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1
Content available remote Stopy aluminium na świecie (obróbki skrawaniem)
PL
Stopy aluminium stanowią istotną grupę wśród materiałów konstrukcyjnych wytwarzanych na świecie. Szacuje się, że w krajach wysoko rozwiniętych zapotrzebowanie na ten surowiec stale się zwiększa, a ilość produkowanego aluminium jest jednym z wyznaczników uprzemysłowienia danego regionu.
XX
Aluminium alloys are an important group among construction materials produced in the world. It is estimated that in highly developed countries the demand for this raw material is constantly increasing and the amount of produced aluminium is one of the determinants of the industrialisation of a given region.
EN
Aluminium sheets designed for bottle closure production must be characterized with enhanced drawability and highly homogeneous properties ensuring problem-free production process with stable technological scrap level. Closure-stock material shall be produced in very narrow set of mechanical properties and should be characterized with thermal resistance in paint hardening process. This work presents results of study carried out on innovative aluminium alloy produced on the basis of post-consumed and post-produced scrap recycling. Hot-rolled strips with entry thickness 4.5 mm were rolled down to final thickness 0.225 mm in cold rolling and intermediate annealing process. Then cold-rolled sheets were undergone thermal process as simulation of paint hardening cycle. On the basis of mechanical properties, microstructure and technological tests results, influence of additional chemical elements added to aluminium alloys in secondary remelting process on properties of sheets designed for caps deep drawing process was determined. It was stated that additional chemical elements added to aluminium alloys in secondary remelting process increases hardening mechanism (grain size refining, solid solution strengthening, strain hardening) that reflects on higher sheets strength without any negative effects on formability and drawability.
PL
Blachy ze stopów aluminium do produkcji zakrętek muszą charakteryzować się wysoką podatnością do głębokiego tłoczenia i wysoką jednorodnością własności, zapewniającą bezproblemowy przebieg procesu tłoczenia z powtarzalną, zaplanowaną wielkością odpadu technologicznego. Materiał na zakrętki powinien posiadać stabilny w wąskim zakresie poziom własności mechanicznych, a także wysoką odporność termiczną w procesie cieplnego utrwalania lakieru. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań, wykonanych na nowatorskim stopie aluminium, który zaprojektowany został na bazie pełnego recyklingu poamortyzacyjnych oraz poprodukcyjnych złomów aluminiowych. Blachy walcowano na zimno na grubość finalną 0,225 mm z grubości początkowej wsadu po walcowaniu na gorąco 4,5 mm (z wykorzystaniem obróbki cieplnej międzyoperacyjnej), a następnie poddano procesowi termicznej obróbki, symulującej proces utwardzania lakieru. Na podstawie badań własności mechanicznych, obserwacji struktury materiału oraz badań technologicznych blach określono wpływ zawartości pierwiastków stopowych (wprowadzonych do stopu w procesie wtórnego przetopu) na własności blach przeznaczonych do tłoczenia zakrętek. Wykazano, że wprowadzenie do metalu dodatkowych pierwiastków stopowych drogą wtórnego przetwórstwa powoduje zwiększenie udziału mechanizmów umocnienia (rozdrobnienie ziarna, umocnienie roztworowe, umocnienie odkształceniowe), co przekłada się na wzrost własności wytrzymałościowych blach do głębokiego tłoczenia, bez obniżenia ich własności plastycznych.
EN
The article discusses the electrodynamic treatment (EDT) of thinwalled welded structures and EDT equipment, presents results of mathematical modelling concerning the effect of EDT on stresses in welded sheets made of aluminium alloy AMg6 as well as discusses the effect of EDT on the plastic strain mechanism. In addition, the article presents tests results concerning the effect of EDT during the welding of ship structures made of AMg6 plates and discusses the role of EDT in bulge formation. In addition, the article discusses the application of EDT during the repair welding of aero-engine nacelles made of magnesium alloy ML10 and the effect of EDT on openings in an airplane wing stinger in relation to its service life.
PL
Omówiono zasadę obróbki elektrodynamicznej (EDT) cienkościennych konstrukcji spawanych i opracowaną aparaturę do EDT. Przedstawiono wyniki modelowania matematycznego wpływu EDT na stan naprężenia spawanej płyty ze stopu AMg6 oraz badań wpływu elektrodynamicznych oddziaływań na mechanizm odkształcenia plastycznego. Podano wyniki wpływu EDT na odkształcenia typu wybrzuszenie powstające podczas spawania konstrukcji okrętowych z blach AMg6. Omówiono przykład zastosowania EDT podczas spawania naprawczego gondoli silnika lotniczego z stopu magnezu ML10 oraz wpływ EDT otworów podłużnicy skrzydła samolotu na trwałość zmęczeniową.
EN
Submitted work deals with the possibilities of reducing reoxidation by improved gating system design. The result of the reoxidation is the of furled oxide layers - bifilms. During experimental works, non-pressurized and naturally pressurized gating systems designs were introduced and evaluated. Mechanical properties, fracture area, hot tearing index, bifilm index and EDX analysis were used during evaluation. Paper aim is also to clarify the reoxidation phenomenon by visualization with the aid of ProCAST numerical simulation software. Achieved results clearly confirmed the positive effect of the naturally pressurized gating system, main emphasis needs to focus on finding the proper way to reduce the melt velocity. By using vortex element extension at the end of the runner was achieved positive results in term of reoxidation suppression.
EN
The paper presents preliminary results of research on the use of certain smelting slags in the process of modification of casting alloys, leading to a change in the structure of these alloys and improvement of their mechanical and operational properties. The positive effect of ground copper slag with a fraction below 0.1 mm on the effect of modifying the hypoeutectic silumin AlSi7Mg towards changing the morphology of coarse-grained eutectic to fine-dispersive was demonstrated. The modifying effect also applies to the pre-eutectic α phase and results in the formation of additional crystallization sites (nucleation process), which was demonstrated by the thermal ATD solidification analysis, showing an increase in the temperature Tliq and TE max. The positive and noticeable influence of the mixture of copper and steel slag on the surface modifying effect of fragmentation of the structure was demonstrated in casting nickel superalloy IN-713C. Based on the results of research conducted so far on the modifying effect of cobalt aluminate, a hypothetical model of the impact of reduced metallic components of the applied metallurgical slags on the nucleation process and shaping of the microstructure of nickel alloys was developed.
EN
The article presents the type of wear of Al2O3 layers produced on the aluminium alloy EN AW-5251 depending on the production parameters. Oxide layers were produced by using DC anodizing in a ternary electrolyte at variable current density and electrolyte temperature. The layer scratch tests were carried out using a Micron Gamma microhardness tester. The scratches of oxide layers were tested for the geometric structure of the surface using a Form TalySurf 2 50i contact profilograph. Contact thickness measurements were also made using a Dualscope MP40 device based on the eddy-current method. Using a scanning microscope (SEM), photos of the sample surfaces were taken to show and compare the surface morphology of the anodized layers in various parameters. Based on the research, it can be concluded that changes in the conditions of the production process of Al2O3 layers (electrolyte temperature and current density) have an impact on the type of tribological wear and changes in layer thickness. The largest thickness of the oxide layer (19.44 μm) was measured for Sample B produced at a current density of 3A/dm2 at an electrolyte temperature of 283 K, which was also characterized by the lowest value of the ratio of parameters f1 to f2 (0.584). The smallest thickness (5.32 μm) was measured for the Sample C anodized at 1 A/dm2at 303 K, this sample had the largest ratio f1 to f2 (1.068) for the produced Al2O3 layers. Thanks to the parameters f1 and f2 and the calculation of their ratio, the wear process for Sample B was determined as scratching and microcutting, while for Sample C as grooving.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono rodzaj zużywania warstw Al2O3 wytwarzanych na stopie aluminium EN AW-5251 w zależności od parametrów wytwarzania. Warstwy tlenkowe zostały wytworzone poprzez zastosowanie anodowania stałoprądowego w elektrolicie trójskładnikowym przy zmiennej gęstości prądowej oraz temperaturze elektrolitu. Testy zarysowania warstw przeprowadzono za pomocą testera mikrotwardości Micron-Gamma. Zarysowania warstw tlenkowych poddano badaniom struktury geometrycznej powierzchni z użyciem profilografometru kontaktowego TalySurf 2.50i. Wykonane zostały również pomiary grubości warstw tlenkowych metodą stykową z wykorzystaniem urządzenia Dualscope MP40 działającego w oparciu o metodę prądowo-wirową. Z użyciem mikroskopu skaningowego (SEM) wykonane zostały zdjęcia powierzchni próbek w celu pokazania i porównania morfologii powierzchni warstw anodowanych w różnych parametrach. Na podstawie badań można stwierdzić, iż zmiany warunków procesu produkcyjnego warstw Al2O3 (temperatura elektrolitu i gęstość prądu) mają wpływ na rodzaj zużycia tribologicznego oraz na zmiany grubości warstwy. Największą grubość warstwy tlenkowej (19.44 μm) zmierzono dla próbki B wytwarzanej przy gęstości prądowej 3A/dm2 w temperaturze elektrolitu 283K, która charakteryzowała się również najmniejszą wartością stosunku parametrów f1 do f2 (0.584). Najmniejsza grubość (5.32 μm) zmierzona została dla warstwy próbki C anodowanej w 1 A/dm2 w temperaturze 303 K, próbka ta cechowała się największym stosunkiem f1 do f2 (1.068) dla wytworzonych warstw Al2O3. Dzięki parametrom f1 i f2 oraz przeliczeniu ich stosunku proces zużycia dla próbki B określono jako drapanie i mikroskrawanie, z kolei dla próbki C jako rowkowanie.
PL
Korozyjne zachowanie się stopów aluminium serii: AA6000, było badane w 30% wodnym roztworze glikolu propylenowego. Badania korozyjne prowadzono w temperaturze 200C i 600C. Zbadano również wpływ niewielkich ilości jonów chlorkowych (0,001 M) na odporność korozyjną stopów aluminium w roztworach glikolu propylenowego. W celu określenia odporności korozyjnej badanych materiałów wykonano pomiary potencjału korozyjnego i potencjodynamiczne krzywe polaryzacyjne. Przeprowadzone badania korozyjne wykazały, że w roztworze glikolu propylenowego korozja wżerowa zachodzi w osnowie stopu i na granicy osnowa / Al9Fe2Si2.
EN
Corrosion behavior of aluminum alloyAA6060, was tested in 30% aqueous propylene glycol solution. Corrosion tests were carried out at 20°C and 60°C. The effect of small amounts of chloride ions (0.001 M) on the corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys in propylene glycol solutions was also investigated. In order to determine the corrosion resistance of AA6060 alloy, corrosion potential measurements and potential dynamic polarization curves were carried out. The corrosion tests have been revealed that the pits are formed in the matrix or at the interface matrix / Al9Fe2Si2 intermetallic phase of AA6060 alloy.
EN
Increasingly high requirements concerning welded structures made of aluminium alloys trigger the issue of fatigue strength. Previous tests have indicated that the fatigue strength of FSW joints is higher than that of, e.g. MIG-welded joints. However, it should be noted that the use of the FSW technology may sometimes be limited or impossible. One of the methods enabling an increase in the fatigue strength of arc welded joints includes the treatment of the joint surface. The study presents results of the friction stir processing (FSP) of MIG-welded joints made of aluminium alloy EN AW-6082 and the effect of the aforesaid technique on the fatigue strength of the joints. The tests revealed that the use of the FSP method makes it possible to increase the fatigue strength of butt welded joints by approximately 50%.
PL
Rosnące wymagania wobec konstrukcji spawanych wykonanych ze stopów aluminium sprawiają, że ważnym staje się problem wytrzymałości zmęczeniowej. Dotychczasowe doświadczenia wskazują, że wytrzymałość złączy zgrzewanych FSW jest większa niż złączy spawanych np. metodą MIG. Jednak należy pamiętać, że nie zawsze technologia FSW może być zastosowana. Jedną z możliwości zwiększenia wytrzymałości zmęczeniowych złączy spawanych łukowo jest obróbka powierzchniowa złączy. W pracy przedstawiono wyniki modyfikacji tarciowej złączy doczołowych spawanych metodą MIG ze stopu aluminium EN AW-6082 i jej wpływu na wytrzymałość zmęczeniową złączy. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że zastosowanie modyfikacji FSP pozwala na zwiększenie wytrzymałości zmęczeniowej złączy spawanych doczołowo o około 50%.
9
Content available Influence of Zr on AlSi9Cu1Mg Alloy Cast in Ceramic
EN
The article focuses on the analysis of the effect of Zr on the properties of the aluminium alloy AlSi9Cu1Mg. The effect of Zr was evaluated depending on the change in mechanical properties and heat resistance during a gradual addition of Zr with an increase of 0.05 wt. % Zr. Half of the cast experimental samples from each variant were heat treated by precipitation hardening T6 (hereinafter HT). The measured values in both states indicate an improvement of the mechanical properties, especially in the experimental variants with a content of Zr ≥ 0.20 wt. %. In the evaluation of Rm, the most significant improvement occurred in the experimental variant with an addition of Zr 0.25 wt. % after HT and E in the experimental variant with addition of Zr 0.20 wt. % after HT. Thus, a difference was found from the results of the authors defining the positive effect of Zr, in particular at 0.15 wt. %. When evaluating the microstructure of the AlSi9Cu1Mg alloy after Zr alloying, Zr phases are already eliminated with the addition of Zr 0.10 wt. %. Especially at higher levels of Zr ≥ 0.20 wt. %, long needle phases with slightly cleaved morphology are visible in the metal matrix. It can be stated that a negative manifestation of Zr alloying is expressed by an increase in gassing of experimental alloys, especially in variants with a content of Zr ≥ 0.15 wt. %. Experimental samples were cast into ceramic moulds. The development of an experimental alloy AlSi9Cu1Mg alloyed with Zr would allow the production of a more sophisticated material applicable to thin-walled Al castings capable of operating at higher temperature loads.
EN
Entrapped gases, solidification shrinkage and non-metallic compound formation are main sources of porosity in aluminium alloy castings. Porosity is detrimental to the mechanical properties of these castings; therefore, its reduction is pursued. Rotary degassing is the method mostly employed in industry to remove dissolved gases from aluminium melts, reducing porosity formation during solidification of the cast part. Recently, ultrasonic degassing has emerged as a promising alternative thanks to a lower dross formation and higher energy efficiency. This work aims to evaluate the efficiency of the ultrasonic degasser and compare it to a conventional rotary degassing technique applied to an AlSi10Mg alloy. Degassing efficiency was evaluated employing the reduced pressure test (RPT), where samples solidified under reduced pressure conditions are analysed. Factors affecting RPT were considered and temperature parameters for the test were established. The influence of ultrasonic degassing process parameters, such as degassing treatment duration and purging gas flow rate were studied, as well as treated aluminium volume and oxide content. Finally, ultrasonic degassing process was contrasted to a conventional rotary degassing technique, comparing their efficiency.
EN
Recently, aluminum matrix syntactic foams (AMSFs) have become notably attractive for many different industrial areas like automotive, aerospace, construction and defense. Owing to their low density, good compression response and perfect energy absorption capacity, these advanced composite materials are also considered as strong alternatives to traditional particle reinforced composites and metal foams. This paper presents a promising probability of AMSF fabrication by means of industrial cold chamber die casting method. In this investigation, contrary to other literature studies restricted in laboratory scale, fully equipped custom-build cold chamber die casting machine was used first time and all fabrication steps were designed just as carried out in the real industrial high pressure casting applications. Main casting parameters (casting temperature, injection pressure, piston speed, filler pre-temperature and piston waiting time) were optimized in order to obtain flawless AMSF samples. The density alterations of the syntactic foams were analyzed depending upon increasing process values of injection pressure, piston speed and piston waiting time. In addition, macroscopic and microscopic investigations were performed to comprehend physical properties of fabricated foams. All these efforts showed almost perfect infiltration between filler particles at the optimized injection parameters.
EN
An experimental method of evaluating the fatigue behavior of alloys in different particle environments was designed, and the effects of four kinds of particles (i.e., graphite, CaO, Al2O3, and MnO2) on the crack propagating behavior of 7N01-T6 behaviour alloys were investigated. The results show that the particles deposited on the crack surface exert significant influence on the fatigue crack propagation behavior thereof. This influence strongly depends on the elastic moduli of the particles (Ep). As Ep is less than that of aluminium alloy (EAl), the particle accelerates the fatigue-crack-growth rate (FCGR) in the alloys due to the lubrication of the particles on the mating fracture surfaces. When the difference between Ep and EAl is small, the particle effect on the FCGRs of the alloys is small due to the counteraction between the decrease in friction and the promotion on the crack closure of mating fracture surfaces. When Ep is greater than EAl, the particles slow down the FCGRs of the alloys on account of significant crack closure effect. As Ep is much greater than EAl, the particles increase the FCGRs because of the increasing stress concentration at the crack tip.
EN
Automotive industry is a very attractive area for young researchers to do continuous research and also it can be considered as an important thrust area as it is directly related to passenger safety. New developments in automotive sector can be seen in many domains like material selection, design, manufacturing etc. Since wrong selection directly leads to product failure, among these, the proper selection of a particular material can be treat as utmost priority. Hence, the present work discusses a methodology to select the best aluminium alloy for automobile panels among various alternates serving the same purpose. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) methods with entropy weighting criteria are implemented for finding the best material and the results are discussed.
EN
The article presents the research results on the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy AW-5083 and its joints welded by hybrid method – traditional MIG and FSW. AW-5083 alloy is the most currently used in shipbuilding industry. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) – a new technology can be successfully used for butt-welding of different types of aluminum alloy sheets. FSW method can be an alternative to traditional arc welding methods i.e. MIG or TIG. Hybrid welding (FSW with MIG or TIG) could be used in cases when joining only by FSW is not possible. Welding parameters used for the connection of the sheets were presented. Metallographic analysis showed the correct construction of structural bonded joints. The research was carried out using a static tensile test in accordance with the requirements of the Standard PN-EN ISO 4136:2013-05. Flat samples cut perpendicular to the direction of rolling were used. The research was conducted at the temperature of +20ºC. The test shows that the mechanical properties of joints made by hybrid method compered to native material were lower. The tensile strength of joint was lower by 20% then native material 5083 while its yield stress was lower only about 6%. The biggest change was observed in case of plastic properties. Elongation of joint was over 50% lower compared to native material. Despite the decrease of mechanical properties, they meets the requirements of classification societies, so the conclusion is that hybrid method (FSW and MIG) of joining AW-5083 can be applied in shipbuilding industry.
EN
The designing of new light-weight alloys for continuous replacement of cast iron and steel parts is now the mainstream regarding energy saving and improvement of fuel consumption in the transportation sector. Parallel with the remarkable advances in aluminium wrought alloys, the search for novel efficient casting alloys still attracts the attention of researchers and manufacturers of aluminium casting. The last decades have shown a growing interest in Al-Mg-Si-Mn casting alloys. Despite their active implementation into foundry practice, there is a lack of research regarding their structural formation after additional alloying by Cu, Zn, Sc, Zr, Ti, Li, and especially the effect of ‘natural hardening’ when an alloy undergoes aging from as-cast condition. In this paper the authors have summarised the existing information on the Al-Mg-Si-Mn casting alloys, including their structure and the effects of Mn, Cu, Zn, Sc, Sc+Zr and Li additions on the properties, along with their own results concerning this group of casting materials.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono próbę oceny właściwości mechanicznych próbek z wysokowytrzymałych stopów aluminium AlZnMgCu odlewanych do form gipsowych. Pierwszy etap realizacji prac obejmował wykorzystanie symulacji komputerowej w celu wybrania optymalnej konstrukcji złożenia próbek. W tym celu wykorzystano oprogramowanie do modelowania CA D – SolidWorks (opracowanie geometrii złożenia) oraz środowisko do symulacji procesu odlewania oraz krzepnięcia – Flow3D. Wyniki zostały przedstawione w postaci wizualizacji wypełniania wnęki formy oraz krzepnięcia odlewów. W celu weryfikacji właściwości wytrzymałościowych stopu wykonane zostały odlewy próbek wytrzymałościowych. Procedura wykonywania odlewów była powtarzana dla form gipsowych, które po wypaleniu były schłodzone do różnych temperatur przed ich zalewaniem.
EN
The paper presents an attempt to assess the mechanical properties of high-strength AlZnMgCu aluminium alloy samples cast in gypsum moulds. The first stage of the study involved the use of computer simulations to select the optimum sample assembly structure. To this end, the SolidWorks CA D software (assembly geometry design) and Flow3D casting and solidification simulation environment were used. The results are presented as mould cavity filling and cast solidification visualisations. To verify the strength properties of the alloy, strength test samples were prepared. The cast production procedure was repeated for gypsum moulds, which were cooled down to different temperatures after their firing and before filling.
EN
An attempt was made to determine phase composition of commercial aluminium alloys using X-ray diffraction. Samples for phase composition analysis were selected from the group of aluminium alloys covered by the EN 573-3:2013 standard [1]. Representative samples were taken from eight groups of alloys with different chemical composition (at least one sample from each group). The diffraction intensity was measured with a standard X-ray diffractometer in Bragg-Brentano geometry in a way that allowed identification of the weakest diffraction peaks. As a results of the performed research it has been shown that X-ray phase analysis can be used to identify the matrix of aluminium alloys, Si and crystalline intermetallic phases such as Mg2Si, Al93.38Cu6.02Fe24Si16.27, Al4.01MnSi0.74, MgZn2, Al17 (Fe3.2Mn0.8)Si2, Al65Cu20Fe15, and Cu3Mn2Al. The detectability limit of the above-mentioned phases is better than 0.5%. The research has also shown that X-ray phase analysis is applicable in the investigation of phase transformations taking place in aluminium alloys.
EN
The aim of this paper was to test currently available on the market products for sealing anodic oxide coatings as well as to test the use of other alternative substances improving the sealing process. The ability to seal in 10 different solutions and the quality of the seal has been tested. The influence of the applied preparations on corrosion resistance and resistance to strongly alkaline environment was also investigated. Based on the results obtained, satisfactory results were archived for the sample sealed in a IMN-OML (Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals in Gliwice, Light Metals Division) solution sealant and in solution of nickel acetate in a medium-temperature process. Sealing by means of nickel acetate solutions is economically justified, and its use allows the process temperature to be lowered. When it comes to resistance to alkalis, samples sealed in IMN-OML sealant are the best. Commercial solutions have also achieved positive results in all tests.
EN
What is the limit of improvement the structure obtained directly from the liquid state, with possible heat treatment (supersaturation and aging)? This question was posed by casting engineers who put arbitrary requirements on reducing the DAS (Dendrite Arm Spacing) length to less than a dozen microns. The results of tests related to modification of the surface microstructure of AlSi7Mg alloy casting treated by laser beam and the rapid remelting and solidification of the superficial casting zone, were presented in the paper. The local properties of the surface treated with a laser beam concerns only a thickness ranging from a fraction to a single mm. These local properties should be considered in the aspect of application on surfaces of non-machined castings. Then the excellent surface layer properties can be used. The tests were carried out on the surface of the casting, the surface layer obtained in contact with the metal mould, after the initial machining (several mm), was treated by the laser beam. It turned out that the refinement of the microstructure measured with the DAS value is not available in a different way, i.e. directly by casting. The experimental-simulation validation using the Calcosoft CAFE (Cellular Automaton Finite Element) code was applied.
EN
The article presents the results of research concerning to AlCu4MgSi alloy ingots produced using horizontal continuous casting process. The presented research was focused on the precise determination of phase composition of the precipitates formed during the solidification of ingots and the analysis of their thermal stability. In order to assess the morphology of precipitates in the AlCu4MgSi alloy, data obtained by using a computer simulation of thermodynamic phenomena were compiled with results obtained using advanced research techniques, i.e. High-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD), SEM-EDS, Thermal and derivative analysis (TDA) and Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD OES). SEM observations and analysis of chemical composition in micro-areas showed that the precipitates are mainly intermetallic θ-Al2Cu and β-Mg2Si phases, and also presence of Al19Fe4MnSi2 intermetallic phase was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. Based on the prepared Thermo-Calc simulation data, high-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements were conducted.
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