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PL
Zubery to unikatowe wody mineralne w skali światowej. Ze względu na zawartość składników mineralnych są wykorzystywane w balneoterapii. Na podstawie badań prowadzonych w ramach Ruchu Uzdrowiskowego Zakładu Górniczego w Krynicy-Zdroju i wyników analiz fizykochemicznych określono zróżnicowanie składu fizykochemicznego szczawy typu Zuber z poszczególnych odwiertów. Wyróżniono dwa typy Zuberów HCO3–Na (Zuber I, Zuber III i Zuber IV) oraz HCO3–Na–Mg (Zuber II). Głównymi składnikami, które mają wpływ na typ chemiczny szczaw jest anion HCO3 –, natomiast z kationów jon Na2+ i tylko w szczawie udostępnionej odwiertem Zuber II również jon Mg2+. Zawartość HCO3 – waha się od 10841 do 19969 g/dm3, Na2+ od 3369 do 9650 g/dm3, a Mg2+ od 145 do 802 mg/dm3. Mineralizacja szczaw typu Zuber waha się od 16 575–29 260 mg/dm3, a zawartość CO2 od 880 do 2984 mg/dm3.
EN
Zuber is a unique water type across the world due to its mineralization and the content of individual components. This carbonated water is used in balneotherapy. On the basis of both research carried out as part of the spa activity of the Mining Plant in Krynica-Zdrój and the results of physicochemical analysis, the physiochemical composition of Zuber carbonated waters was determined in some wells. Two types of Zuber have been distinguished: HCO3–Na (Zuber I, Zuber III and Zuber IV) and HCO3–Na–Mg (Zuber II). The main components affecting the chemical type of the waters are the HCO3 – anion and the Na2+ cation, as well as the Mg2+ ion that is available only in the Zuber II carbonated water. The HCO3 – content varies from 10.841 to 19.969 mg/dm3, Na2+ from 3.369 to 9.650 mg/dm3, and Mg2+ from 145 to 802 g/dm3. The mineralization of the Zuber carbonated waters varies from 16.575–29.260 g/dm3, and the CO2 content is between 880 and 2.984 mg/dm3.
2
Content available The Pieniny Klippen Belt in Poland
EN
The Pieniny Klippen Belt in Poland marks the Central Carpathian-North European plate suture zone. The strictly tectonic present-day confines of the Pieniny Klippen Belt are characterized as (sub)vertical faults and shear zones. A strong reduction in the space of the original sedimentary basins took place. The strike-slip-bounded tectonic blocks, thrust units, toe-thrusts and olistostromes are mixed together, resulting in the present-day mélange character where individual tectonic units are difficult to distinguish. The sedimentary rocks of the Pieniny Klippen Belt were deposited in the paleogeographic realm known as the Alpine Tethys that was divided into two basins separated by the Czorsztyn Ridge. The accretionary prism formed in front of the advancing Alcapa (Central Carpathians) terrane had overridden the Czorsztyn Ridge during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. The destruction of the Czorsztyn Ridge supplied huge amounts of coarse-clastic material, including olistoliths, into the Magura Basin during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene. The rotation of the Alcapa caused the strike-slip motions which led to the deformation of the previously created nappes and development of the flower structure. Two parallel faults delineate the southern and northern limits of the Pieniny Klippen Belt. The stops in Sromowce (Macelowa and Sobczański Gorge area) allow the observation of the southern marginal zone of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, the overturned position of the rotated counterclockwise deformed rock as well as the diapiric uplift of the Pieniny rocks in a transpressional strike-slip regime. The Zawiasy (Krościenko area) stop is located in the northern marginal zone (Hulina Unit) of the Pieniny Klippen Belt along the major dextral strike-slip Dunajec Fault.
EN
To optimize exploration for new hydrocarbon accumulations in the Polish Outer Carpathians, it is necessary to concentrate attention on identification of hydrocarbon accumulations of the “shale-gas” type. Results of recently completed analysis suggested new such possible targets in the Magura Basin, preserved in the Outer Carpathian Magura Nappe. Analysis of the preliminary results of paleoenvironmental and geochemical studies of these shales is the subject of this paper. Micropaleontological and geochemical study was conducted on the 300 m thick Świątkowa Member, the uppermost part of the Ropianka Formation located in the external, northernmost Siary Zone. This member is composed of thin- and medium-bedded sandstones interbedded by green, brown, black and dark-gray shales. Poor and changeable oxygenation is reflected in the composition of foraminiferal assemblages. A negative correlation between the TOC content and numbers and diversity of foraminifera is observed. The paleogeographic position and paleoenvironment assessment indicates that the Siary Zone fulfills certain conditions for organic productivity and preservation during the deposition of the Ropianka Formation.
EN
In the Polish sector of the Magura Nappe, along the front of the Pieniny Klippen Belt, strongly tectonized calcareous flysch up to 1000 m thick is exposed. Previously these deposits, composed of thin- to thick-bedded flysch, with a packet of Łącko-type marls, have been included into several Paleocene/Eocene formations, e.g., the Szczawnica Formation. This formation contains a poor assemblage of agglutinated foraminifera and a relatively rich assemblage of calcareous nannoplankton, with abundant reworked species. The youngest species give evidence of the NN2 Zone (Lower Miocene). Additionally, in three profiles (Szlachtowa, Knurów and Waksmund) of the Kremna Fm., Early Miocene foraminifera have been recognized. This research documented that during the Burdigalian, at the front of Central Western Carpathians, there still existed a residual marine basin probably up to 100 km wide. These deposits also contain thick packages of exotic carbonate conglomerates derived from the SE, previously regarded as the Jarmuta Formation.
EN
The thin- and medium-bedded, turbiditic deposits that are exposed in the Bystrica Zone of the Magura Nappe in the Slovak Orava region are the subject of this study. On the basis of lithological features as well as age and stratigraphic position, they are assigned to the Ropianka Formation. The very well exposed rocks of this formation, recognized in the Biela Farma profile in the Slovak part of the northwestern Orava region, are compared with analogous deposits in the Polish Orava and the Beskid Wysoki Mountains. Lithological and biostratigraphical documentation of the Ropianka Formation is presented. This documentation allowed the determination of the age of the rocks studied. Abundant and taxonomically diverse foraminiferal assemblages of agglutinated, benthonic and occasional planktonic forms indicate a Middle Paleocene age for the upper part of the Ropianka Fm. A new stratigraphic position for the Szczawina Sandstone, considered to be a member of the Ropianka Fm, is proposed. The lithostratigraphy of the Ropianka Fm in the Magura Nappe in Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic requires further investigation, including the establishment of new type and reference sections. The large outcrop at Biela Farma should be taken into consideration as a potential reference section. Studies of the new sections will lead to a new monographic elaboration of the Ropianka Fm in Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic.
EN
The Magura Nappe in the Polish sector of the Outer Carpathians consists of four tectonic subunits characterized by differing development of facies. From the south to the north, they include the Siary, Rača, Bystrica and Krynica subunits. The sedimentary succession in the Rača Subunit in the vicinity of the village of Osielec is composed of Campanian–Palaeogene flysch deposited in the Magura Basin. In this succession, the Middle Eocene Pasierbiec Sandstone Fm consists of thick-bedded sandstones and conglomerates with occasional intercalations of thin-bedded shale-sandstone flysch. Within the Pasierbiec Sandstone Fm at Osielec there is an olistostrome, rich in pebbles and cobbles of exotic rocks. In addition, large blocks of Neoproterozoic metabasites and boulders of Palaeogene organogenic limestones were found. The discovery of metabasites raised the possibility that the rocks in question could be evidence of supposed oceanic crust in the basement of the Magura sedimentary basin, because of the suggestion that they represent the Alpine orogenic cycle. This concept was abandoned when investigations of the absolute age of the metabasites gave a date of ca. 600 Ma. In the Osielec area, there are two tectonic thrust sheets in the Rača Subunit, namely the Osielczyk Thrust Sheet in the north and the Bystra Thrust Sheet in the south; they are folded and cut by a transverse system of strike-slip and oblique faults. The Osielczyk Thrust Sheet was overthrust northwards on to the Siary Subunit.
EN
The Gorce Mountains are a picturesque range in the Polish sector of the Outer Carpathians. They are built with turbiditic deposits, representing sedimentary successions of the Krynica and Bystrica Subunits of the Magura Nappe, Late Cretaceous- Paleogene in age. In the Gorce Mts. the majority of lithostratigraphic divisions representing discussed subunits are very well exposed in numerous outcrops. The deposits of the Magura Nappe are folded, locally thrust, and cut by the strike-slip and oblique fault system. This nappe in the Gorce Mts. covers tectonically units of the Foremagura Group of Nappes, which crop out in two tectonic windows. From Rabka-Zdrój and Szczawa mineral waters are well known. Morphology of the Gorces Mts. is varied. A lot of rock tors occur there, as well as landslides, often extensive. Good localizations, varied geology, great land relief and rich live nature, as well as the highlander culture and monuments make the Gorce Mts. an area of high geotouristic potential.
PL
Gorce są malowniczym pasmem w polskiej części Zachodnich Karpat Zewnętrznych. Są one zbudowane z turbidytowych, późnokredowo-paleogeńskich utworów reprezentujących osadowe sukcesje krynickiej i bystrzyckiej podjednostki płaszczowiny magurskiej. W Gorcach większość wydzieleń litostratygraficznych reprezentujących wspomniane podjednostki jest bardzo dobrze eksponowana w licznych odsłonięciach. Utwory płaszczowiny magurskiej są sfałdowane, lokalnie złuskowane i pocięte systemem poprzecznych i ukośnych uskoków. Płaszczowina magurska w Gorcach przykrywa tektonicznie jednostki przedmagurskiej grupy płaszczowin, które odsłaniają się w dwu tektonicznych oknach. W Rabce-Zdroju i w Szczawie wykorzystywane są wody mineralne. Rzeźba Gorców jest zróżnicowana. Występują tu liczne skałki oraz osuwiska, często rozległe. Dogodna lokalizacja, interesująca budowa geologiczna, wspaniała rzeźba tego pasma, bogata fauna i fora oraz dziedzictwo kulturalne miejscowej ludności wpływają na duży potencjał geoturystyczny Gorców.
EN
Detrital heavy minerals separated from the Malcov Fm. deposits (Magura Nappe) indicate their source rocks and areas. The heavy mineral assemblages predominantly consist of garnet, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and Cr-spinel. EPMA analyses reveal a few groups of garnets: zoned and unzoned Grs almandines, Prp-Sps almandines, unzoned Prp almandines, almandines, Sps almandines and rare zoned spessartine grains (~85 mol% Sps). The garnet composition indicates that gneisses, mica schists, amphibolites and granites were their main source rocks, but low-grade metapelites with Mn mineralisation probably contributed as well. The detrital dravitic tourmalines were mostly derived from paragneisses and mica schists. Cr-spinel indicates a volcanic source. Based on heavy mineral assemblages, coupled with palaeoflow analysis, we conclude that the Marmarosh Massif and Fore-Marmarosh Suture are the most probable source areas. Aditionally, the Malcov sedimentary basin was supplied by material from the crystalline complexes of the Tisza Mega-Unit and Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB). The bulk of the clastic deposits comprise classical turbidites. These lithofacies were deposited from either turbidity currents or from concentrated density flows. The palaeoflow record is varied and highlights the contribution of sedimentary material from several directions and/or diversion of gravity currents from the main flow direction (SE–NW). The marginal parts of the Malcov sub-basins were formed of deformed and uplifted older formations of surrounding units of the Magura Nappe and PKB (submerged ridges). Older (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) flysch sediments may have been redeposited from these ridges to neighbouring sub-basins in a transverse direction (NE–SW).
EN
The area of investigation is situated close to the contact zone between the Pieniny Klippen Belt, Krynica Subunit of the Magura Nappe and the Neogene strata of the Orava–Nowy Targ Intramontane Basin (southern Poland). In the area studied, marine deposits of the Stare Bystre Formation outcrop at the surface where they emerge from beneath freshwater and terrestrial Neogene and Quaternary deposits. Nannofossil assemblages from all samples are strongly dominated by reworked species. The Early Miocene age (NN2) of the Stare Bystre Formation has been determined on the base of the first occurrence of Sphenolithus disbelemnos after Shackleton et al. (2000). During the Late Oligocene (NP25/NN1), the frontal part of Magura Nappe was thrust northwards on to the terminal Krosno flysch basin. The northwards thrusting of the Magura Nappe was accompanied by the formation of the piggy-back basin on the Magura Nappe, filled with the synrorogenic turbidites belonging to the Zawada, Kremná and Stare Bystre formations (NN2).
EN
The calcareous nannoplankton and foraminifera from the Gładyszów Beds, regarded as the youngest deposits in the northern marginal Siary Subunit of the Magura Nappe in Poland, are characterized. The material investigated comes from outcrops in the vicinity of Gładyszów and from the Gładyszów PIG-1 borehole. The analysis allowed the establishment of the age of these deposits as not older than late Rupelian–early Chattian (the calcareous nannoplankton NP24 Zone). The taxonomic affiliations, environmental associations and preservation of the microfossils were analyzed to document the sedimentary processes and environmental conditions during the geotectonic transformation of the Magura Basin in the Oligocene. These microfossils also were compared with those reported from the terminal deposits of the Outer Carpathians and the Podhale Basin.
EN
The present authors investigated the Paleogene deposits of the internal zone of the Magura Basin known as the Krynica Subunit or Krynica zone in Poland. These deposits crop out in the peri-Pieniny zone, in the area between Szczawnica and Krościenko. The oldest flysch deposits belong to the Paleocene - Lower Eocene Szczawnica Formation. This formation is covered by thin-bedded turbidites of the Eocene Zarzecze Formation locally with intercalations of the thick-bedded sandstones of the Krynica Member and Łęcko-type marls. The youngest rocks in this area belong to the Eocene-Oligocene Magura Formation. The Zarzecze Formation occupies a large part of the Krynica zone of the Magura Nappe border structure. Some deposits previously distinguished as the Szczawnica Formation were transferred to the Zarzecze Formation. The foraminiferal assemblages confirm the Eocene age of these deposits.
EN
The area studied, known as the Małe (Little) Pieniny Mts., belongs to the Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB), a suture zone that separates the Central Carpathians from the Outer Carpathian accretionary wedge. Along its northern boundary the PKB is separated from the Paleogene to Early Miocene flysch deposits of the Magura Nappe by a narrow, strongly deformed belt belonging to the Grajcarek tectonic Unit. This unit is composed of Jurassic, Cretaceous and Paleocene pelagic and flysch deposits. The Klippen units of the PKB are represented by Jurassic–Lower Cretaceous carbonate deposits overlain by Upper Cretaceous variegated marls and flysch deposits. We describe geological and biostratigraphic evidence concerning the palaeogeographic, stratigraphic and structural relationships between the Pieniny Klippen Belt and the Magura Nappe, that significantly modify previously held views on the evolution of the Małe Pieniny Mts. and the Polish sector of the PKB.
EN
The described mofetta of CO2 is located in the Sądecki Beskid Mts, within the Poprad Landscape Park in Tylicz near Krynica, where it can be found on the SE slope of the Szalone hill, between the Syhowny and Bradowiec streams, the rightbank tributaries of the Muszynka Stream. The mouth of the mofetta, whose coordinates are: longitude 21o00'20”E, latitude 49o23’25’’N, and altitude 577 m a.s.l., is currently situated within a private holiday center. Geologically, the mofetta is situated within the Maszkowice Sandstone Member of the Magura Formation, in the SE part of the Magura Nappe of the Outer Carpathians. In its close vicinity the tectonic-facies Krynica zone is thrusted onto the Bystrzyca zone and the thrust line is intersected by the Tylicz dislocation. The daily volume of the gas discharged is estimated at fifteen or so thousand cubic meters with CO2 being the main constituent (almost 95%), while minor constituents include N2 (3.87%), CH4 (0.62%) and O2 (0.21%). The h13C value of the CO2 of the Tylicz mofetta is -1.05% against V-PDB. The gases of the mofetta are accompanied by an outflow of the carbonated water (HCO3-Ca-Mg + CO2 type, TDS 1.8 g/dm3) from the Lis spring, where abundant gelatinous, rusty-colored deposits of iron oxyhydroxides precipitate. In the years 1962-1966 the CO2 exhaled from the mofetta was utilized in experiments on algae growing, mainly for manufacturing an algae fodder. In the year 2011 the mofetta in Tylicz was made accessible to the public
EN
The oldest flysch deposits are the leading theme of the planned "Silesian-Moravian-Żywiec Beskid" Geopark. The geopark is located in the area of Beskid Śląski Mts. and Beskid Żywiecki Mts. in the territory ofPoland. This is a region of the occurrence of a number of tectonic units of the Outer Carpathians, including Pieniny Klippen Belt, Magura Nappe (with Krynica, Bystrica, Raca and Siary tec- tonic-facies zones), Fore-Magura Unit, Silesian Nappe and Subsilesian Nappe. Geodiversity of this area is defined by well-exposed sections ofrocks. They were the sites ofclassical geological work in the 19th century. Within the geopark boundaries, there are the type localities of the following tectonic units: Silesian Nappe, Fore-Magura, Bystrica and Raca units, as well as Jaworzynka, Bystrica, Vyhylovka, Vendryne and Cieszyn Limestone formations, Malinowska Skala Conglomerate, Mutne Sandstone, and Cisownica Shale members. Landslides, attractive geomorphologic landforms (e.g., highest peaks of the Beskidy Mts., providing magnificent views), waterfalls, diversified river valleys, tors, caves as well as places associated with the history and tradition of this region represent geotouristic attractions with a high potential. They will be included in the network ofgeosites protected within the planned geopark. Analysis ofthe geopark area indicates a high degree of variability of natural values, especially its geodiversity and richness of the historical-cultural heritage. The preservation and protection methods are also diversified. This region represents unique geoenvironmental and historical values on the European scale, therefore offering good chances for establishment of geopark. The documentation of geosites has already been gathered at this stage of work. The information requires only updating, minor additions and construction ofa unified database. The evaluation ofthe current touristic infrastructure have also brought very positive results; the area isfrequented by millions oftouristsfrom Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and other countries.
PL
W artykule opisano ujęcia wód leczniczych w uzdrowisku Wapienne, które jest jedynym karpackim uzdrowiskiem z wodami leczniczymi typu siarczkowego. Istnieją tu ujęcia wód siarczkowych – źródła Kamila i Marta oraz odwierty W-1 i W-2, o sumarycznych zasobach eksploatacyjnych wynoszących 5,67 m3/h. Woda charakteryzuje się mineralizacją w granicach 437–536 mg/dm3 i zawartością siarkowodoru wynoszącą od 1,05 do 12,2 mg/dm3. Została zaliczona do wód swoistych, siarczkowych (H2S – powyżej 1 mg/dm3). Wody lecznicze w Wapiennem są związane z warstwami inoceramowymi wieku kredowego, które zostały wykształcone jako piaskowce średnioławicowe, drobno- lub średnioziarniste, szare, wapniste oraz łupki.
EN
In the paper intakes of sulphide therapeutic waters at Wapienne Spa, the only Carpathians health resort possessing sulphide therapeutic waters are described. There exist water intakes: springs Kamila and Marta and wells W-1 and W-2. Their summary admissible volume amounts 5.67 m3/h. The water mineralization varies from 437 to 536 mg/dm3 and hydrogen sulphide content ranges from 1.05 to 12.2 mg/dm3. Due to the high hydrogen sulphide content (more than 1 mg/dm3) these waters are classified as therapeutic. The therapeutic waters at Wapienne Spa are associated with Inoceramian Beds of Cretaceous age. These beds are developed as fine and medium grained, gray sandstones and shales.
EN
The deposition of red and variegated mudstones and claystones characterized the ancient Tethys Ocean during Cretaceous and Palaeogene times, including in its north-western part, the Alpine–Carpathian deep-water basins. Palaeogene variegated sediments, containing red mudstone and claystone layers, crop out in the Gorce Mountains (Rosocha creek, near Lubomierz) in the Magura Nappe (Bystrica Subunit) of the Polish Outer Carpathians. These sediments occur as layers 1–10 cm thick and as packages of layers 2–3 m thick that are associated with very thin-bedded turbidites. The entire succession is tectonically disturbed and parts of it belong to the Ropianka, Łabowa Shale and Beloveža Formations. The sediments studied contain 27 genera and 59 species that belong to deep-water agglutinated foraminiferal (DWAF) assemblages. Tubular taxa, which are frequent in various Mesozoic–Cenozoic flysch sediments are relatively rare in the section studied. The assemblages are moderately diverse (3–20 taxa per sample). Excluding tubular forms, the most common taxa belong to Trochamminoides – Paratrochamminoides spp., Saccammina placenta, glomospirids, Recurvoides – Recurvoidella spp. and karrerulinids. The oldest part of the red sediments, referable to the Ropianka Formation, represents the upper part of the Rzehakina fissistomata Zone (probably the Upper Palaeocene). The youngest red sediments, forming thin intercalations in the Beloveža Formation, represent the acme of Reticulophragmium amplectens (middle Lutetian). Owing to tectonic disturbances, most of the Lower Eocene part of the variegated facies of the Łabowa Shale Formation is not preserved in the section studied. The upper part of it, a package 2 m thick, represents the lower part of the Reticulophragmium amplectens Zone. The small thickness (10–15 m) of the Łabowa Shale Formation in the section studied is similar to other sections in the southern part of the Bystrica Subunit. It is probably of a sedimentary nature, reflecting a decreasing number of mud-rich, gravitational flows in the southern part of the Magura Basin during the Early Eocene. Nevertheless, the strong tectonic disturbances that took place in this area during the Oligocene–Miocene folding and overthrusting influenced the reduction in thickness of these sediments.
EN
Eocene thin-bedded flysch, widespread in the Alpine Tethys ocean, is present within the Magura Nappe, the largest Outer Carpathian unit in Poland and Slovakia. Thin-bedded flysch sedimentation accompanied by hemipelagic shales took place accross the entire Magura Basin during Eocene times. The lithostratigraphic position of these deposits has been a subject of considerable discussion. Different names, such as the Hieroglyphic Beds, Hieroglyphic Formation, Łabowa Shale Formation, Grzechynia Sandstones and Beloveža Beds, Beloveža Formation have been used in the Outer Carpathians literature. We show a striking resemblance of the Beloveža Beds (Formation) from its type locality to the Hieroglyphic Beds from the Beskid Wysoki area and to typical Beloveža Beds from the Hańczowa Mts. We propose to the name Beloveža Formation should be applied to thin-bedded flysch within both Bystrica and Rača units of Magura Nappe and the name Hieroglyphic Formation should be restricted to the Skole Unit. The original type locality in Beloveža near Bardejov in Slovakia is selected as type section of the Beloveža Formation
18
Content available Las Gościbia krainą kaskad i wodospadów
PL
Las Gościbia obejmuje północne stoki Babicy (Beskid Makowski) w rejonie zlewni górskiego strumienia Gościbia. Położony jest na terenie plaszczowiny magurskiej, w strefie Siar. W głęboko wciętych dolinach odsłonięty jest ciągły profil fliszowych utworów wieku eoceńsko-oligoceńskiego (piaskowce pasierbieckie, ogniwo łupków zembrzyckich oraz ogniwo piaskowca z Wątkowej). Szczególnym walorem Lasu Gościbia są ciągi kaskad oraz wodospady, które tutaj licznie występują w dolinach potoków. Ich liczebność, różnorodny charakter oraz wysokie walory estetyczne decydują o wysokim potencjalne dydaktycznym i geoturystycznym.
EN
The "Las Gościbia" includes the northern slopes of Babica Mt. (Beskid Makowski) in the catchment area of a mountain stream called Gościbia. It is located within the Magura Nappe in the Siary Zone (Outer Carpathians). In the deeply cut valleys there is exposed continuously profile of the flysch deposits of Eocene-Oligocene age (Pasierbiec Sandstone, Zembrzyce Shale, Wątkowa Sandstone). The special value of the "Las Gościbia" are cascades and waterfalls, which are numerous here in stream valleys. Their abundance, the heterogeneous nature and high aesthetic values determined a high educational and geotourist potential.
EN
The lithostratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the Bystrica/Tylicz and Krynica facies zones of the Magura Nappe have been studied in the Beskid Sadecki Range and Lubovnianska Vrchovina (Polish and Slovak parts of the Western Outer Carpathians respectively). The new, Tylicz Zone is established, and the Szczawnica, Zarzecze, Magura and Kremna formations are redefined and described. These formations, spanning over 35 myrs, represent a synorogenic deep-water turbidites depositional system that dominated the southern part of the Magura Basin after the collision of the Alcapa Mega Unit with the Czorsztyn/Oravic ridge. The calcareous nannoplankton zones NP14-NP25 (Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene) and NN1-NN2 (Early Miocene) were recognized.
PL
Badano żyły kalcytu blokowego wypełniające szczeliny ciosowe. Opróbowano piaskowce oraz żyły kalcytowe w strefie raczańskiej (Gruszowiec) oraz w strefie Siar (Ropica Górna 1, Ropica Górna 2) płaszczowiny magurskiej. Celem badań było określenie relacji pomiędzy kalcytem blokowym z żył i stopniem utwardzenia piaskowców otaczających. Badania petrograficzne płytek cienkich uzupełniono badaniami chemicznymi oraz obserwacjami w katodoluminescencji. Badane kalcyty blokowe charakteryzują się różnym stopniem żelazistości. Intensywność ich luminescencji pozytywnie koreluje się z zawartością Mn2+. Na podstawie wyników analizy kontaktów międzyziarnowych w piaskowcach oraz relacji żył do cementów i ziaren w piaskowcach stwierdzono, że żyły kalcytu blokowego powstawały na różnym etapie utwardzenia skał płaszczowiny magurskiej. Mikrostruktury oraz różny stopień żelazistości kalcytów blokowych mogą być użyte jako wskaźniki kierunku cementacji szczelin tektonicznych.
EN
Blocky calcite veins filling joints have been studied in sandstones. Calcite veins and host sandstones were sampled in Raca Unit (exposure Gruszowiec) and in Siary Unit (exposures Ropica Górna 1 and Ropica Górna 2). The aim of these studies was to define relationship between blocky calcite in veins and progress of sandstone induration. In the paper, petrographic study was supplemented by chemical analyses and cathodoluminescence observations. Studied blocky calcites show different Fe contents. Intensity of blocky calcite luminescence shows a good correlation with Mn2+ contents. Based on results of grain-contact analysis in sandstones and on relationship between veins and cement in sandstones as well as framework grains, it is concluded that blocky calcite veins were formed in rocks showing different stage of induration. Microstructures and differentiation in Fe contents in blocky calcite may be used as indicators of direction filling in tectonic fractures.
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