sources of funding of eco-innovation, including the use of structural funds.
PL
Podstawowym celem badań jest rozpoznanie stanu i poziomu ekoinnowacji w Polsce, w tym w sektorze MMSP, oraz porównanie otrzymanych wyników z krajami Unii Europejskiej. Efektem tych badań jest wskazanie barier i możliwości wsparcia rozwoju ekoinnowacji w sektorze MMSP w Polsce. Ponadto przeprowadzono ocenę efektywności finansowania ekoinnowacji przez mikro, małe i średnie przedsiębiorstwa, a w szczególności ocenę determinant wpływających na wybór źródeł finansowania ekoinnowacji, w tym wykorzystania funduszy strukturalnych.
PL
Polska jest jednym z najbardziej zanieczyszczonych krajów Unii Europejskiej. W Krakowie od września 2016 roku do marca 2017 odnotowano 68 dni z przekroczonym dobowym stężeniem pyłu PM10. Sytuacja ta wynika z wciąż popularnych w Polsce sposobów pozyskiwania energii elektrycznej jak i cieplnej z paliw kopalnych, często o bardzo niskiej jakości. W pracy zaprezentowano innowacyjne metody umożliwiające wytworzenie energii z odnawialnych źródeł jak i korzyści dla gospodarki w wymiarze fizycznym, środowiskowym, społecznym oraz ekonomicznym, wynikające z odpowiedniego zarządzania energią.
EN
Poland is one of the most polluted countries in the European Union. In Cracow, from September 2016 to March 2017, 68 days were observed with a daily PM10 concentration exceeding the daily concentration. This situation is due to the still popular methods of obtaining electricity and heat from fossil fuels, often of very low quality. The paper presents innovative methods for generating renewable energy and the benefits to the physical, environmental, social and economic dimensions of energy management.
PL
Praca przedstawia określenie innowacji ekologicznych w sektorze produkcji rolnej jako instrumentu zrównoważonego rozwoju, obejmując takie aspekty jak określenie sektora produkcji rolnej w Polsce i na świecie oraz proces wdrożenia koncepcji zrównoważonego rozwoju dla tego sektora. Praca zawiera również podział ekoinnowacji w ramach omawianego sektora oraz ich typologię w obrębie sektora.
EN
The paper presents a definition of ecological innovation in the sector of agricultural development as an instrument of sustainable development and includes such aspects as determination of the sector of agricultural production in Poland and in the world as well describes the process of the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in this sector. The article contains a classification and typology of innovation within the discussed sector.
EN
This paper examines the application of life cycle assessment (LCA) as an approach to foster the product and process oriented eco- innovation of enterprises, using the fruit and vegetable processing plant as an example. LCA, which is traditionally used to assess the impacts of a single product system on the environment, was applied in the enterprise context. This was made possible by forming an indicator describing the environmental profile of an enterprise, which is calculated by the sum of the multiplication of the environmental impact assessment (LCIA) results for individual unit processes within a particular impact category and their weights reflecting the structure of production in an enterprise. In order to distinguish and indicate the direction in which an enterprise should undertake its eco-innovative actions (implementing eco-innovations within the product or production process) the LCIA results are presented individually for products and production processes. The research was conducted in full compliance with the LCA methodology. LCA proved that the analysed enterprise has the largest negative impacts on the environment in the following impact categories: marine eco-toxicity, freshwater eco-toxicity, freshwater eutrophication, human toxicity and natural land transformation. They result primarily from the consumption of thermal and electric energy in the production processes. Therefore, to improve energy efficiency, the enterprise should take eco-innovative actions in the processes applied.
PL
W artykule zajęto się zagadnieniem wprowadzania przez przedsiębiorstwa górnicze nowych produktów, procesów, rozwiązań organizacyjnych lub metod marketingowych, które przynoszą korzyści środowisku w okresie wytwarzania lub wykorzystywania produktu. Dokonana analiza wskazuje jakie korzyści dla środowiska są najczęściej uzyskiwane przez przedsiębiorstwa górnicze, a jakie przez ogół przedsiębiorstw przemysłowych. Następnie przedstawiono ocenę jakie motywy dominują przy podejmowaniu decyzji o wdrożeniu ekoinnowacji, stwierdzając na tej podstawie, że przedsiębiorstwa górnicze wdrażają ekoinnowacje najczęściej w celu obniżki kosztów prowadzenia działalności, a konkretnie opłat środowiskowych.
EN
The article analyzes the introduction in the mining companies, of new products processes, organizational or marketing methods that obtained environmental benefits during the production of goods or during the consumption or use of a good by the end user. An analysis indicate what of the benefits to the environment are usually obtained by mining companies, and which by all industrial enterprises. Then autors assess, what factors had most importance in driving enterprise’s decisions to introduce eco-innovations. On this basis was concluded, that mining companies are implementing the most eco-innovation to reduce costs of business, that are namely environmental charges.
PL
Celem artykułu jest zaprezentowanie problemu zagrożeń środowiskowych w Krakowie. Badania dotyczą wpływu komunikacyjnych źródeł na stan powietrza w dużym mieście. Badania terenowe miały na celu określenie ilości zanieczyszczeń emitowanych przez poruszające się pojazdy po ul. Czarnowiejskiej w Krakowie. Przedstawione dane pokazały zróżnicowanie typów pojazdów oraz pozwoliły określić zależność liczby pojazdów od dnia tygodnia. Przy uwzględnieniu emisji dwutlenku węgla przez jeden pojazd na kilometr trasy obliczono łączną emisję CO2 z przejeżdżających pojazdów. Porównano skład spalin pochodzących z silników z zapłonem iskrowym i samoczynnym, obliczając ilość emitowanych zanieczyszczeń w każdym przypadku. W artykule umieszczono przykłady ekoinnowacji w zarządzaniu transportem na badanej trasie.
EN
The purpose of this article is to present the problem of environmental hazards in Krakow. The research focuses on the impact of traffic sources on the air in a big city. Field studies were designed to determine the amount of pollutants emitted by vehicles moving along Czarnowiejska street in Krakow. The data showed differences in the types of vehicles and helped to determine the dependence of the number of vehicles on the day of the week. Taking into account the carbon dioxide emissions per vehicle per kilometer of its route, the total CO2 emissions from passing vehicles were calculated. The composition of the exhaust from petrol and Diesel engines was compared, calculating the amount of pollutants emitted in each case. The paper contains examples of eco-innovation in the management of transport on the tested route.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono fenomen zarządzania łańcuchem dostaw, którego celem jest dostarczanie wartości dla klientów i innych interesariuszy. Szczególną uwagę skoncentrowano na ekoinnowacjach i ocenie ich znaczenia w zarządzaniu procesami biznesowymi w łańcuchu dostaw. Zaprezentowano przykłady innowacji w świetle postulatów środowiskowej i społecznej odpowiedzialności biznesu, wdrożonych przez takie wiodące firmy, jak: Coca-Cola, Dell, Esquel, Nowy Styl, SABMiller oraz Tchibo.
EN
This article presents the phenomenon of supply chain management, that aims to add value for customers and other stakeholders. Special attention is focused on eco-innovations as well as on evaluation of their importance in business processes management in supply chain. There are presented examples of innovations in light of environmental and social corporate responsibility, implemented by leading companies such as Coca-Cola, Dell, Esquel, Nowy Styl, SABMiller and Tchibo.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wybrane zagadnienia związane z pozyskiwaniem wiedzy zewnętrznej i ekoinnowacyjnością przedsiębiorstw. Na podstawie badań empirycznych przeprowadzonych w MŚP branży ochrony środowiska zidentyfikowano źródła wiedzy zewnętrznej wykorzystywanej przez przedsiębiorstwa oraz intensywność ich współpracy z innymi podmiotami. W szczególności skupiono się na określeniu zależności znaczenia przypisywanego poszczególnym źródłom wiedzy zewnętrznej oraz intensywności podejmowanej współpracy z poziomem ekoinnowacyjności badanych przedsiębiorstw.
EN
The article presents selected problems related to external knowledge acquisition and eco-innovation in enterprises. On the basis of empirical study conducted in the SME from environmental protection sector, sources of external knowledge used by enterprises and the intensity of their cooperation were identified. Particular emphasis was placed on the analysis of the relationship between the importance attributed to various sources of external knowledge, intensity of undertaken cooperation, and eco-innovation outputs of surveyed enterprises.
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