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PL
Bez względu na upływający czas, architekturę krajobrazu można postrzegać jako wyrażenie duszy i stosunku do życia na Ziemi. Każda projektowana zielona przestrzeń opowiada swoją historię. Według szwajcarskiego architekta krajobrazu, Daniela Ganza, najlepsze historie powstają, gdy zamiary i wizja ogrodnika spotykają się z impetem natury.
EN
This study investigates the lower Tigris basin’s the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) sensitivity in 2000–2016 to regional climate variability reflected by the monthly precipitation and temperature time series of seven global datasets as well as to four global circulation indices. To examine the effect of climate variability on the different ecosystems, the study area has been classified into 10 smaller natural and anthropogenic landscapes based on landforms and land cover patterns. The preliminary analysis showed that the maximum biological productivity reflected by the NDVI of March and April has the highest correlation (0.5–0.8) to the same cumulative amounts of October–March period total precipitation and January–March period mean temperatures according to all datasets. In addition, this article showed there is a correlation between landscapes’ NDVI and global modulation represented by the September–February state of El Nińo-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (0.55–0.70) and December state of the dipole mode index (DMI) (0.35–0.72). The significant differences in the original precipitation and temperature levels according to the different datasets have urged the use of normalized time series: z-score of temperatures and analogous six-months the standardized precipitation index (SPI). However, the multiple correlation analysis showed that using ERA-
3
Content available Heat Resistance of Landfill Vegetation
EN
The heat resistance of vegetation at landfills is worth investigating for the determination of the optimal species for the biological reclamation phase. Insufficiency of experimental data on comparative stability of the stems and roots make it difficult to draw definitive conclusions about the heat resistance of the organs of the plants. It should be noted that many scientific works are devoted to the thermal stability of cultivated and agricultural plants. The reason is that the temperature conditions should be taken into account when growing vegetables, fruits and mushrooms. However, the heat resistance of weeds, specifically in landfills, has not been investigated thoroughly enough. Increased substrate temperatures at the landfill site, which are caused by the burning of waste, alter the microclimate, cause the greenhouse effect, and contribute to the climate change. The aim of the work was to investigate the heat resistance of 5 most common plant species that have evolved in the landfills of the Western Ukrainian Forest-Steppe District (Ukraine). The plant specimens were collected at the Lviv, Rava-Ruska and Chervonograd landfills. The heat resistance of landfill vegetation was determined according to the Matskov method during 2015–2018. The following materials, reagents and equipment were used for the experiments: green leaves of 5 species of the investigated plants (weeds) – wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris), absinthium (Artemisia absinthium), city goosefoot (Chenopodium urbicum), common burdock (Arctium lappa), dooryard plantain (Plantago major); 0.2 N hydrochloric acid; heated bath, thermometers, pipettes, petri dishes, crystallizers, electric hot plate, marker. The experiments were conducted in triplicate. During the investigation of the heat resistance of the landfill vegetation, it was found that the most stable species are wormwoods (Artemisia) in all areas of the landfill, and the least heat-resistant is city goosefoot. The temperature of 70–80°C is detrimental to all of the tested plants. It was found that the lowest heat resistance is characteristic of the plants that develop at the foot of landfills.
EN
With the rapid development of urban area of Xi’an in recent years, the contradiction between ecological environmental protection and urban development has become prominent. The traditional remote sensing classification method has been unable to meet the accuracy requirements of urban vegetation monitoring. Therefore, how to quickly and accurately conduct dynamic monitoring of urban vegetation based on the spectral component characteristics of vegetation is urgent. This study used the data of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI in 2011, 2014 and 2017 as main information source and LSMM, region of variation grid analysis and other methods to analyse the law of spatial-temporal change of vegetation components in Xi’an urban area and its influencing factors. The result shows that: (1) The average vegetation coverage of the study area from 2011 to 2017 reached more than 50 %, meeting the standard of National Garden City (great than 40 %). The overall vegetation coverage grade was high, but it had a decreasing trend during this period. (2) The vegetation in urban area of Xi’an experienced a significant change. From 2011 to 2017, only 30 % of the low-covered vegetation, 24.39 % of the medium-covered vegetation and 20.15 % of the high-covered vegetation remained unchanged, while the vegetation in the northwest, northeast, southwest and southeast of the edge of the city’s third ring changed significantly. (3) The vegetation quality in urban area of Xi’an has decreased from 2011 to 2014 with 6.9 % of vegetation coverage reduced; while from 2014 to 2017, the overall vegetation quality of this area has improved with 2.1 % of the vegetation coverage increased, which was mainly attributed to urban construction and Urban Green Projects. This study not only can obtain the dynamic change information of urban vegetation quickly, but also can provide suggestions and data support for urban planning of ecological environmental protection.
EN
The knowledge on office building in the past and present, how the workspace evolved to incorporate contemporary technological breakthroughs, was in this paper combined with goals of sustainable building in a “smart” office building design in Belgrade, Serbia, taking local factors into consideration to create a comfortable space for the employees in a dense urban matrix with a minimal environmental footprint, and considering the workflow of contemporary office spaces, it’s multidirectional input and increasingly horizontal work hierarchy. Issues of proper inputs for building today in the 21st century are thoroughly considered in this paper and respective building’s design features as shown here: how to deal with location, position and orientation of the building, organization of both formal and informal areas, natural ventilation, green glazed surfaces, solar energy, wind turbines, rainwater utilization measures, surrounding vegetation, lighting and appliances, and piezoelectric paving.
PL
Aby poprawić miejski mikroklimat i warunki życia mieszkańców, w miastach coraz częściej powiększane są tereny zieleni miejskiej. Sadzone na nich rośliny muszą jednak borykać się z trudnymi warunkami siedliskowymi i klimatycznymi, dlatego też ważny jest ich odpowiedni dobór.
7
Content available remote Zieleń na elewacji budynku oczami użytkownika
PL
Spojrzenie na kwestię elewacji porośniętej roślinnością z punktu widzenia mieszkańca tego typu budynku. Jakie są wady i zalety takiego rozwiązania, co zmienia się w budynku po usunięciu roślin z elewacji i najważniejsze pytanie, czy warto stosować takie systemy?
EN
Experience of using green walls in buildings. Pros and cons, from the user’s point of view. Changes after removing vegetation. Is it worth using such a systems?
8
Content available remote The vegetation of sands in the Chernihiv city (Ukraine)
EN
The vegetation of the Chernihiv city sands (natural and technogenic origin) has rather high syntaxonomic diversity (17 associations and 5 initial communities) and the ruderal phytocoenoses prevail. Natural phytocenoses are represented to a small extent (Cyperetum flavescentis Koch 1926, Dichostylidi–Helochloetum alopecuroidis (Timar 1950) Pietsch 1973, Artemisia scoparia–Dianthus borbasii community, Kochietum arenariae Fijalk 1978). Synanthropic psammophytes species communities that are more resistant to anthropogenic influence, are formed under urban conditions. The ecological range of vegetation of sandy alluvia varies from xerophytic phytocoenoses in mineral-poor sand (Kochietum arenariae) to the communities, which indicate waterlogged areas with increased mineralization of water and saline bottom sediments (Typhetum laxmannii Nedulcu 1968). It is possible to observe the adventization and apophization of sand vegetation, one of the indicators of which is the rupture of coenotic connections between the species of the community. These phenomena indicate that the process of synanthropization of the vegetation cover of the city keeps intensifying, and first of all, occurs in places of newly formed technogenic ecotopes.
PL
Celem pracy było zbadanie wpływu stymulacji sadzeniaków (Solanum tuberosum L.) w zmiennym polu magnetycznym na wybrane parametry wegetacji roślin ziemniaka bardzo wczesnej odmiany Red Sonia (typ ogólnoużytkowy). Sadzeniaki ziemniaka stymulowano w zmiennym polu magnetycznym z wykorzystaniem cewki powietrznej bez rdzenia magnetycznego (solenoidu). Stosowano pole magnetyczne o indukcji w zakresie 20-80 mT oraz czas ekspozycji 1-30 s. Zakresem badań objęto wschody roślin oraz liczbę i długość łodyg roślin ziemniaka. Uzyskane wyniki poddano analizie statystycznej. Wyniki badań wskazują, że pole magnetyczne zastosowane w odniesieniu do sadzeniaków modyfikuje liczbę pędów rośliny ziemniaka. Nie wykazano statycznie istotnego wpływu pola magnetycznego na tempo wschodów roślin oraz długość łodyg.
EN
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of stimulation of seed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) in a variable magnetic field on selected vegetation parameters of potato plants of the very early Red Sonia variety (general use type). Potato seed was stimulated in a variable magnetic field using an air coil without a magnetic core (solenoid). A magnetic field with an induction in the range of 20-80 mT and an exposure time of 1-30 s were used. The scope of research included plant emergence and the number and length of potato plant stems. The obtained results were subjected to statistical analysis. The research results indicate that the magnetic field applied to seed potatoes modifies the number of shoots of the potato plant. There was no statistically significant effect of the magnetic field on the rate of plant emergence and stem length.
EN
Satellite remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) have been used successfully to monitor and assess the land use and land cover (LULC) dynamics and their impacts on people and the environment. LULC change detection is essential for studying spatiotemporal conditions and for proposing better future planning and development options. The current research analyzes the detection of spatiotemporal variability of spate irrigation systems using remote sensing and GIS in the Khirthar National Range, Sindh Province of Pakistan. We use Landsat images to study the dynamics of LULC using ArcGIS software and categorize fve major LULC types. We obtain secondary data related to precipitation and crop yield from the provincial department of revenue. The maximum likelihood supervised classifcation (MLSC) procedure, augmented with secondary data, reveals a signifcant increase of 86.25% in settlements, 83.85% in spate irrigation systems, and 65% in vegetation, and a substantial negative trend of 39.50% in water bodies and 20% in barren land during the period from 2013 to 2018. Our study highlights an increase in settlements due to the infow of local population for better means of living and an increase in spate irrigation systems, which indicates the water conservation practices for land cultivation and human purpose lead to the shrinkage of water bodies. The confusion matrix using Google Earth data to rectify modeled (classifed) data, which showed an overall accuracy of 82.8%–92%, and the Kappa coefcient estimated at 0.80–0.90 shows the satisfactory results of the LULC classifcation. The study suggests the need to increase water storage potential with the appropriate water conservation techniques to enhance the spate irrigation system in the hilly tracts for sustainable develop‑ ments, which mitigates drought impact and reduces migration rate by providing more opportunities through agricultural activities in the study area.
EN
This study assesses the spatial and temporal characteristics (e.g., frequency, intensity, spatial extent) of meteorological drought in Syria. Specifcally, drought was characterized using the observed rainfall data from 36 rain gauges spanning the period between 1990 and 2010 and covering the main climatic regions in Syria (i.e., Mediterranean, arid, semiarid and mountainous). Meteorological drought was assessed using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) at 12-month timescale, allowing for detecting the impacts of climate variability on agricultural droughts. The dominant modes of drought were defned using an S-mode of the principal component analysis. To assess the links between meteorological drought evolution and vegetation greening in Syria, the time series of SPI were correlated with the normalized diference vegetation index (NDVI). Time series of NDVI were retrieved from the remotely sensed National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) sensor at a spatial resolution of 25 km for the common period 1990–2010. Trend analysis suggests a statistically signifcant increase in the frequency and intensity of drought at 12-month timescale. The observed intensifcation of meteorological drought is mostly associated with the increase in mild and moderate droughts, relative to extremes and very extreme droughts. Results also suggest a statistically signifcant decrease (p<0.05) in vegetation greening over Syria during the study period, especially in the eastern parts of the country. Our results demonstrate that the decrease in vegetation cover can directly be linked to the anomalous drought events, with Pearson’ r coefcients generally above 0.6. This dependency was more highlighted during wintertime for the Mediterranean vegetation and in northeastern portions of the country. Overall, the increase in the frequency and intensity of meteorological drought, combined with a series of unrest and political instability, have drastic impacts on the agricultural sector in Syria, with serious implications for crop yield
PL
każdego roku dochodza do nas tragiczne informacje o upałach wywołujących na całym świecie serie ogromnych pożarów. Życie tracą w nich ludzie, tracone sa majątki, ale też masowo ginie roślinność. Do największych i najniebezpieczniejszych pożarów wielkich powierzchni dochodzi w Australli, ale powody i skutki są identyczne pod każdą szerokością geograficzną.
PL
Tworzenie miejskich kompozycji roślinnych, przyciągających uwagę i wzrok mieszkańców poza sezonem wegetacyjnym, opiera się na wykorzystaniu gatunków i odmian o interesującym ułożeniu pędów, ciekawej barwie kory oraz atrakcyjnych owocach. Jedne z wymienionych elementów są widoczniejsze w okresie jesieni i na przedwiośniu, inne przyciągają uwagę, gdy spadnie pierwszy śnieg.
EN
The studies were conducted on grasslands in the middle Wieprz valley in 2017. The aim of study was to assess the diversity of the species composition of selected grassland, depending on the frequency of mowing. The investigations focused on the meadow vegetation of Molinietalia order, Arrhenatheretalia order, the Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class and Phragmitetea class. The floristic diversity of the grassland communities was determined based on two indices, namely the number of species (SN) and the Shannon-Wiener index H'. In order to detect significant differences between the obtained values of these indexes for the particular grasslands (taking into account the research factors), a variance analysis was carried out, taking into account the Linear Model (LM) for the Shannon-Wiener index and a Generalised Linear Model (GLM) for the number of species on the assumption of the Poisson distribution of this variable. In addition, a Multidimensional principal component analysis (PCA) (Jolliffe 2002) was carried out to detect the variation of the analysed dataset with regard to the values of the ecological indices (Ellenberg et al. 1992). In the grassland under study, the number of species varied depending on the type of meadow and mowing frequency. Meadows with vegetation of the Arrhenatheretalia order had the greatest number of species. Furthermore, the number of species was found to increase with the growing frequency of use. The least numerous communities occurred in rush meadows (Phragmitetea class). A more frequent use of the sward of these communities led to a decreased number of species. Similar trends were observed in the case of the Shannon-Wiener index values. A variance analysis was carried out and its results indicate a significant influence of both research factors (meadow type and cutting frequency) on the floristic diversity of the communities under study. The biggest significant differences were confirmed between meadow vegetation of the Arrhenatheretalia order and Phragmitetea class. The biggest influence of cutting frequency on the increased species diversity occurred in meadows with communities of the Arrhenatheretalia and Molinietalia order. According to a multidimensional principal component analysis (PCA) indications, habitat humidity is the main factor determining the type of meadow community and its species diversity.
PL
Badania fitosocjologiczne przeprowadzono w 2017 roku na użytkach zielonych w dolinie środkowego Wieprza. Dolina Środkowego Wieprza (PHL060005) stanowi mozaikę siedlisk o zróżnicowanym uwilgotnieniu, co sprzyja występowaniu różnorodnych zespołów roślinnych. Celem badań była ocena zróżnicowania składu gatunkowego wybranych użytków zielonych, w zależności od częstotliwości koszenia. Przedmiotem badań była szata roślinna łąk rzędu Molinietalia, Arrhenatheretalia, klasy Molinio-Arrhenatheretea i Phragmitetea. Różnorodność florystyczną badanych zbiorowisk roślinnych oceniono za pomocą dwóch wskaźników, jakimi są liczba gatunków (SN) oraz indeks Shannona-Wienera H'. W celu wykrycia istotnych różnic między uzyskanymi wartościami tych wskaźników dla poszczególnych zbiorowisk (z uwzględnieniem czynników badań) wykonano analizę wariancji z uwzględnieniem modelu liniowego (LM) dla indeksu Shannona-Wienera oraz uogólnionego modelu liniowego (GLM) dla liczebności gatunków przy założeniu rozkładu Poissona tej cechy. Dodatkowo wykonano wielowymiarową analizę głównych składowych PCA (Jolliffe 2002) w celu wykrycia zmienności analizowanego zbioru danych, ze względu na wartości wskaźników ekologicznych (Ellenberg et al. 1992). Na badanych użytkach zielonych, wartość tego parametru wykazywała zróżnicowanie w zależności od typu łąki oraz częstotliwości koszenia. Łąki porośnięte roślinnością rzędu Arrhenatheretalia były najbardziej liczne gatunkowo. Stwierdzono ponadto zwiększanie się liczby gatunków w zbiorowisku wraz z rosnącą częstotliwością użytkowania. Najmniej liczne zbiorowiska występowały na łąkach z roślinnością klasy Phragmitetea. Częstsze użytkowanie runi tych zbiorowisk przyczyniało się do zmniejszenia liczby gatunków. Podobne trendy stwierdzono w przypadku wartości indeksu Shannona-Wienera. Wykonano analizę wariancji, której wyniki świadczą o istotnym wpływie obu uwzględnionych czynników (typ łąki oraz częstotliwość koszenia) na zróżnicowanie florystyczne badanych zbiorowisk. Największe istotne różnice potwierdzono między szatą roślinną rzędu Arrhenatheretalia i klasy Phragmitetea. Największy wpływ częstotliwości koszenia na wzrost różnorodności gatunkowej zaznaczył się na łąkach z roślinnością rzędu Arrhenatheretalia i Molinietalia. Wskazaniem wielowymiarowej analizy głównych składowych PCA jest, że wilgotność siedliska jest tu głównym czynnikiem decydującym o typie szaty roślinnej i jego zróżnicowaniu gatunkowym.
EN
Recent researches have determined that vegetation is one of the essential factors for game habitat quality. Vegetation is important in the form of the following components: as a food supplier, as a shelter provider, as the creator and regulator of the micro-climate of the habitat, etc. Past practice has shown that the classical methods for evaluating habitat factors involve a lot of subjectivity and often lead to an unrealistic estimate of hunting ground capacity that can affect sustainable game management. Instead of the classical analyses, paper proposes assessment of this factor using Geographic Information System (GIS). NDVI – normalized difference vegetation index is a graphical indicator that can be used to analyze images obtained by remote sensing and is used for these purposes. The researched area was hunting ground "Kapetanski rit" – Kanjiža, Serbia. In order to assess the vegetation factor, the analysis of satellite images is done for two periods of the year (May and December/January). In May the game prepares shelters for bringing an offspring and the period December/January is taken as part of the year when vegetation coverage is minimal due to winter and game is in need of additional food and shelter. Based on the results and maps, the user of the hunting ground can have a clearer view of the vegetation types and distribution, hence assistance in planning and analyzing the territorial distribution of the game. Comparing classical methods for evaluating vegetation and the use of GIS for this purpose shows the advantages of new improved GIS methodology.
PL
Zarówno projekt architektoniczny, jak i konstrukcyjny powinny uwzględniać warunki gruntowo-wodne pod projektowanym obiektem. Na ogół uwzględnia je konstruktor, wykonując obliczenia fundamentów i projektując zabezpieczenia wykopów, gdy są niezbędne. Architektom przypisano rolę projektanta izolacji przeciwwilgociowych, a więc powinni również dobrze znać podłoże. W praktyce, niestety często, projekt izolacji sprowadza się do rachitycznych zapisów, typu „Izolacja przeciwwilgociowa”. Projekt zagospodarowania terenu jest domeną architekta, a tym bardziej projekt ogrodu, gdy jest wykonywany. W obu tych projektach pojawiają się nasadzenia drzew. W artykule pokazano na przykładzie budynku z końca XIX w. do jak dużych zróżnicowań wilgotnościowych dochodzi pod budynkiem z powodu rosnących przy budynku drzew. Zeschnięcie gruntu pod jednym końcem budynku, przy którym rosły drzewa, doprowadziło do bardzo dużych spękań ścian. Rozwartość największych szczelin w murach wyniosła 11 mm. Przed wzmocnieniem zlikwidowano przyczynę uszkodzeń (wycięto drzewa) i wzmocniono budynek ściągami.
PL
Współczesne ciągi pieszo-jezdne stają się coraz bardziej istotnym elementem miast. Stanowią nie tylko obszar służący przemieszczaniu się z miejsca na miejsce, ale przede wszystkim są często niedocenianym rezerwuarem roślinności, mającej nieoceniony wpływ na środowisko miast i dobrostan ich mieszkańców. Korzystanie ze ścieżek pieszych i rowerowych jest codziennością, więc powinny one odpowiadać potrzebom i oczekiwaniom współczesnych użytkowników. Roślinność tych obszarów jest jednym z bardziej istotnych ich elementów składowych, mających duży wpływ na całokształt funkcjonowania układu komunikacyjnego.
EN
Contemporary pedestrian-road routes are becoming an increasingly important element of cities. They are not only an area used to move from place to place but above all they are often an underestimated reservoir of vegetation, which has an invaluable impact on the environment of cities and the well-being of their inhabitants. The use of walking and cycling paths is connected with everyday life, so they should meet the needs and expectations of modern users. The vegetation of these areas is one of their most important components, having a large impact on the overall functioning of the road system.
EN
The effect of instream vegetation growth has largely been ignored by hydrological and geomorphological research in river environments, which focused instead on the function of riparian vegetation as a regulator of bank stability or as a buffer for dissolved and particulate matter entering the channel from the hillside. However, in many lowland streams, instream vegetation can be very intensive, resulting in high biomass levels during the growing season. Instream plants have a significant influence on the dynamics of flow, sediment, and nutrients. Plant growth can cause increased frictional resistance to flow and can have a short-to medium-term effects on the geomorphology of the channel. Additionally, plant development influences the velocity of river flow, affects sedimentation dynamics and increases flood risk. To achieve a balance between flooding and ecological management of rivers in the presence of vegetation, a reliable method is required to predict the resistance of channels. In the current study, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and morphodynamic model is developed and applied using a new scaling expression of shear stress based on vegetation characteristics. These first attempts at field simulations showed qualitatively acceptable results and demonstrated the effectiveness of the model in predicting hydraulic parameters in the presence of vegetation. This model is useful in predicting the effect of vegetation on stream flow and river morphology, as well as in managing flood hazards and stream ecology.
PL
Problemem polskich placów zabaw nie jest to, że są źle zaprojektowane. One w ogóle nie są projektowane.
PL
Zimowe miesiące powoli się kończą. Dzień się wydłuża, zaś słońce coraz śmielej wychyla się zza chmur. Ludzie zaczynają zdejmować ciepłe okrycia, a promienie słoneczne rozpuszczają resztki śniegu. Powoli do życia budzi się przyroda.
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