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EN
Based on the mould temperature measured by thermocouples during slab continuous casting, a difference of temperature thermograph is developed to detect slab cracks. In order to detect abnormal temperature region caused by longitudinal crack, the suspicious regions are extracted and divided by virtue of computer image processing algorithms, such as threshold segmentation, connected region judgement and boundary tracing. The abnormal regions are then determined and labeled with the eight connected component labeling algorithm. The boundary of abnormal region is also extracted to depict characteristics of longitudinal crack. Based on above researches, longitudinal crack with abnormal temperature region can be detected and is different from other abnormalities. Four samples of temperature drop are picked up to compare with longitudinal crack on the abnormal region formation, length, width, shape, et al. The results show that the abnormal region caused by longitudinal crack has a linear and vertical shape. The height of abnormal region is more than the width obviously. The ratio of height to width is usually larger than that of other temperature drop regions. This method provides a visual and easy way to detect longitudinal crack and other abnormities. Meanwhile it has a positive meaning to the intelligent and visual mould monitoring system of continuous casting.
EN
The relationships between the small cyclopoid copepod Oithona and hydrological factors, phytoplankton and ichthyoplankton were evaluated using the data obtained in the central South China Sea (SCS) in summer 2014. The genus abundance ranged from 6.00 ind. m−3 to 93.75 ind. m−3 with high abundance band occurring in the branch of SCS Monsoon Jet. The lower temperature and higher salinity in the surface water of the band than other zones indicated that deep water intrusion was a positive factor for aggregation of the genus. The community structure of the genus was dominated by Oithona plumifera and Oithona similis made up 97% of the genus abundance associated with Oithona tenuis. The result of db-RDA analysis showed that the community structure of the genus was affected by temperature, Chl a, larval fishes and fish spawns, and temperature was the most important limiting factor. The result of GAMs analysis showed that abundance of O. tenuis, and copepodites were affected by Chl a, larval fishes and fish spawns; abundance of O. similis was affected by Chl a and fish spawns; and abundance of O. plumifera was affected by Chl a and larval fishes. Therefore, we suggest that the branch of SCS Monsoon Jet and deep water intrusion favor aggregation of plankton in the central SCS in summer. We confirm that the temperature is the limiting factor to the reproduction of the genus Oithona in tropic seas and the genus Oithona is a food-web linker between primary production and larval fishes in the central SCS.
EN
Soil nutrient pattern can be a functional tool for grassland restoration. In order to promote the growth of a specific or group of expected plant species, it is necessary to measure the responses of different species to nutrient – rich patches and detect the differences among them. In this article, we measured aboveground biomass and morphological traits of six species as dry weight, length, surface area, specific root length and diameter of fine roots in response to nitrogen addition patches using ingrowth core method. The six species are Artemisia scoparia, Stipa bungeana, Artemisia sacrorum, Artemisia giraldii, Lespedeza dahurica and Astragalus melilotoides. All are the dominant species in different stages of secondary succession of loess hilly region, China. Twelve individuals of each species were selected to install ingrowth cores. Six of the individuals were used as treatment group, they were treated to install with four cores of no (addition’s control), low, medium and high levels of nitrogen additions. Another six of them were used as species’ control group, the four installed cores around them had no nitrogen addition. The results showed that: 1) After 105 days in situ, for all the six species, summed dry weight, length and surface area measured in the four cores of the treatment group were significantly greater than the corresponding values in species’ control group. In aboveground biomass, however, only A. scoparia in the treatment group had significantly outweighed that in the species’ control group. 2) Irrespective of nitrogen additions levels, significant differences of length, diameter and surface area existed among the six species, which implied that species had their intrinsic species specific morphological traits. 3) In dry weight, length and surface area, the responses of all the six species to nitrogen addition levels were positive, significantly more roots were grew into the cores with higher nitrogen additions; while in specific root length, the responses were negative. 4) Perhaps the six species had a special nitrogen requirement, as interaction effects of species and addition levels in surface area were found significant. 5) The foraging precision of the six species to nutrient-rich patches had positive but insignificant correlation with root system size; there existed a significant positive correlation between the precision and the sensitivity to the designed patchy habiats. 6) Among the six species, A. scoparia, A. sacrorum and S. bungeana have higher sensitivity and precision than L. dahurica and A. melilotoides in terms of foraging the nitrogen addition cores or patches. It seems that fast growing species that dominate in early successional stage, like A. scoparia and S. bungeana in our case, obtained more benefits from nutrient patchy habitat. We advised that, in infertile lands, fertiliser be applied in a patchy way to accelerate the restoration of old fields as early as possible once they were abandoned.
EN
Voronoi area of coexisting species in a community has an important role in determining their performances as it is related with the available resources around individuals. Biomass formed within certain Voronoi area probably can be a mark of species that characterised resource competition ability of coexisting species in natural community. In this article, we tried to probe the subject in the following three aspects: 1) what is the apparent relationship between individuals' aboveground biomass and their available Voronoi area for species in natural community? 2) what is the possible theoretic relationship between them? 3) additionally, whether there are any possible indices that can be elicited from species' occupied Voronoi area to reflect species' competitive ability. Using individual-based investigation of aboveground biomass and their corresponding positions, Voronoi area of all individuals of coexisting species in an old field community were computed. The growth of an individual could be regard as a process to compete for resources that is limited by the available area or volume encompassed by the neighborhood individuals. We extended logistic growth model to describe the relationship between Voronoi area and aboveground biomass of coexisting species by relating limiting rhizospheral resource with the Voronoi area around an individual. Theoretically, the individuals aboveground biomass is also controlled by factor-ceiling effects of Voronoi area. So the extended model was fitted with boundary analysis method. And also, their linear relationship was fitted. Under the prediction that competive ability is one of the main driving factors of community succession, two parameters as the Voronoi area of coexisting species and the Voronoi area per unit of aboveground biomass were used to check whether they can designate species' competitive abilities and competitive hierarchies. This was presented by fitting the two parameters with the successional niche positions that was represented by the ordination values along abandonment ages of old field communities in the local area. The results showed that: 1) For most species, the linear regression demonstrated that Voronoi area of an individual that occupied larger Voronoi area tended to have greater aboveground biomass. The nonlinear regression of showed that the relationship might depend upon species' growth characteristics, like shade tolerance and root proliferation. Generally, the relationship could be better fitted by the extended logistic growth model using boundary analysis method than by the linear regression, except for some shade-preferring or clone species. If factor-ceiling effects were considered, at the highest, about 48% of the variation of aboveground biomass could be interpreted by Voronoi area. For some other species with light preference or clone proliferation, the determination coefficient was around zero. 2) Species. averaged Voronoi area had significant and positive Kendall's tau-b and Spearman correlations with successional niches, and species' per-unit aboveground biomass positions of Voronoi area has significantly negative rank correlation with successional niche positions. These indicate that both of them can reflect species' competitive ability and hierarchy to some extent.
EN
A vailability and heterogeneity of resources have a strong influence on community biomass and diversity, which provided a valuable opportunity to evaluate the responses of vegetation on fertilization, to test whether fertilisation can accelerate vegetation restoration in infertile lands. In loess hilly region of China, most newly abandoned infertile lands often undergo heavy soil erosion. It is urgent to promote the restoration of these types of lands. As availability and heterogeneity of soil nutrients have a strong influence on plant community, we conducted a fertilisation experiment with three-factor treatments, to test whether fertilisation can promote the biomass and species richness of an Artemisia scoparia-dominated old field community. The three factors were: spatial patterns (homogeneity and heterogeneity), levels (low, medium and high), and scales (three levels with small, intermediate, and large patches) of fertiliser application. Above- and below-ground biomass and species richness were recorded. The responses of the plant community to the three factors were evaluated and compared with those of the control (no fertilisation). The results show that: (1) The application of fertiliser in either homogeneous or heterogeneous pattern significantly increased the above-ground and below-ground biomass of the plant community as compared with the control. (2) In heterogeneous conditions, the above-ground biomass in nutrient-rich patches was significantly greater than the expected value of 50%. Under intermediate and large scales of the low level and all scales of the medium and high levels, the proportion of 0.15 cm below-ground biomass was also significantly greater than 50%. (3) Both homogeneous and heterogeneous fertilisation greatly increased community richness as compared to the control. Fertilisation, particularly heterogeneous fertilisation, can effectively increase community biomass and diversity. Under patchy habitat, it seems that the responses of vegetation to heterogeneous fertilisation are related to the patches scale and the contrast among patches, nutrient usage efficiency, edge effects on plant and soil, and plant competition are responsible for the responses. The results also suggest that heterogeneous fertilisation should be applied widely in infertile old fields to accelerate secondary succession.
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