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EN
The profession of a seller (especially in small grocery stores) does not enjoy a social respect. The reasons for this are, above all, low requirements, low salary and difficult working conditions. In addition, too little attention is paid in the literature to this profession from the point of view of safety and hazards at work. However, the problem of working conditions in the position of a salesman is an important issue concerning a very large number of people. The paper deals with this difficult topic by describing selected methods of ergonomic analysis and using them to assess occupational risk at the seller's workplace. In the paper, the results of the Ergonomic Checkpoint List, as well as the results of questionnaire surveys are presented. All the results are related to the possibility of proper identification and the probability of hazards occurrence in the position of a seller.
EN
Every employer is responsible for ensuring safe and hygienic working conditions. According to the Labor Code and the relevant regulations, the elements of safe and hygienic working conditions in each enterprise are very similar. Differences arise when a specific industry or special psychophysical needs of an employee are taking into consideration. There is a specific group of employees for whom the working conditions organized by the employer in terms of occupational health and safety differ from the average working conditions. In the paper the needs, limitations and psychophysical possibilities of professionally active employees with sensory integration disorders are analyzed. In this purpose the direct interview with elements of open observation was used as the research method. The results presented in this paper are the small part (initial diagnosis) of the large project. Preliminary conclusions confirm the difficulty of adapting employees with sensory integration disorders to a universal work environment and the great need to organize special working conditions for them.
EN
Noise is one of the most common physical factors causing nuisance and harmful to worker health in the long term. The focus of the research was the measurement and analysis of the noise level at the screw injection moulding machine operation station intended for plastic elements’ manufacturing. The occupational risk evaluation was conducted based on the observed data. The results of the study allowed for the development of precautionary and preventive measures. Furthermore, the paper features identification of the work environment factors occurring in the studied manufacturing enterprise with division to dangerous, harmful, and bothersome.
PL
Ciągły rozwój technologiczny przyczynia się do znacznego rozpowszechnienia na budowach zautomatyzowanych i zrobotyzowanych urządzeń. Wprowadzanie różnych innowacyjnych rozwiązań jest połączone z ujawnianiem się nowych zagrożeń dla pracowników. Autorzy artykułu, na podstawie przeglądu polskiej literatury, obejmującego artykuły opublikowane w latach 2012–2021, zidentyfikowali 39 prac związanych z automatyzacją i robotyzacją w budownictwie. Przeprowadzone badania pozwoliły na zidentyfikowanie zagrożeń dla bezpieczeństwa pracy, jakie wynikają ze stosowania innowacyjnych rozwiązań w budownictwie.
EN
Continuous technological development contributes to the widespread use of automated and robotic devices on construction sites. The introduction of various innovative solutions is combined with the disclosure of new hazards to employees. The authors of the article, based on a review of Polish literature including articles published in 2012–2021, identified 39 papers related to automation and robotization in construction industry. The conducted research allowed to identify hazards to work safety resulting from the use of innovative solutions in construction.
5
Content available remote Bezpieczeństwo w przemyśle
PL
Nieustający trend wsparcia mechanicznego dla człowieka na produkcji dał inżynierom ważne wyzwanie – bezpieczeństwo. Nie od dziś wiadomo, że zdrowie i życie ludzkie jest wartością największą i musimy o nie zadbać, nie zważając na koszty.
EN
The article presents interdisciplinary knowledge on the management of occupational health and safety in hard coal mines with special attention paid to a control of the dust hazard. Shaping the safety culture is analyzed in the social, organizational and technical aspects. It should be borne in mind that accidents at work-places result not only from dangerous conditions but also from dangerous behaviours of workers. Shaping of safe work conditions in the mining industry is essential due to a high degree of complexity of technological processes and also due to natural hazards. In the article some information is given on the reasons of accidents in the coal mining industry. A model of the safety culture impact on a frequency of accidents and occupational diseases as well as the conditions for undertaking safe behaviours are discussed. It is highlighted that safety culture requires a complex approach oriented onto an investigation of relationships among: man-labour-environment. The article is ended with a description of the conception of occupational health and safety management in the aspect of dust hazards. It sorts out the knowledge and gives pragmatic guidelines, concerning the safety issues
PL
Komunikat przedstawia doświadczenia i problemy z początkowej fazy wdrożenia projektu badawczo-rozwojowego: „Samodzielna obudowa kotwowa w chodniku Bw-1n badawczym w pokładzie 401 w Jastrzębskiej Spółce Węglowej S.A. KWK »Budryk«”. Porusza problematykę drążenia chodnika oraz zabudowy, kontroli i utrzymania wyrobiska korytarzowego w technologii samodzielnej obudowy kotwowej w kopalni węgla kamiennego. Omówiono sposób prowadzenia drążenia przy pomocy kombajnu Bolter Miner oraz metodę kontroli stateczności wyrobiska w czasie jego eksploatacji.
EN
The statement presents preliminary experience concerning the implementation of the research and development project „Samodzielna Obudowa Kotwowa w Chodniku Bw-ln badawczym w pokładzie 401 w JSW S.A. KWK »Budryk«" (independent rock bolt support for the Bw-ln gallery in the outcrop 401 in JSW S.A. KWK »Budryk«), in cooperation with research units and vital manufacturers of mining machinery and equipment. From autumn 2018 to April 2020 as part of this project, research was supported by the imported Joy Global Bolter Miner (Fig. 2, 3). The machine was adapted to the requirements of the regulations in the country, and the assembly chamber in the underground excavation KKW „Budryk" was designed and constructed (fig. 4). A design of an independent rock bolt support in the Bw-ln gallery was made (Fig. 5) and approx. 550m of the excavation was drilled. 44 stratification meters for ongoing inspection and 3 measurement stations for periodic inspection were installed (fig. 2, 3). The experience concerning excavation and exploitation of the Bw-ln gallery can be considered as optimistic, regarding the future of this vital for the improvement of safety and efficiency of operations such as opening-out or development in Polish mines project
PL
Artykuł porusza zagadnienia bezpieczeństwa robót strzałowych i stosowania materiałów wybuchowych przeznaczonych do użytku cywilnego. Zawarto w nim podstawowe informacje dotyczące metod inicjacji detonacji, zużycia środków strzałowych w zakładach górniczych oraz opisano wybrane wypadki i niebezpieczne zdarzenia związane ze środkami strzałowymi, w tym z nieuprawnionym stosowaniem materiałów wybuchowych.
EN
The development of explosives' technology allows their use for civilians, including the mining industry. In 2019, 46.71 million kg of explosives were used in the Polish mining industry, of which more than half (25.5 million kg) were used in opencast mines. From 1990 to the end of 2019, the consumption of emulsion explosives and the use of non-electric initiation systems were continuously increasing. The development of these technologies and the experience of people associated with blasting works allow for their more effective and safer use. However, the accidents related to blasting works still occur. During the analyzed period, there were 92 such accidents, in which there were 22 (out of 170) death victims. Most of the situations resulted from the so-called „human factor", mainly due to the time pressure and the failure to fulfill some basic obligations. Over 90% of the injured people were employed in underground mining plants, which indicates an increased risk in this type of mines. Despite the best security and controls, the risk of theft, loss or destruction of explosives also cannot be fully eliminated. The article describes three such events in Polish mines.
EN
Cleaning and removal of components of the gating system, and finishing of castings are the most labor-consuming and damaging to health foundry processes. This paper presents the results of an analysis of labor consumption of the process of removal of gating systems of aluminium castings, which were carried out in a conventional manner using a band saw and a boring machine, and using an industrial robot. In the final part of this paper the analysis of occupational hazard of work-stands is presented. It has been shown that the use of robotization leads to an increase both the productivity of the process and work safety. The use of an industrial robot allows to reduce the labor consumption of the process of removal of gating systems by 29,5% in relation to the non-robotized stand. Furthermore, on the robotized stand almost all the time needed for the process of removal of the gating system is connected with the machining. It represents 98.7% of the production cycle. In the case of non-robotized stand, the machining takes 79% of the total time required for treatment of one piece of the casting.
PL
Oczyszczanie, usuwanie elementów układu wlewowego oraz wykańczanie odlewów należą do najbardziej pracochłonnych, szkodliwych dla zdrowia oraz niebezpiecznych procesów odlewniczych. W pracy przedstawiono analizę pracochłonności procesu usuwania układów wlewowych odlewów aluminiowych, realizowanego w sposób konwencjonalny z zastosowaniem pilarki taśmowej i wytaczarki oraz z zastosowaniem robota przemysłowego. W końcowej części pracy dokonano analizy ryzyka zawodowego stanowisk pracy i wykazano, że wprowadzenie robotyzacji procesu prowadzi do zwiększenia jego wydajności oraz bezpieczeństwa pracy. Zastosowanie robota przemysłowego umożliwia zmniejszenie pracochłonności procesu usuwania układów wlewowych o 29,5% w stosunku do stanowiska niezrobotyzowanego. Na stanowisku zrobotyzowanym, niemalże cały czas potrzebny na realizację procesu usuwania układu wlewowego jest poświęcony na obróbkę właściwą. Stanowi ona 91% cyklu produkcyjnego. W przypadku stanowiska niezrobotyzowanego, obróbka właściwa zajmuje 80% całego czasu potrzebnego na obrobienie jednej sztuki odlewu.
EN
The paper presents the analysis of navigation processes used in wells and around-drilling processes. Most common navigation systems used in drilling processes are described. The authors have presented a concept of applying navigation to operations supporting drilling processes, including operations ensuring the safety of drilling staff. Also, they have discussed around-drilling processes which have not been supported by navigation systems. Finally, they have presented ideas of their possible applications as well as benefits resulting from using navigation systems.
11
EN
Physical activity is an inseparable sphere of human life, and is not rarely associated with work. Evolution has adapted man to perform various activities that meet their life needs. Man is created for walking, sitting, lying and standing. All these activities should take place in turns. Physical work should be varied in terms of dynamics and not limit people to stay in one position while performing work. The position changes, among others, to increase blood pressure, in addition, stimulates the heart and respiratory system, as well as improves the efficiency of both physical and mental work. In turn, taking only one position for a long time, which often occurs in static physical work, causes many health problems. For musculoskeletal disorders related to a non-ergonomic work position and a forced position at work, every fourth employee in Europe complains. In Poland, musculoskeletal disorders are one of the most common causes of absence at work. In Polish enterprises, the assumption that profit is the most important is still dominant. Man is rarely seen as the most important capital of an enterprise that needs to be taken care of. For many employers, all additional measures related to shaping safe working conditions are only costs, not investment and potential profit. This paper presents the effects of static physical work in relation to work safety in the light of publicly available reports and information. The review has been enriched with the results of research carried out in one of the production enterprises of the SMEs sector. The research results presented in the paper are pilot and constitute an introduction to a large research work.
12
EN
Occupational health and safety nowadays is beginning to be seen in a multi-interdisciplinary way. Man's lifestyle also contributes to safety at work and work efficiency. The employee performs tasks at a specific place and time, however, this work is also affected by elements of private life. This paper deals with the impact of private life and lifestyle on human professional work in the areas of work safety and its efficiency. The research has been conducted on the basis of the opinions of employees.
EN
Job satisfaction has a big impact on how an employee performs his job. Both elements have an impact on job safety and employee perception of it. A satisfied employee devotes himself to work, performs orders better, cares for others and for himself. He feels safe in the enterprise. The aim of the paper was to assess employees' job satisfaction and their work performance with use of simply survey. In order to achieve this aim, a survey was conducted among employees of a chosen metallurgical enterprise who were asked to assess level of their job satisfaction. The employees defined their job satisfaction by referring to 20 statements describing this satisfaction and evaluating three factors that were used to compute the satisfaction index. The survey allowed for indication the general level of employee satisfaction.
PL
W zakładzie Trzuskawica wdrożono nowoczesny system radiotelefonii cyfrowej, który - oprócz możliwości komunikowania się w zakresie zachowania ciągłości procesów produkcji i utrzymania ruchu - znacząco wpływa na poprawę bezpieczeństwa pracowników.
PL
Lafarge Polska jest firmą, w której ochrona zdrowia i bezpieczeństwo pracowników zawsze były stawiane na pierwszym miejscu. Podejmujemy wiele trudno działań na rzecz doskonalenia stanu bezpieczeństwa pracy i maksymalnego zabezpieczenia zdrowia pracowników przed negatywnym wpływem czynników szkodliwych występujących w pracy. Mimo że bardzo wysoko podnieśliśmy poprzeczkę w zakresie bezpieczeństwa, to ryzyko niebezpiecznych zdarzeń wciąż występuje. Czy można więc odkryć nowe drogi do poprawy bezpieczeństwa? Sprawdźmy!
PL
Czy biznes może mieć ludzką twarz? Nie tylko może, ale powinien i coraz częściej ją przybiera. Etyka, odpowiedzialność, współpraca, partnerstwo to słowa kluczowe, które przewijają się w misjach firm. Już nie tylko klient jest najważniejszy, liczą się pracownicy, otoczenie zewnętrzne i środowisko naturalne. Dlatego coraz więcej przedsiębiorstw w swoje strategie rozwoju włącza także model CSR - biznesu odpowiedzialnego społecznie.
PL
Każdy z nas chce wrócić cało i zdrowo do domu po dniu spędzonym w pracy. Żeby tak mogło się stać, konieczne są bezpieczne warunki pracy, odpowiednie narzędzia i sprzęt, ale przede wszystkim właściwe nastawienie. Musimy czuć się zmotywowani do dbania o bezpieczeństwo własne i swoich współpracowników. Mieć we krwi uważność podczas wykonywania zadań i przewidywać możliwe ryzyko. Dlatego w Nordkalku kładziemy nacisk na budowanie kultury bezpieczeństwa poprzez ciągłą edukację pracowników i podwykonawców, uświadamiając im, że ich własne postępowanie odgrywa w tym procesie kluczową rolę. Oczywiście istnieje bardzo wiele sposobów budowania kultury bezpieczeństwa, jednak w tym artykule w szczególny sposób chciałbym skupić się na jednym z nich, znanym jako metodologia 5S.
EN
The small-sized enterprises, i.e. micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs), constitute the basis of the Polish economy. They are considered as a key element among all economic entities, primarily driving economic growth by strengthening GDP, but also employment growth and social integration. Most of the Polish workers are employed in enterprises of "small size". Therefore, effective management of work safety in micro, small and medium-sized enterprises is essential. It is very important to ensure appropriate and safe working conditions for employees of "small size" economic entities, but also for their long-term functioning on the market. Unfortunately, the results of publicly available reports indicate a relatively low level of occupational health and safety in "small size" enterprises. Occupational safety is considered primarily through the analysis of the basic triad of factors, which are - "technical safety at work" (T), "organizational safety at work" (O) and "human factor" (L). The paper presents the results of research conducted in "small-sized" enterprises (micro and small enterprises), including the analysis of technical, organizational and human factors. The tools that were used to implement the research assumptions include a questionnaire for the identification of threats in "small-sized" enterprises and the assessment of factors that affect work safety - with statistical analysis.
19
Content available remote Narażenie na substancje rakotwórcze i mutagenne w środowisku pracy
PL
Omówiono zagadnienie zawodowego narażenia na substancje rakotwórcze i mutagenne. Przedstawiono obowiązujący stan prawny oraz wybrane wymagania dotyczące ich stosowania w procesie pracy. Zaprezentowano zasady prewencji, bezpieczeństwa oraz profilaktyki.
EN
A review, with 46 refs., of current legal regulations and requirements for their use during operation along with general principles of safety and prevention.
PL
Dawne bezpieczeństwo i higiena pracy w budownictwie, popularne BHP, dziś nabiera większego znaczenia i powinno być traktowane szerzej jako inżynieria bezpieczeństwa i ochrony zdrowia. Budowa bowiem stała się złożonym miejscem pracy, które należy analizować kompleksowo a procesy budowlane formułować w ujęciu systemowym. W artykule scharakteryzowano aspekty inżynierii bezpieczeństwa pracy i ochrony zdrowia współczesnej budowy.
EN
Former occupational health and safety in construction, popular occupational health and safety, today is gaining more importance and should be treated more broadly as safety and health protection engineering. Construction has become a complex workplace, which should be analyzed comprehensively and construction processes should be formulated in a systemic perspective. The article describes aspects of occupational safety and health protection engineering in modern construction.
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