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EN
In present paper we show results of ball-on-disk wear experiment of MoS2 film deposited on Ti6Al4V substrate. The ball material is aluminium oxide. The tests are performed for different surrounding temperature conditions: 20°C, 200°C and 350°C. It is shown that depth of the wear groove increases with increasing surrounding temperature. A finite element modelling approach is next developed to mimic the experimental observations of ball-on-disk wear process. It is based on the assumption of steady state condition developed during short time scale at contact region. The steady state results can next be applied to long time scale in which wear process is numerically simulated. Model results are compared with experimentally obtained wear groove and show satisfactory agreement.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje wyniki testu zużycia powłoki samosmarującej MoS2 nałożonej na podłoże wykonane z materiału Ti6AI4V. Powłoka obciążona jest kulką szafirową w ruchu rotacyjnym. Badania wykonano w trzech różnych temperaturach otoczenia: 20°C, 200°C oraz 350°C. Wykazano, że głębokość rowka zużyciowego wzrasta wraz ze wzrostem temperatury otoczenia. Zaproponowano model metody elementów skończonych za pomocą którego zasymulowany został proces zużycia warstwy. Punktem wyjścia dla tej części pracy było założenie stanu ustalonego, powstającego w obszarze kontaktu pomiędzy kulą a warstwą. Warunki odpowiadające temu stanowi przyjęto do matematycznego opisu procesu zużycia z wykorzystaniem równań Archarda. Na zakończenie eksperymentalny profil zużycia porównany został z wynikami otrzymanymi metodą elementów skończonych.
EN
The surface roughness and residual stress behavior in two types of SiNx/SiO2 dielectric quarter-wave stacks was investigated experimentally. A reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering system was used to prepare the SiNx/SiO2 multilayer thin films. The results show that SiNx/SiO2 quarter-wave stack with a buffer layer of MgF2 thin film can reduce the residual stress. The effect of aging on the residual stress in two quarter-wave stacks was also studied. We found that the residual stresses in both SiNx/SiO2 multilayer coatings are changed from a compressive state to a tensile stress state with increasing the aging time. The root mean square (RMS) surface roughness of MgF2/(SiNx/SiO2)22 and (SiNx/SiO2)22 quarter-wave stacks are 2.23 ± 0.22 nm and 2.08 ± 0.20 nm, respectively.
EN
This work presents a high-sensitivity refractive index and salinity sensor by using fiber-optic side-polishing and electron-beam evaporation techniques. Thin film coated on the flat surface of side-polished fibers can generate a lossy mode resonance (LMR) effect. A gallium-doped zinc oxide (GZO) thin film was prepared by an electron-beam evaporation with the ion assisted deposition method. The residual thickness of the side-polished fiber was 76.5 μm, and GZO film thickness of 69 nm was deposited on the flat surface of the side-polished fiber to fabricate LMR-based fiber sensors. The variation in the optical spectrum of LMR-based fiber sensors was measured by different refractive index saline solutions. The LMR wavelength shift is caused by the refractive index change, which is nearly proportional to the salinity. The corresponding sensitivity of the proposed fiber-optic sensor was 3059 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) for the refractive index range of 1.333 to 1.398. To evaluate the sensitivity of LMR salinity sensors, the saline solution salinities of 3.6%, 7.3%, 10.9%, 14.6%, 18.2% and 21.9% were measured in this work. The experimental result shows that the sensitivity of the proposed salinity sensor is 9.94 nm/%.
4
Content available remote Nickel comb capacitors for real-time monitoring of cancer cell cultures
EN
The work is devoted to the technology of biocompatible substrates with nickel electrodes for in vitro impedance cell culture studies. The legitimacy of this subject was tested by conducting measurements using a system based on the Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensor method. A device for cell bioimpedance testing, made in thin-film technology, has been described. Parameters and applications of the material used for construction, which is commonly used nickel, are discussed. The results of preliminary studies on melanoma cancer cells from the A375 cell line were presented, during which the already used measurement matrices were used. An analysis of the observed changes and obtained results was carried out.
PL
Praca poświęcona jest technologii biokompatybilnych podłoży z niklowymi elektrodami do badań impedancji hodowli komórek in vitro. Zasadność podjęcia tej tematyki przetestowano przeprowadzając pomiary przy użyciu systemu opartego na metodzie ECIS (ang. Electric CellSubstrate Impedance Sensor). Opisano przyrząd służący do badań bioimpedancji komórek, wykonany w technologii cienkowarstwowej. Omówiono parametry i zastosowania wykorzystanego do budowy urządzania materiału, którym jest powszechnie stosowany nikiel. Przedstawiono wyniki wstępnych badań nad komórkami nowotworowymi czerniaka z linii komórkowej A 375, do których użyto wykonane matryce pomiarowe. Dokonano analizy zaobserwowanych zmian i otrzymanych rezultatów.
EN
Titanium dioxide thin films have been deposited on silicon wafers substrates by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. There optical parameters were investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry and UV/VIS spectroscopy. A material with a refractive index of 2.41 was obtained. Additionally, in a wide spectral range it was possible to reduce the reflection from the silicon surface below 5%. The Raman spectroscopy method was used for structural characterization of anatase TiO2 thin films. Their uniformity and chemical composition are confirmed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS).
EN
The aim of the study was to present a method for assessing the condition of cell culture by measuring the impedance of cells cultured in the presence of nickel. For this purpose, an impedance measurement technique using nickel comb capacitors was used. The capacitor electrodes were made using a thin film magnetron sputtering. In the experimental part, the culture of cells of mouse fibroblasts on the prepared substrate was performed. The cell culture lasted 43 hours and showed that the presented technique allows it to be used to analyze the effect of nickel on cells.
PL
Celem pracy było przedstawienie metody oceny stanu hodowli komórkowej poprzez pomiar impedancji komórek hodowanych w obecności niklu. W tym celu zastosowano technikę pomiaru impedancji z wykorzystaniem niklowych kondensatorów grzebieniowych. Cienkowarstwowe elektrody kondensatora wykonano metodą rozpylania magnetronowego. W części eksperymentalnej przeprowadzono hodowlę komórek mysich fibroblastów na przygotowanym podłożu. Hodowla komórkowa trwała 43 godziny i wykazała, że przedstawiona technika mogłaby być zastosowana do analizy wpływu niklu na komórki.
EN
The modified surface layers of the Cd1-xМnxTe crystals were obtained by the laser recrystallization of the crystal surface with the use of millisecond and nanosecond impulse ruby lasers. The determination and diagnostics of the layer structural state were performed by the study of the electron channeling patterns in the SEM. The AFM studies showed that mechanically stable contact regions within the CdTe crystal –Cu film system can be formed, depending on the laser energy density and beam defocusing. On the base of the ellipsometric studies, it was found that while irradiating the Cd1-xМnxTe crystal surface, the refractive index of the oxide film on the modified surface changes depending on the laser beam energy density, which can be interpreted as the formation of the oxides of the different chemical composition.
PL
Zmodyfikowane warstwy wierzchnie kryształów Cd1-xМnxTezostały uzyskane metodą laserowej rekrystalizacji powierzchni kryształu przy wykorzystaniu impulsów milisekundowychi nanosekundowychlaserów rubinowych. Określenie i diagnostyka strukturalnej postaci powierzchni zostały wykonane metodą badania struktury kanałów elektronu SEM. Badania AFM wykazały,że mogą zostać wytworzoneobszary mechanicznie stabilnego obszaru kontaktowego kryształ CdTe –powłoka Cu,w zależności od skupienia energii laserowejoraz zdekoncentrowania wiązki. Na podstawie pomiarów elipsometrycznychodkryto,że podczas napromieniowywania powierzchni kryształu Cd1-xМnxTe, wskaźnik refrakcyjny powłoki tlenku na powierzchni zmodyfikowanej ulega zmianie w zależności od skupienia energii wiązki laserowej, co może być interpretowane,jako powstawanie tlenków o różnym składzie chemicznym.
PL
Celem niniejszej pracy było wytworzenie nanokrystalicznych oraz amorficznych cienkich warstw na bazie mieszaniny tlenków Ti i Hf metodą rozpylania magnetronowego. W ramach pracy przeprowadzono również szczegółową analizę wpływu struktury wybranych warstw na ich właściwości elektryczne takie jak gęstość prądu upływu oraz względna przenikalność elektryczna, a także właściwości optyczne w tym współczynnik ekstynkcji światła.
EN
The aim of this work was to prepare nanocrystalline and amorphous thin films based on a mixture of Hf and Ti oxides by magnetron sputtering. As a part of work, the detailed analysis of the impact of the thin films structure on their electrical properties such as leakage current density and dielectric constant and optical properties like extinction coefficient was carried out.
9
Content available remote Thin film characterization of Ce and Sn co-doped CdZnS by chemical bath deposition
EN
Cerium and tin co-doped cadmium zinc sulfide nanoparticles (CdZnS:Ce)Sn were synthesized by chemical bath deposition method with a fixed concentration of Ce (3.84 mol%) and three different concentrations of Sn (2 mol % and 4 mol% and 6 mol%). They showed broad photoluminescence spectra in the visible region under the ultraviolet excitation with a wavelength of 325 nm. The photoluminescence emission peaks were obtained at 540 nm, 560 nm and 570 nm for CdZnS, CdZnS:Ce and (CdZnS:Ce)Sn thin films, respectively having different concentrations of Sn. It has been observed that the photoluminescence emission peak shifted to higher wavelength region with an increase in intensity by Ce doping and Ce-Sn co-doping. Further enhancement in luminescence peak intensity has been observed by increasing concentration of Sn in (CdZnS:Ce)Sn films. Average crystallite size, measured from XRD data, was found to be increased with increasing concentration of Sn. An increase in the concentration of Sn shifted the UV-Vis absorption edge toward the higher wavelength side. Energy band gap for undoped CdZnS and Ce-Sn co-doped CdZnS varied from 2.608 eV to 2.405 eV. The SEM micrographs of CdZnS and (CdZnS:Ce)Sn films showed the leafy-like and ball-like structures. The presence of Sn and Ce was confirmed by EDAX analysis.
EN
Modifications in morphological and plasmonic properties of heavily doped Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite thin films by ion irradiation have been observed. The Ag-TiO2 nanocomposite thin films were synthesized by RF co-sputtering and irradiated by 90 MeV Ni ions with different fluences. The modifications in morphological, structural and plasmonic properties of the nanocomposite thin films caused by ion irradiation were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The thickness of the film and concentration of Ag were assessed by Rutheford backscattering (RBS) as ~50 nm and 56 at.%, respectively. Interestingly, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) appeared at 566 nm in the thin film irradiated at the fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2. This plasmonic behavior can be attributed to the increment in interparticle separation. Increased interparticle separation diminishes the plasmonic coupling between the nanoparticles and the LSPR appears in the visible region. The distribution of Ag nanoparticles obtained from HR-TEM images has been used to simulate absorption spectra and electric field distribution along Ag nanoparticles with the help of FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain). Further, the ion irradiation results (experimental as well simulated) were compared with the annealed nanocomposite thin film and it was found that optical properties of heavily doped metal in the metal oxide matrix can be more improved by ion irradiation in comparison with thermal annealing.
EN
GaN thin films were deposited on p-Si(1 0 0) substrates using RF magnetron sputtering at various RF powers. Influence of RF power on morphological, optical and structural properties of GaN thin films were investigated and presented in detail. XRD results proved that the films were polycrystalline in structure with (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) planes of hexagonal GaN. It was found that increasing RF power led to deterioration of crystal structure of the films due to increased decomposition of GaN. Stress in GaN thin films was calculated from XRD measurements and the reasons for this stress were discussed. Furthermore, it was analyzed and interpreted whether the experimental measurement results support each other. E2 (high) optical phonon mode of hexagonal GaN was obtained from the analysis of Raman results. UV-Vis spectroscopy results showed that optical band gap of the films varied by changing RF power. The reasons of this variation were discussed. AFM study of the surfaces of the GaN thin films showed that some of them were grown in Stranski-Krastanov mode and others were grown in Frank-Van der Merwe mode. AFM measurements revealed almost homogeneous, nanostructured, low-roughness surface of the GaN thin films. SEM analysis evidenced agglomerations in some regions of surface of the films and their possible causes have been discussed. It has been inferred that morphological, optical, structural properties of GaN thin film can be changed by controlling RF power, making them a potential candidate for LED, solar cell, diode applications.
12
Content available remote Controlling of optical band gap of the CdO films by zinc oxide
EN
In this study, CdZnO films prepared at different ratios of dopants (CdO:ZnO = 5:5, CdO:ZnO = 6:4, and CdO:ZnO = 8:2) were coated on glass surface by using the sol-gel spin coating technique. After this process, surface structure and optical properties of the CdZnO films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface structure of the CdZnO films depended on the content of ZnO and CdO in the films. Low percentage of CdO films were very similar to the ZnO film but higher amount of CdO resuted in granular structures together with pure structure of ZnO in the films. Eg values of produced CdZnOs depended on the additions of CdO and ZnO. The obtained Eg values of the produced CdO:ZnO = 5:5 (S3), CdO:ZnO = 6:4 (S4), and CdO:ZnO = 8:2 (S5) films are 2.5 eV, 2.49 eV, and 2.4 eV, respectively.
EN
This work presents a theoretical study for the distribution of nanocomposite structure of plasmonic thin-film solar cells through the absorber layers. It can be reduced the material consumption and the cost of solar cell. Adding nanometallic fillers in the absorber layer has been improved optical, electrical characteristics and efficiency of traditional thin film solar cells (ITO /CdS/PbS/Al and SnO2/CdS/CdTe/Cu) models that using sub micro absorber layer. Also, this paper explains analysis of J-V, P-V and external quantum efficiency characteristics for nanocomposites thin film solar cell performance. Also, this paper presents the effect of increasing the concentration of nanofillers on the absorption, energy band gap and electron-hole generation rate of absorber layers and the effect of volume fraction on the energy conversion efficiency, fill factor, space charge region of the nanocomposites solar cells.
PL
Niniejsza praca przedstawia wyniki badań elektrycznych oraz strukturalnych cienkich warstw (Ti-Cu)Ox wytworzonych metodą rozpylania magnetronowego z zaprogramowanym profilem rozkładu pierwiastków. Wytworzenie cienkich warstw zaplanowano tak, aby uzyskać gradientową zmianę koncentracji miedzi w funkcji grubości osadzonej warstwy o zadanym kształcie. Analiza składu materiałowego wykazała, że wytworzone warstwy posiadały podobny skład materiałowy wynoszący odpowiednio (Ti52Cu48)Ox oraz (Ti48Cu52)Ox oraz posiadały zadany kształt profilu rozkładu miedzi. Przeprowadzone analizy przekroi struktur wykonane za pomocą transmisyjnego mikroskopu elektronowego potwierdziły uzyskanie zarówno gradientu rozkładu miedzi o kształcie litery V, jak i gradientu rozkładu miedzi o kształcie litery U w całej objętości cienkiej warstwy. Badania elektryczne wykazały, że mimo podobnego składu materiałowego wytworzonych cienkich warstw, uzyskano różne przebiegi charakterystyk prądowo-napięciowych, a więc możliwe jest sterowanie typem efektu przełączania rezystancji przez zadanie określonego profilu rozkładu pierwiastków w danej strukturze.
EN
The present paper shows the results of electrical properties along with the investigations of the structure of the (Ti-Cu)Ox thin films layers fabricated by the magnetron sputtering. Thin films were prepared in order to achieve gradient change of the cooper concentration in the function of the thickness of the deposited layers with programmed shape of elemental profiles. Analysis of the material compositions showed, that deposited films have similar material composition respectively, (Ti52Cu48)Ox and (Ti48Cu52)Ox with programmed specific shape of the elements gradient profile. Conducted analysis of the films with the help of transmission electron microscope proved the V-shape and the U-shape gradient distribution of the cooper across the thin films. Electrical measurements have shown that despite similar material composition of the fabricated thin films, different waveforms of current-voltage characteristics were obtained, leading to the statement that it is possible to control the type of mechanism of the resistive switching effect by programming a specific distribution profile of elements in a given structure.
EN
Purpose: The article presents the results of research on titanium dioxide synthesized by a sol-gel method that is an easy process enabling the control of the shape and size of particles The purpose of this article is to examine titanium dioxide nanoparticles and thin films deposited by an atomization method. Design/methodology/approach: Titanium dioxide sol was synthesized by using titanium isopropoxide as a precursor. Optical properties were measured by a UV-Vis spectrometer. Structural studies were performed by Raman spectroscopy. Qualitative analysis was performed by the EDS. Surface morphology of nanoparticles and thin films was performed by the SEM technique. Findings: The sol-gel method allows the formation of uniform nanoparticles and thin films of titanium dioxide. The atomization method is a successful method for the deposition of sol to the surface of substrates. Research limitations/implications: The next step in the research will be to investigate the obtained thin films in dye-sensitized solar cells as a semiconductive layer. Practical implications: Unique properties of produced titanium dioxide nanostructural materials have caused the interest in them in such fields as optoelectronics, photovoltaics, medicine and decorative coatings. Originality/value: Titanium dioxide thin films and nanoparticles were synthesized using the sol-gel method and then deposited by the atomization method.
PL
Przeprowadzono badania naprężeń własnych cienkich warstw metodą Laser Spallation Technnique – LST. Krótkie, nanosekundowe impulsy o dużej energii zostały zastosowane do wywołania delaminacji cienkich warstw a geometria odspojenia do oceny naprężeń własnych. Badania przeprowadzono dla miękkiej i plastycznej warstwy tytanu oraz twardej i kruchej warstwy TiN. Obie warstwy zostały nałożone metodą PVD na podłoże ze stali kwasoodpornej 304. Wartość naprężenia otrzymana metodą LST została zweryfikowana na podstawie badań metodą rentgenowską. Uzyskane wyniki badań wykazały, że krótkie impulsy laserowe o odpowiedniej energii mogą być stosowane do oceny naprężeń własnych w przypadku cienkich warstw o dużej wartości naprężeń ściskających.
EN
The laser spallation technique was applied for measutement of residual stress of thin films. Two films of different properties, ductile and soft Ti, and hard and brittle TiN, were studied. The films were produced on 304 steel substrate by PVD method. The residual stress value obtained by laser spallation technique LST were compared with stress value from X-ray diffraction method. Good agreement of stress values measured by both methods was attained. It was shown that shock wave induced by a nanosecond laser pulse adequately determines properties of PVD thin films on metal substrate.
PL
W pracy przedstawiana jest nowa metoda wyznaczania wspólczynników załamania na powierzchniach granicznych warstw dielektrycznych z obwiedni ich widm odbciowych. Podawane są proste wzory na współczynniki załamania na powierzchniach granicznych warstwy, które weryfikowane są teoretycznie i eksperymentalnie. Wyliczone prezentowaną metodą współczynniki załamania używane były w obliczeniach widm odbiciowych, które porównywane są z wyjściowymi widmami eksperymentalnymi.
EN
The presentation shows the new method allowing determination of refractive indices at interfaces of dielectric films. The method is basing on the analysis of envelopes of reflectance spectra. In the presentation there are shown theoretical foundations of simple mathematical formulas, describing refractive index values at film interfaces as well as experimental results that postively verified our method. In the first step, values of the refractive index at films interfaces were determined using our method. In the second step, reflectance spectra were calculated using the values of refractive indices obtained in the first step and compared with measured ones
18
Content available remote Optical investigations of microwave induced synthesis of zinc oxide thin-film
EN
In this article, ZnO thin-film deposition on a glass substrate was done using microwave induced oxygen plasma based CVD system. The prepared thin-films were tested in terms of crystallinity and optical properties by varying the microwave power. The effect of power variation on the morphology and size of final products was carefully investigated. The crystal structure, chemical composition and morphology of the final products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). This technique confirmed the presence of hexagonal ZnO nanocrystals in all the thin-films. The minimum crystallite grain size as obtained from the XRD measurements was ~9.7 nm and the average diameter was ~18 nm.
19
Content available remote Fabrication of Cu2O nanostructured thin film by anodizing
EN
Cuprous oxide, a narrow bandgap p-type semiconductor, has been known as a potential material for applications in supercapacitors, hydrogen production, sensors, and energy conversion due to its properties such as non-toxicity, easy availability, cost effectiveness, high absorption coefficient in the visible region and large minority carriers diffusion length. In this study, Cu2O nanostructured thin film was fabricated by anodizing of Cu plates in ethylene glycol containing 0.15 M KOH, 0.1 M NH4F and 3 wt.% deionized water. The effects of anodizing voltage and temperature of electrolyte were investigated and reported. It was found that nanoporous Cu2O thin film was formed when anodizing voltages of 50 V and 70 V were used while a dense Cu2O thin film was formed due to the aggregation of smaller nanoparticles when 30 V anodizing voltage was used. Nanoplatelets thin film was formed when the temperature of electrolyte was reduced to 15 °C and 5 °C. X-ray diffraction confirmed the presence of Cu2O phase in thin film formed during anodizing of Cu plates, regardless of the anodizing voltage and temperature of electrolyte. Photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the presence of Cu2O peak at 630 nm corresponding to band gap of 1.97 eV. A mechanism of the formation of Cu2O thin film was proposed. This study reported the ease of tailoring Cu2O nanostructures of different morphologies using anodizing that may help widen the applications of this material.
EN
Magnetron sputtered nickel and nickel oxide films have been studied for various applications. We may find, among others, these films in electrochromic display devices, in resistive type gas sensors, as metal electrodes in electronic devices, in solar thermal absorbers. Pure nickel films deposited using PVD technique possess good corrosion and wear resistant properties. Magnetron sputtering has several advantages in film deposition (in comparison to other methods) such as relatively low heating temperature of the deposited substrate during sputtering process, high energy of sputtered atoms (about 10 eV) at the substrate, which influences positively the films adhesion. From application point of view, the most valuable feature of these films is the possibility of scaling target dimensions, which makes feasible the deposition on a several square meter surfaces. The improvement of magnetron sputtering devices design may influence positively the optimization of the deposition technology and its efficiency. The thin nickel and nickel oxide films were prepared by pulsed magnetron sputtering using original type WMK magnetron device. Ni (99.9 %) has been used as a sputtering target of 100 mm in diameter and different thicknesses (3 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm). The distance between the substrate and target was the same in all experiments and equal to 120 mm. Argon and oxygen gases were introduced during the reactive process through needle gas valves at a total pressure of 0.4 Pa. The sputtering power, sputtering pressure and oxygen partial pressure have been used as technological knobs for deposition processes. The helpful tool for controlling the pulsed magnetron sputtering process was the original parameter of supply (so called circulating power). Results from our experiments showed that the deposition of Ni films is possible even from targets of 6 mm thickness. Deposition rate increased proportionally with the sputtering power. The aim of this work is to use the acquired expertise to develop an efficient technology of thin nickel oxide layers for electrochromic systems.
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