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1
Content available remote Rozwój społeczeństwa informacyjnego w Polsce w latach 2005-2010
PL
W badaniach dotyczących rozwoju społeczeństwa informacyjnego (SI) przyjęto, iż wykładnikiem jego rozwoju jest dostępność do usług sieciowych. Warunkiem koniecznym dostępności usług jest określony stan rozwoju infrastruktury technicznej urządzeń sieci i jej zasięg przestrzenny, natomiast warunkiem dostatecznym jest zdolność i możliwość wykorzystania sieci i urządzeń przez ludzi oraz akceptacja społeczna dla innowacji technologicznych (przede wszystkim urządzeń - telefonów, aparatów, komputerów, odtwarzaczy itp.). Z jednej więc strony istnieje podaż usług telekomunikacyjnych i funkcjonalność mediów, a z drugiej - odbiorcy, użytkownicy. Właśnie od ich wiedzy zależy wykorzystanie dostępnych urządzeń (Ney, Kozubek, Werner, 2009). Dla celów porównań międzynarodowych w skali krajów, od wielu lat wykorzystuje się wskaźnik rozwoju społecznego - Human Development Index (HOI). Wskaźnik ten jest syntetycznym miernikiem, opisującym efekty w zakresie rozwoju społecznego poszczególnych krajów. HOI określa również poziom społecznego rozwoju danego kraju w relacji do innych państw. Porównanie wartości tego wskaźnika pomiędzy krajami pozwala określić różnice poziomu rozwoju cywilizacyjnego państw (Nowak, 2002). Im wyższy wskaźnik rozwoju społecznego (HOI), tym wyższy wskaźnik dostępności technologii informacyjnych i komunikacyjnych (101), a zależność jest prawie matematyczna (współczynnik determinacji = 0,863). Łatwiej jest przekonać ludzi do użytkowania bardziej wysublimowanych technologii i urządzeń, którzy potrafią w twórczy i nieoczekiwany sposób je wykorzystać.
EN
The research project was aimed at evaluation of development of information society (IS) in Poland and was based on the assumption that its main pillar is accessibility to the net. The main factor of the access to Internet and mobile network is appropriate level of technical infrastructure of the network and its spatial scope. Besides, there are also social factors, including the ability to use the net and social affirmation for technological innovations. Both supply of the network services, their functionality and network users (consumers) are the elements of the IS development. Research projects usually use Human Development Index (HDI) as a measure for international comparisons. Similar comparisons concerning IS development of individual countries use ITU ICT IDI measure. Both measures are highly intercorrelated. The paper presents an analysis of the spatial differentiation of complex ICT IDI measures for the voivodships in Poland (2005-2009), including their basic components: access, development of infrastructure. use of the net and efficiency of information and communication technologies. The main observations concerning SI in Poland since 2005 are the following: decline of traditional wired telephony, growing dynamics of cellular mobile telephony with simultaneous spatial expansion of Internet, including broadband, but the dynamics of the broadband is slower. ICT IDI measures of SI are spatially differentiated in the voivodeships in Poland. The main factor of the recent situation concerns the development of broadband network despite social and government actions against digital exclusion.
3
Content available remote Uwagi dotyczące geoinformacji w aspekcie przestrzennego rozwoju kraju
EN
The works on spatial development of Poland in perspective of 2033, conducted by Ministry of Regional Development are advanced. General remarks concerning types of geoinformation, characteristics of the spatial objects, problems and conflicts of locations are presented in this paper.
5
Content available remote Spatial distribution of information society development in Poland
EN
This article overviews factors important to the development of information society (IS) in Poland, considers indicators of the current state of affairs and developmental dynamics of the IS development process, and proposes a certain research methodology. Our study assumes that network access (in a broadly construed sense) is a crucial factor in IS development and poses the following hypothesis: the index of population potential (modified to account for rank-order differences and demographic characteristics of geographical units) constitutes an appropriate measure of network accessibility, and thus in turn may serve as an index of IS development. This hypothesis is then verified on the basis of data for Poland's voivodships (regions). A Synthetic Index of Information Society (SIIS) is posited, constructed of partial indicators. This synthetic index and the individual partial indicators are correlated against the classical and modified population potential indexes. Based on a review of international and Polish literature, partial indicators are selected for which statistical data can be collected, to use in compiling the synthetic IS measure. Special attention is paid to spatial distribution in the degree of IS development.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono istotne czynniki rozwoju społeczeństwa informacyjnego (SI) w Polsce, wskaźniki charakteryzujące stan i dynamikę procesu tworzenia SI oraz opisano metodykę postępowania badawczego. Założono, że ważnym czynnikiem rozwoju SI jest szeroko rozumiana dostępność sieci. Sformułowano następującą hipotezę: zmodyfikowany (uwzględniający różnice kolejności - rangę oraz charakterystyki demograficzne jednostek przestrzennych) wskaźnik potencjału ludnościowego jest odpowiednią miarą dostępności sieci, a tym samym pozwala wnioskować o poziomie rozwoju SI. Hipoteza została zweryfikowana na podstawie danych dla województw. Opracowano syntetyczny miernik SI (MSSI), którego konstrukcja opiera się na wskaźnikach cząstkowych. Dokonano korelacji miernika syntetycznego i poszczególnych wskaźników cząstkowych z klasycznym i zmodyfikowanym potencjałem ludnościowym. Na podstawie światowej i polskiej literatury przedmiotu wybrano wskaźniki cząstkowe, dla których możliwe było zebranie danych statystycznych przydatnych do budowy syntetycznego miernika SI. Szczególną uwagę zwrócono na przestrzenną dywersyfikację stopnia rozwoju SI.
6
Content available remote Informacja przestrzenna w naukach o Ziemi
EN
In official classification of sciences in Poland, covering 17 fields of science and 80 scientific disciplines, Earth sciences . as a field of science . comprise four disciplines: geophysics, geography, geology and oceanography. Geodesy and cartography as a discipline belongs in this classification to the field of technical sciences, but in fact its important part is related to Earth sciences. Other disciplines like architecture, urban studies, building, mining, engineering geology, environmental engineering and transportation are also partly related to these sciences. In the structure of the Polish Academy of Sciences, comprising seven departments, geodesy and cartography belongs to the Department of Earth and Mining Sciences, but other, numerous scientific disciplines are also related to spatial information systems (GIS). This is a bilateral relation: these disciplines use geoinformation systems in their studies and at the same time contribute to their creative development. Geoinformation integrates spatial studies. Main problems and applications of geoinformatics can be characterized from a discipline point of view as follows: Geophysics . characteristics and location of physical features of rock formations of the Earth, especially important for studies of global, regional and local dynamics; examination of causal-consecutive relations between centers of seismic phenomena in rock mass and their effects in top layers of the Earth.s crust / Earth surface; documentation of seismic and microseismic hazards, Geology . information systems concerning geological structure of top layer of the Earth.s crust; inventory and monitoring of underground waters and deposits of geological raw materials; monitoring of hazards induced by geology, especially those caused by mass surface movements, Geography . analyses of complex natural, demographic, social and economic processes appearing on Earth surface, covering large areas and mapped in small scales; spatial studies having diagnostic and forecasting character, indispensable for conducting proper policy of spatial management at various levels: continental, euroregional, country, regional and local level, Oceanography . information systems related to studies of physics, chemistry, biology and dynamics of seas and oceans; investigations of sea-land interactions, important from research and practical point of view (e.g. threats and safety of coastal zones and water reservoirs); studies of phenomena and dynamics of changes in polar regions, Geodesy . creating . jointly with geography . spatial information systems and generally reference information, necessary for modern geoinformation; studies of Earth dynamics as a globe, studies of vertical and horizontal movements of the Earth.s crust at local and regional scale; creating and maintaining local and regional geographic information systems, which fulfill research and practical functions, Mining . geoinformation systems are applied in deep mining, open-mining and drilling mining; they are developed scientifically for their specific needs and conditions, mainly for deposit management (active cooperation with deposit, exploratory and engineering geology) and for keeping safety in mines, Civil and water engineering uses mainly GIS for spatial planning, spatial management and water management; these sectors participate in the studies of geographical space and in developing thematic geographic information systems, Ecology, protection of environment and environmental engineering . these spheres of public activity, being at the same time important elements of natural sciences and technical sciences, actively participate in scientific development of geoinformation, mainly through their contribution to creating thematic information systems and through usage of these systems in scientific spatial studies and in monitoring of environment, especially natural one and its components.
10
Content available remote Geoinformacja w społeczeństwie informacyjnym
EN
Information society (SI) is generally characterized by two features, namely: 1) public access to information 2) infrastructure level and computer technology, which enables effective information exchange and . in consequence . handling of numerous matters with the use of tele-informatics. First feature is also important for civil society, which is characterized by active participation in managing public matters, mainly through freedom of associating in non-governmental organizations, which have impact on decisions of public authorities, modifying life conditions of citizens . inhabitants of particular administrative units. Public access to information is defined by three factors: material level, which decides on availability of hardware and software, level of education, influencing effective utilization of computer technology, as well as technical and legal state of computerizing public institutions, companies and services. The last factor in fact corresponds to the second feature of information society. At the same time information society is supports of based on knowledge economy; when production processes and services become saturated with information and communication technologies, added value increases significantly, contributing to the increase of gross product of the country, i.e. to making society more wealthy. Geoinformation plays important role in the ITC market It means, that geoinformation is very important segment of information society. Benefits derived from geoinformation can be grouped as follows: access to geoinformation greatly increases knowledge about Earth and facilitates management processes; . rational integration of inventory information with planning and prognostic information improves and facilitates diagnoses and variant solutions in spatial management; . geoinformation greatly facilitates negotiations between the interested parties in physical planning and spatial management, making process of undertaking administrative decisions more efficient; . geoinformation, which is maintained in a modern way, enables to monitor processes and phenomena in geographic environment, contributing to the increase of public safety. A man lives in symbiosis with nature and man-made objects; everyday access to information of public use . e.g. meteorological and occasional access to the specialized geoinformation, e.g. cadastre, improves and facilitates conditions of life, limiting its hazards.
PL
W artykule rozpatrzone są następujące zagadnienia: główne cele badań, ocena aktualnego stanu nauki w Polsce, problemy finansowania badań, realcje nauki i innowacyjności oraz kierunki specjalizacji polskiej nauki.
EN
The paper discusses the following issues: main goals of research, assesment of current state of science in Poland, problems in finnasing research, science and innovations, directions of specialisation of science in Poland.
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