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EN
The study examines the possibility of applying the selected components of the theory of six value aggregation paths in designing walking pathways. Based on spatial data collected using a landscape assessment method on the aesthetic values of the landscape of the place under analysis, a model was developed of the network of links of the landscape aesthetic value using a minimum increase in this value. The authors designed scenarios for the optimal routes of walking pathways. The conducted study leads to the conclusion that the minimum value increase path may create a good basis for designing walking pathways. Not only is this manifested in the varied route of the pathway, but also in it being designed in such a way that the landscape’s aesthetic value increases beyond an assumed level of aesthetic value. In addition, the use of hexagonal basic fields enables the design of various route lengths and the optimization of time by adapting the model to a specific group of recipients.
EN
In the modern world of mass information being reduced to colourful images, maps have the chance to become a medium that transmits important information in an attractive format. Due to time pressure, many cartographic publications that have a short life span on the internet contain a lot of methodological errors. Viewers receive an image that is hard to interpret, incomplete or even incorrect. The author aims to summarize and classify the cartographic content of social media, while bearing methodology, the role of the cartographer and users’ reactions to that content in mind. The springboard to online discussion is mainly a map topic. Their design or methodology is of little interest in most cases. This may be due to insufficient knowledge of how forms (their correctness and quality) shape messages. Hence the role of the cartographer is important, what can be seen – among methodological remarks – as one of conclusions. It seems that map-makers are becoming more expert, and are guiding map lovers and amateur cartographers towards creating good, effective and elegant maps.
3
EN
The increase in the number of bike orienteering marathons in recent years in Poland has encouraged search for interesting terrains for races that would promise increasingly exciting competitions. In consequence, the significance of various geodetic materials during competition also grows. The type of used maps depends on the length of a race, communication system and the diversity of geological features and land cover. Proper reading of information contained on the maps by the organizers and competitors allows not only to identify an optimal route and find checkpoints, but also to reach monuments worth discovering. Such a presentation of cultural heritage – including the smallest, the most underestimated or forgotten landscape forms – is possible thanks to the ability to use existing maps combined with good orientation in the field.
PL
Powiększająca się w ostatnich latach ilość maratonów rowerowych na orientację w Polsce skłania do wyszukiwania ciekawych terenów do ich rozgrywania oraz nadawania rywalizacji coraz bardziej interesującej formy. Wzrasta znaczenie używanych w rywalizacji różnych podkładów geodezyjnych. Rodzaj stosowanych map zależy od długości dystansu, układu komunikacyjnego oraz różnorodności ukształtowania i pokrycia terenu. Właściwe odczytywanie informacji zawartych na mapach przez organizatorów i zawodników umożliwia nie tylko wytyczenie optymalnej trasy przejazdu i odnalezienie zadanych punktów kontrolnych, ale także dotarcie do wartych poznania obiektów. Taka ekspozycja dziedzictwa kulturowego – także tych najmniejszych, niedocenianych lub zapomnianych form krajobrazu – możliwa jest dzięki połączeniu umiejętności wykorzystywania posiadanych map z dobrą orientacją w terenie.
EN
The cartographic documents covering railway areas require additional specifi c cartographic symbols and codes because of the diversity of the existing railway infrastructure elements. Cartographic symbols represent objects featured in maps and schematic plans, according to their attribute characteristics and the scale of a given map. A cartographic code is a designation assigned to cartographic symbols featured in maps in scale ranges of 1:500 to 1:5000. The main purpose of the conducted study was to determine the extent of uniformity of cartographic symbols and codes used in railway areas in the light of the relevant applicable legal regulations, technical standards, industry-specifi c manuals, and the perception of space as presented in the cartographic documentation of railway areas. The condition of cartographic symbols and codes has been analysed, taking the characteristics of the target audience of cartographic documents as well as the intended use and content of such documents into consideration. The paper describes the patterns behind the processes of coding real elements of railway infrastructure in cartographic documents, and off ers tables including fi ndings of comparative analyses of cartographic symbols and codes according to the following requirements: • GK-1 of the technical standard “Organisation and performance of measurements in railway land surveying”, • Regulation of the Minister of Administration and Digitization of 2 November 2015 on the topographic objects database and the principal map, • Ig-10 (D-27) instruction on developing and updating schematic plans. The conducted studies have revealed a lack of consistency and discrepancies among the cartographic symbols and codes used and adopted in railway areas. These symbols should be consistent and harmonised with other symbols and elements of cartographic documents in order to function as a harmonious whole. It has also been found that there are no defi nitions for characteristic cartographic symbols and codes found across railway infrastructure elements. The paper offers new original cartographic symbols and codes for those elements which have not been defi ned so far. New definitions cover: animal protection device and stabilised fixed points of reference for observing the areas susceptible to creep of rails in a continuous welded track. The findings of the conducted studies contribute to the subjects raised in the contemporary domain of civil engineering and railway transport. The article contains author’s insights and conclusions. The paper has been developed as part of AGH’s statutory research no. 11.11.150.005.
PL
Artykuł wskazuje zalety przedstawiania na mapach Google Earth wyników pomiarów realizowanych na obiektach ruchomych, ilustrowane przykładami: trajektorii samolotu (kurs i wysokość), przejazdu narciarza (trasa i prędkość), natężenia oświetlenia ulicznego, jadącego tramwaju (prędkość, pobór prądu, napięcie), zjawisk na powłoce rurociągu podziemnego (różnica potencjałów). Jest to możliwe przy użyciu rejestratora wyposażonego w odbiornik GPS, dzięki czemu zapisy można przenosić na mapę.
EN
The paper shows advantages of presentation of measurements on a moving object, using Google Earth 3D maps. The examples include an airplane trajectory (course and altitude), a skier ride (course and speed), street light intensity, a moving streetcar (speed, current consumption, voltage), a buried pipeline coating (potential difference). The records from a logger equipped with GPS receiver can be transferred onto the map.
PL
Do projektowania lub zarządzania terenami zieleni urządzonej wykorzystywane są różnego rodzaju programy komputerowe, zarówno komercyjne, jak i bezpłatne. Część z nich opiera się na funkcjonalności systemów informacji geograficznej.
EN
The article tackles the difficult problem of identity creation of new inhabitants of western and northern Poland after 1945 and of relativism in the understanding of national identity after 1989. One of the manifestations are geographical names, which are reflected on maps. The authors of the article looked at this difficult, historically unprecedented process of integration and identification of new inhabitants with the geographical space through the prism of maps, entering into the contemporary discussion about the transformations taking place in the understanding of national identity.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia działania wykorzystujące rysunek mapy lub planu w kreacji posadzki przestrzeni publicznej, jako element służący rekreacji. Rysunkiem może być mapa świata, regionu, plan miasta lub jego fragment. Odwzorowanie może przedstawiać stan aktualny lub historyczny i mieć charakter płaski lub trójwymiarowy. Działanie osadza przechodnia w kontekście urbanistycznym, regionalnym lub ponadregionalnym, posiada charakter informacyjny i orientacyjny. Może również prezentować utracone dziedzictwo urbanistyczne miejsca. Przedstawienia mają charakter trwały lub tymczasowy. Przeprowadzona analiza wybranych przykładów wykazuje, że zastosowanie mapy lub planu w przestrzeni publicznej zwiększa jej atrakcyjność. Zabieg zachęca do interakcji, odnalezienia się w przestrzeni, a także zgłębienia historii miejsca. Odczytanie planu zatrzymuje przechodnia; jest punktem wyjścia i narzędziem służącym rekreacji w przestrzeni publicznej.
EN
This article presents contemporary design actions that apply outlines of a map or plan in the creation of a floor of recreational public spaces. The outlines may present a map of the world, region, city or its part. The design may depict the current or historical state of the pictured space, in a two or three dimensional manner. Such action places the potential passer-by in the urban or regional context and serves both as information and orientation. The actions can have a permanent or temporary character. A selection of examples indicates that application of a map design in a public space is a beneficial phenomenon that enriches the public space. The action encourages the user to interact with the space, find themselves in it and become acquainted with its heritage. It stops and keeps the passer-by in the public space and is a starting point for recreation.
EN
The Geograficzno-statystyczny atlas Polski (Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland), printed in Vienna in 1916, was elaborated due to remind the world about Poland and the Polish issue. At that time Poland had been partitioned for over 120 years and it was very important to provide comprehensive information about historical Polish territory and its inhabitants before the end of the ongoing war. It was a significant decision because the atlas appeared to be crucial to establishing borders of the Second Polish Republic at the Paris Peace Conference. In 2016 the hundredth anniversary of first edition of atlas is a great occasion for a historical and methodical brief outline. The atlas was the fundamental work of Eugeniusz Romer, a distinguished geographer, cartographer and geo-politician. All of the 65 maps and 5 diagrams were elaborated by himself and his collaborators: W. Semkowicz, J. Nowak, W. Szafer, S. Weigner, J. Rutkowski, K. Nitsch, B. Chodkiewicz. It includes maps showing physiograpy, administrative division, history of the Polish territory, population, nationality, religion, agriculture, industry and transport, developed on the basis of official data sources. It is noteworthy that E. Romer introduced the isarithmic method on a large scale to present both population and socio-economic phenomena. As an all-embracing work, Atlas played a major role in drawing the boundaries of the reborn Poland in post-war Europe. This also shows that thematic cartography has been an essential instrument in argumentation for the national interest of Poland.
EN
The identity of cartography is determined by the manner of defining and interpreting the concept of “map”. However, the term has not been unequivocally articulated as yet. There are many different definitions of maps available in literature - from those viewing map as a scaled-down, planar, graphic representation of geographical space, to those that equate a map to a specific model that is independent of the form of its presentation. Interestingly enough, the basis of such universal treatment of the map concept can be found already in the scientific works from the 1960s. Although contemporary definitions do not limit a map to a single form of presentation, such over-simplification still persists. The issue has become very relevant given the rapidly increasing number of diverse geospatial applications designed to access spatial data and present it in diverse forms. So far, however, there are no clear rules for categorizing a given representation as cartographic or non-cartographic. And this often gives rise to various misconceptions, e.g. regarding the role and responsibilities of cartography as science and practical activity. According to the authors of the article, a map is an ordered informational structure shaped by the years of practical experience and research in the field of cartography. Map arising in the process of cartographic modelling is understood as one of many possible models of the portrayed space. The model is formed in the course of thought processes, including abstraction and generalization in particular. Creation of the model involves the use of symbolism that can be decoded by the recipient.This does not mean, however, that the process of symbolization is limited exclusively to graphical representations. Map is also a tool for presenting spatial information in a visual, digital or tactile way. Therefore, the essence of map is determined by its “model” nature rather than the format of the cartographic message. The authors have assumed that map is formed in the process of cartographic modelling and certain properties of the process can be defined, that distinguish it from other methods of spatial modelling. The properties recognized as characteristic for cartographic modelling include space portraying that enables identification of types of objects and phenomena, describing spatial relationships between objects, as well as their positioning in the applied reference system. In the authors’ opinion, properties of cartographic modelling include also the intentional application of a specific level of generalization determined by the objective of the map, aware authorship of the message, unambiguity of communication and symbolization based on knowledge. The proposed approach should facilitate the classification of different products designed to represent space.
Logistyka
|
2016
|
nr 1
336--342, CD1
PL
Mapy i modele (w tym 3D) dróg, torów kolejowych czy portów morskich odgrywają zasadniczą rolę w transporcie i logistyce. W działaniach praktycznych związanych z pozyskiwaniem danych pomiarowych dla tego celu, coraz większe zainteresowanie wzbudza technologia skaningu laserowego, szczególnie mobilnego skaningu laserowego. Niestety, pomiar skaningiem laserowym (jak każdy inny pomiar) jest obarczony błędami. W przypadku skaningu laserowego wielkość tych błędów zależy od kilku czynników. W niniejszej pracy zbadano wpływ dwóch czynników, które zmieniają się najbardziej w trakcie skanowania mobilnego. Tymi czynnikami są warunki geometryczne skanowania oraz barwa skanowanej powierzchni. Przeprowadzone badania mają istotne znaczenie dla wydajnego i skutecznego wykorzystania technologii mobilnego skaningu laserowego, szczególnie w inwentaryzacji infrastruktury transportowej.
EN
Maps and models (including 3D) roads, railways and sea ports play an essential role in transport and logistics. In practical activities related to the acquisition of measurement data for this purpose, it is increasingly clear interest in laser scanning technology, especially mobile laser scanning. Unfortunately, the measurement of laser scanning (like any other measurement) is affected by errors. In the case of laser scanning magnitude of these errors it depends on several factors. In the present study we investigated the effect of two factors that change the most during the scanning of the mobile. These factors include the conditions of geometric scanning, and color scanned surface. The studies are important for efficient and effective use mobile laser scanning technology, especially in transport infrastructure inventory.
EN
The aim of this project was to monitor the temporal growth of the urban areas, on the example of the Krakow city (Poland). In recent years more frequent use of satellite data in environmental monitoring can be observed. Definitely the optical data are the most popular type of it. This kind of data are commonly used in many applications like land cover change detection, biomass study and in the map preparation process. Despite their many advantages they are very sensitive on the weather conditions. Thus they cannot be gathered in cloudy or rainy day. This case doesn’t occur when the satellite SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) system are used. The ability of SAR and optical systems in monitoring the temporal growth of the urban areas were presented in the past (Al Rawashdeh & Saleh 2006, Opido & Leśniak 2015). In these projects SAR and optical satellite systems were compared. The study presented here was performed on fifty archival SAR and optical images acquired between years 1992 and 2010. The images were grouped into five two-year time intervals. Each interval contains data stack of eight SAR and 2 Landsat images. For each group the analysis of land cover was performed. Each optical image was classified into three following classes: water, urban and green areas. The study of the SAR data was based on the analysis of coherent scatterers (Porzycka-Strzelczyk & Strzelczyk 2015). The most commonly used methods of coherent scatterer’s identification were tested: dispersion of amplitude, Log-Cumulant (Nicolas et al. 2004), Signal-to-cluter ratio (Ulander et al. 2010) and coherency method (Touzi 1999). The growth of the urban area was calculated by studying changes in the numbers of coherent scatterers on the SAR images. For the Landsat images changes in the area of the urban class were analyzed. Furthermore, regions of most and least intensive urban growth were detected. The next step of the project is to compare the presented results with those provided by new ESA (European Space Agency) satellites. Sentinel-1 provides SAR images with a much better spatial resolution than ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat satellites. Sentinel-2 has better spatial resolution and more spectral bands than Landsat-8 (Masek 2015). This will allow to achieve more precise maps of coherent scatterers.
17
Content available remote Cauchy symmetric spaces with point-countable cs-networks
EN
In this paper, we prove that a Cauchy symmetric space has a point-countable cs-network if and only if it is a 1-sequence-covering compact-covering quotient π, s-image of a metric space; if and only if it is a sequence-covering quotient π, s-image of a metric space.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje regionalizację krajobrazów historyczno-kulturowych współczesnej Polski. Zaproponowany podział odnosi się do terytorialnego zróżnicowania materialnych przejawów kultury. Uwzględnia czas zasiedlenia, liczbę nawarstwień kulturowych, przebieg historycznych granic politycznych, zróżnicowanie współczesnej sieci osadniczej, strukturę krajobrazu. Skalą opracowania jest mapa 1:1000000, lub 1:1500000. Zaprezentowane zostały podstawy teoretyczne, sprecyzowano kryteria podziału dla każdego szczebla regionalizacji współczesnych krajobrazów historyczno-kulturowych. Regionalizacja przeprowadzona została metodą „od góry”, obejmuje środkowe stopnie hierarchicznego podziału. Postawiono tezę, że Polska nie stanowi obszaru granicznego kręgów cywilizacyjnych.
EN
The article presents the regionalisation of the historical-cultural landscapes of contemporary Poland. The spatial division proposed in the article refers to the territorial differentiation of the material expressions of culture. It accounts for the time of settling, the number of cultural layers, the course of the historical political boundaries, the differentiation of the contemporary settlement network, and the structure of landscape. The scale of analysis is provided by the map of 1:1 000 000 or of 1:1 500 000. The theoretical foundations are presented, and the criteria of division are made concrete for each level of regionalisation of the contemporary historical-cultural landscapes. The regionalisation was performed with the top-down method, and it encompasses the middle degrees of the hierarchical structure. The proposition is forwarded that Poland does not constitute the border area in the broad divisions of civilisations.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono okoliczności podjęcia badań oraz cele projektu „Przywracanie zabytkowych polskich nazw za pomocą map (na przykładzie Pojezierza Wałeckiego)”. Opisano również sposoby pozyskiwania nazw oraz metodykę opracowywania map nazw zabytkowych. Nazwy zbierane były na trzy sposoby: w archiwach, z map oraz w terenie. Na podstawie tych danych powstały wykazy obiektów z zabytkową nazwą oraz ich prezentacja graficzna na papierowych mapach. Digitalizacja oraz utworzenie bazy danych w systemie informacji geograficznej (GIS) umożliwiło opracowanie 17 arkuszy mapy zabytkowego nazewnictwa polskiego na Pojezierzu Wałeckim. Mapa ta ma być formą upowszechniania nazw na badanym obszarze oraz uświadamiać lokalną społeczność o zanikaniu nazw ze słowiańskim źródłosłowem. Nazwy te powinny zostać przywrócone w świadomości społecznej, gdyż są elementem dziedzictwa kulturowego tego regionu.
EN
The article presents the circumstances of undertaking research and the objectives of the project "Restoring the historic Polish names using maps (example of Wałeckie Lakeland)". Also there are described methods of collecting and mapping historical place names. Historic names were collected in three ways: in the archives, from maps and in the field. On the basis of these data the lists of objects with historic names were formed and their graphical representation was made on paper maps. The digitization of these data and the creation of a database of Geographic Information System (GIS) has enabled to produce 17 sheets of a map of Polish historical naming in Wałeckie Lakeland. This map is intended to disseminate historic names at the study area, and to raise local community awareness about the problem of the disappearance of the names with the Slavic root. These names should be restored in the public consciousness, because they are part of the cultural heritage of the region.
PL
Jest to próba refleksji nad podstawowymi materiałami kartograficznymi, na bazie których powstają szczegółowe opracowania tematyczne, związane z zagospodarowaniem przestrzennym, krajobrazem, infrastrukturą, pokryciem terenu itp. Powszechny dostęp do takich materiałów za pomocą Geoportalu po wprowadzeniu INSPIRE1 oraz coraz szersza cyfryzacja map rodzi pewne oczekiwania i wymagania co do ich aktualności. Po szczegółowej analizie dostępnych danych kartograficznych, w tym map topograficznych obszaru województwa śląskiego, potrzebnych do różnych opracowań tematycznych, można dojść do wniosku, że wszystkie dostępne mapy można uznać za „historyczne”. Stan zawartej na nich treści uzasadnia taką refleksję.
EN
It is an attempt to reflect upon the primary cartographic materials on the basis of which specific thematic studies associated with spatial development, landscape, infrastructure, land cover, etc. are developed. Universal access to such materials via the Geoportal after the introduction of INSPIRE and the ever increasing digitalization of maps raises certain expectations and requirements for the relevance of data. After a detailed analysis of the available cartographic data (topographic maps) for the Silesian Province area that is needed for various thematic studies, it can be concluded that all available maps can be considered as "historical". The status of their content justifies such reflection.
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