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EN
Nuclear weapons are a historically acknowledged factor of security development and maintenance of the strategical balance. Therefore, in spite of programs preventing its proliferation, most states having such weapons modernize and develop their nuclear arsenals, perceiving it as a sign of power and a guarantee of security. The methodology employed in this article critical analysis and synthesis of reliable sources from the scope of the area of research. The nature of the article is explanatory with elements of inference. This paper presents an evaluation of circumstances inducing a state to possess nuclear weapons, in consideration of both the positive and negative consequences of their possession. In the author’s view, studying this article should at least evoke a reflection on the development of nuclear weapons as a means of forming modern relations of security.
EN
The issue of missile defence has been present in American policy for over 70 years and is constantly subject to research and the search for new technologies. Nowadays, the proliferation of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles, as well as the growing threat from the so-called “rogue states” have caused the inevitable development of the missile defence strategy. On the basis of historical programmes and the results of contemporary research, the concept of a Ballistic Missile Defence System was created. The system is based on the principles of indivisibility of the security of the Alliance and NATO solidarity, fair sharing of risk and burdens as well as taking on reasonable challenges. One of the components of the system is the European Phase Adaptive Approach, which was designed to protect American allies and resources in the European region from the growing rocket threat. This paper analyses the genesis of ballistic missile defence and what its development tendencies are. The article contains a presentation of the essence of the US Ballistic Missile Defence System, as well as its history and suspended programmes. The concept of multilayered defence has been outlined, as have the technical details of the system’s components and its location and operational status.
EN
The introduction of the hydrogen bomb to the nuclear arsenal turned out to be a breakthrough in the creation of the strategic deterrence system. It determined the evolution of the nuclear strategy on both sides of the “Iron Curtain”. The appearance of high-power light thermonuclear bombs became an impulse for the creation of ballistic missiles. Globally, this type of weapon significantly speeded up reaching a nuclear stalemate and contributed to taking up efforts to seek measures of a limited nuclear war and a “flexible response” as an alternative to massive retaliation.
EN
The fact that the production and the use of a nuclear weapon during the World War II began a new chapter in both the development of military technology and views on the preparation and conduct of a war. Creators and supporters of the atomic bomb quickly realized that it was too powerful to force it into the framework of existing doctrines. Therefore, it proved necessary to look for other solutions as the basis for a new type of a strategy. It was expected that this would be the political-military "containment" strategy introduced in the late 1940s. This, becoming the cornerstone of the US foreign policy, treated the nuclear arsenal as the most convenient and sometimes the only tool of deterrence of the Soviet Union. In the military dimension, as a derivative of the contradictory nuclear strategy of the Truman’s administration, it did not give up the bombing of cities but through deterrence and assurance of the security of allies in Europe it proposed a quick and massive nuclear attack.
5
Content available Amerykańska strategiczna triada nuklearna
EN
This article discusses the nuclear deterrence potential of the United States of America. The aim of the publication is to answer the question about changes which have been occurring in American nuclear arsenals in recent years. The author discusses the historical background and the factors affecting the current state of the US nuclear triad. The article describes all the components of the triad, that is land-based nuclear weapons located on board strategic nuclear submarines and carried by strategic bombers. The main ways of delivery of nuclear weapons used operationally are discussed and their future, in accordance with the plans of the US administration. An attempt is made to highlight recently intensified activities aimed at maintaining and modernising weapon systems currently held and new weapons designs planned for implementation. This is of great importance, on one hand, due to the dynamic changes in the international security environment, and on the other hand due to the financial constraints which US armed forces are currently subjected to.
PL
W artykule omówiony został przebieg reform prowadzonych w ostatnich latach w rosyjskich siłach zbrojnych ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem programów modernizacji technicznej. Au-tor przedstawił uwarunkowania wpływające na aktualny stan Sił Zbrojnych Federacji Rosyjskiej oraz trudności we wdrażaniu założeń realizowanego obecnie dziesięcioletniego Państwowego Programu Uzbrojenia 2020. Celem publikacji jest znalezienie odpowiedzi na pytanie, czy obserwowany trend wzrostowy w zakresie inwestycji w rosyjskie siły zbrojne i rozwój ich potencjału ma szansę się utrzymać oraz wskazanie jakie może to stanowić zagrożenie dla bezpieczeństwa Polski.
EN
The article presents the reforms which have recently been carried out in the Russian Armed Forces, with special attention paid to technical modernization programmes. The author de-scribes the factors which have influenced the current situation of the Russian Armed Forces and the difficulties connected with the implementation of the ten-year State Armament Program 2020.
7
Content available remote Broń jądrowa i radiologiczna, czyli o czym „marzą” terroryści
EN
The nuclear and radiological weapons are two elements of weapons of mass destruction, where one of the destructive factors is the radioactive contamination of terrain. Such interaction can in a significant manner disrupt or even prevent the functioning of various military and civilian structures or systems. It is being assessed that the scale of threats can be diametrically different from local contamination in a limited area-caused by radiological weapons-to massive destruction and extensive areas of contamination caused by the detonation of a nuclear explosion. Despite evident disproportions, under terrorist threat conditions, both situations need to be treated equally serious and adequate precaution should be employed to prevent these. The article is an attempt to present current threats implied by terrorist attempts to gain and use nuclear and radiological weapons. For this reason the usefulness of the discussed means for terrorist goals are presented, potential methods of their gaining are being illustrated, whereas various difficulties linked to their gain are provided. An attempt of formulating an algorithm to assess the threat level of a nuclear or radiological attack has also been made. The most probable areas of problems to be solved have been pinpointed in this algorithm. The final effect of the conducted research was the assessment of objects which could be potential targets of nuclear or radiological strikes. Furthermore, when considering radiological strikes, various forms of such strikes have been specified and an assessment of their potential effects has been provided.
8
Content available remote Bliski Wschód - dzisiaj
9
Content available remote Broń jądrowa i bezpieczny świat
EN
Nuclear weapon is an extremely spectacular and at the same time lethal means of fighting. Some consider it a single "true” weapon of mass destruction whose destructive power exceeds everything that has ever been invented. Long lasting nuclear armament race was stopped, while countries that have nuclear weapon undertook many initiatives to its reduction and non-proliferation. A particular role is played by two strongest nuclear countries - the United States and Russia, which competing for many years were also the initiators of numerous disarmament treaties, pacts and conventions. The article presents the idea of contemporary threats in the aspect of nuclear weapon acquisition, possessing and using. For better understanding, the current world nuclear potential and its influence on international security is discussed. Also the revaluations that took place in the perception of threat awareness and defence methods are described. Four categories when nuclear weapon may pose a threat for the modern world are defined. They involve nuclear terrorism, new nuclear countries and regional conflicts, existing nuclear weapon arsenals and the risk that the non-proliferation idea of nuclear weapon may devaluate. Additionally, the latest solution of this problem is presented, called universal compliance, supported by Canegie Endowment for International Peace.
10
Content available remote Czynniki rażenia broni jądrowej. Cz. 5, Promieniowanie świetlne
EN
Light radiation is one of five nuclear weapon destructive factors. As the others it may cause serious problems in tactical and operational actions. Similarly to shock wave, light radiation is a phenomenon characteristic not only for nuclear explosions but also conventional ones. Only the amount of energy released after the explosion is different. However, the scale of these phenomena is incomparable and depends on the power of particular blasts. The power of nuclear explosions is thousands or even millions times bigger than any conventional ones. The article presents the idea of nuclear explosion light radiation, its sources and probably effects on people, terrain, equipment and armament. Also the principles of forming a ball of fire, its expansion and character of its radiation. In order to understand the character of this radiation, the influence of light impulses on equipment, people and materials has been discussed in detail underlining the real probability of possible shock.
11
Content available remote Czynniki rażenia broni jądrowej. Cz. 4, Fala uderzeniowa
EN
The shock wave is the most serious nuclear weapon destructive factor. Its energy usually makes up for the half of overall energy given off during a nuclear blast. Having an enormous destructive power, it may lead to substantial destruction of armament and equipment and also to mass radiation among troops and civilian population. The emergence and spread of the nuclear bomb shock wave differs very little from the phenomena that occur during conventional charges explosions. The scale, however, is entirely different, the amount of destruction and radiation in particular. Therefore it is of utmost importance to recognise in detail all aspects of the shock wave emerging and spreading and its influence on conducting combat operations. The article presents the principles of the shock wave emergence after surface, under and over surface explosions. It has been pointed out to the idea of the destructive action of the shock wave and the static overpressure and the wind gusts have been discussed in detail. Additionally the influence of the terrain and meteorological conditions on the shock wave effects has been analysed. In order to understand better the threats, which the shock wave poses after an atomic explosion, its influence of living organisms, combat equipment and armament has been presented. Moreover the basic principles of protection against the shock wave have been defined.
12
Content available remote Bezpieczeństwo zbiorowe i zagrożenia
EN
The author presented “collective security’’ on legal grounds that were created after World War II and situation that occurred at the beginning of the 21st century and what phenomena make a new legal quality for collective security. He exposed contemporary functioning of the United Nations, the Security Council in particular, in new conditions. He also showed facts that may make the reader’s own draw hypothesis. The major part of the article deals with legal - military situation in space. Poland ratified several treaties, signed by the UN, concerning space activities. A complex influence of situation in space on relations between the main and minor superpowers is underlined. Also terrorism as a new threat has been discussed. A possible development of terrorism and difficulties to diagnose how to counteract it effectively have been shown. The article contains seven sources that are the basis to form the author’s comments.
13
Content available remote Polska wobec broni jądrowej
EN
It seems that in the contemporary world the fact of not possessing nuclear weapon, or signing the Non-Proliferation Treaty does not exclude an official relating to the most powerful weapon ever made. Moreover, being a member of the alliance that has nuclear weapon in its disposal and taking part in bodies that decide of its possible use, declaring an official policy in this area seems inevitable. The author of the article proves that Poland, being in the situation described above, should develop and implement an official nuclear strategy. The fact that we belong to various alliances or less formal regimes that aim at stopping the nuclear proliferation is not satisfactory. It is not enough that as a future EU member we cooperate on the ban of nuclear weapon proliferation that has no time and territory limit, particularly that NATO goals are divergent with the EU ones. In this situation, the only solution is to announce officially a general nuclear strategy of the Republic of Poland.
15
Content available remote Czynniki rażenia broni jądrowej. Cz. 3, Promieniowanie przenikliwe
EN
Penetrating radiation is one of many nuclear weapon destruction factors, which as the others may result in serious problems in tactical and operational actions. At the same time it is also a specific factor as contrary to other phenomena accompanying a nuclear explosion, it is not discovered by human senses. Its activity may be traced only using special dosimeter equipment or by observing certain phenomena which appear in different, sometimes distant, time after the radiation took place. Due to little participation of radiation in the division of nuclear explosion entire energy, its penetrating effect is often underestimated. In spite of this, penetrating radiation will nearly always play an important role in destructive effect of a nuclear explosion. The essence of nuclear radiation has been presented in the article, gamma and neutron radiation is discussed in detail. Their sources and relations with the environment have been shown. To understand the threats that penetrating radiation poses, its effect on living organisms, equipment and combat technology has been presented. Also basic principles of protection against radiation have been described.
17
Content available remote Broń ABC : nowy oręż terrorystów
EN
Terrorists easier and easier reach for exceptionally radical measures. Race and religion become more and more often the ideology of terrorist groups. Fighting in the name of God or for country or region ethnically clean requires applying new measures. The article analyses what possibilities terrorist groups have to acquire mass destruction weapons and if it came true, what probability it is to use mass destruction weapons due to the intentions. The author considers the possibilities of purchasing, stealing and producing, and later using biological, chemical and nuclear weapon, and also radiological weapon (seldom mentioned in publications). The prospects and conclusions are alarming: in spite of temporary trends, it seems clear that preventive measures should be taken now as eradicating the effects of a terrorist attack when mass destruction weapon was used may appear unrealisable.
18
Content available remote Państwa progu jądrowego
EN
The article reviews the concept of nuclear threshold states that appear in various publications. The author analyses arguments for different descriptions, the broadest - embracing a great number of states to the narrowest recognising only a few nuclear threshold states. Having discussed the motifs to posses nuclear weapons, the author worked out his own concept of a nuclear threshold state, giving the notion a certain capacity that allows to include the most often mentioned cases. The article also deals with motifs for not crossing the nuclear threshold. The author reviews in detail the actions of most often racognised nuclear threshold states taking into consideration nuclear programmes and declared doctrines to use nuclear weapon. These are the following (in the order discussed in the article): Israel, Argentina, Brazil, the Republic of South Africa, India and Pakistan. In conclusion the attention has been drawn to a changeable character of the nuclear threshold state's status which depends both on inner and outer factors not always dependent on the particuiar country.
19
Content available remote Budowa potęgi jądrowej? : przypadek Pakistanu
EN
The article shows the most important endeavours of nuclear forces creation. It begins with threat analysis, continues with making a decision on nuclear weapon building, developing a doctrine to use it and ends with head and bomb production and providing military units with them. The article mentions also problems concerning command and control of nuclear weapon and follows difficulties that Pakistan faced trying to build its nuclear forces in the last decades. The analysis of subsequent stages and current political and military situation proves that Pakistan is in an early phase of building a nuclear power. The economic situation of this country is so bad that the continuation of the armed forces nuclear power may lead to an economic disaster. The author concludes that building nuclear weapon contributed to decrease Pakistan’s military potential and therefore worsened its security. Moreover it introduced the risk of unauthorised and unplanned use of mass destruction weapon.
20
Content available remote Siły Zbrojne Federacji Rosyjskiej. Cz. 1, Próba charakterystyki
EN
The article consists of two parts. The first one includes general characteristics of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and a detailed description of the Strategic Deterrence Forces. The article starts with the analysis and evaluation of the Strategic Deterrence Forces’ doctrinal assumption and concept of use included in the Russian Federation’s National Security Concept and the Russian Federation’s War Doctrine. The author stresses that the provisions concerning the nuclear weapon use are very general and create a possibility of various interpretations, which is supposed to increase the feeling of deterrence forces’ threat. An analysis of the discussion carried out in Russia related to the issue of advancing nuclear attack being kept in the doctrine is an essential element of these considerations. In the further part of the article, [No 2(43)2001], the Strategic Deterrence Forces’ components have been introduced, land forces’ component: Strategic Missiles Forces and the air component (Strategic Long Range Air Force), the navy (nuclear submarines equipped with ballistic or homing missiles). Their structure, basic ordinance, combat potential and the role they play in the Russian nuclear deterrence concept have been discussed. It has been stressed in the conclusion that Russia is not going to give up its plans to keep the Strategic Deterrence Forces on an appropriate level. Not only do they have to maintain the deterrence potential, but balance the conventional forces attenuation as well, which resulted from the armed forces’ restructuring providing for conventional forces reduction to half by 2005.
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