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EN
NaAVIC, is a free and downloadable Electronic Chart System app specifically developed for boats of all sizes looking for safe and reliable professional navigation functionality on mobile devices and/or laptops. The app offers a range of features to make navigation easy and reliable, delivered through a clear and intuitive interface designed specifically for navigating at sea. The capabilities cover the range of essential features needed to maintain safety and situational awareness. Separate processes for download and update of the electronic chart data is not required because data is streamed in real-time from a cloud based open source database. The data is supplied to NaAVIC from Nautilus Cloud, a cloud based infrastructure designed for Marine Data, Solutions and Services for Government Organizations, Commercial Industry and Consumers. Nautilus Cloud is a “cloud native” approach and leverages high quality, open source components as its base technology. It uses open standards throughout to build a low-cost system which is flexible and has a much greater degree of interoperability with pre-existing components. A key feature of the Nautilus Cloud platform is the expansion of data holdings into a much wider family of related geospatial data products including the S-100 framework, harmonized metadata, raster and real-time sources. In essence, NaAVIC can operate on real-time and up-to-date information from charting agencies without a separate updating process. This enables the integration of real-time tides, weather, currents and other oceanographic information.
EN
Navigational charts are a basic source of information for seafarers. But how accurate and reliable are they? How much trust and confidence can be put in them? Unfortunately, the answer is not so simple; it is far more complicated than merely saying that one chart is accurate and reliable while another is not. However, any seafarer navigating in unfamiliar waters should have the necessary skills. It is a great challenge – some may say an impossibility – to keep the thousands of navigational charts up to date. But exactly how out of date, how inaccurate, are the chart data? Chart users will have a better idea now that the Hydrographic Office is gradually implementing a new chart feature called the Zone of Confidence (ZOC) box which replaces the Source Diagram that is currently in use on large-scale charts. Source Diagrams, and now the improved ZOCs, assist seafarers in assessing hydrographic survey data and the associated levels of risk of navigating in a particular area. According to the new edition of the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) specifications, S-4 navigational charts will provide more information on ZOCs. The current paper discusses these new regulations.
EN
Navigational charts are essential tools for marine navigation. But how accurate are the navigational charts that we use when going sailing? Do we really know how much faith can be placed in them? All charts, whether paper or electronic, contain data, which varies in quality due to the age and accuracy of individual surveys. In general, remote areas away from shipping routes tend to be less well surveyed, and less frequently, while areas of high commercial traffic are re-surveyed frequently to very high levels of accuracy, particularly where under-keel clearances are small. It is quite accurate to consider a chart as a jigsaw of individual surveys pieced together to form a single image. Having the necessary skills to determine how much confidence should be placed in the surveys, which combine to form a chart, should be a requirement for any sailor venturing into unfamiliar waters. When the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) developed the S-57 standard for Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs), this problem was recognized and it was decided that the quality of survey data used to compile ENCs had to be encoded within a composite data quality indicator ‘Category of Zone of Confidence’ (CATZOC) to assist seafarers in assessing hydrographic survey data and the associated level of risk of navigating in a particular area. According to IHO S-67, the accuracy of Electronic Navigational Charts is not impressive and leaves much to be desired. The author discusses these apparent shortcomings of ENCs and present erroneous approaches to this problem, so common in the seafaring community.
4
Content available Changing the Model of Maritime Navigation
EN
The paper describes a short history related to the development of maritime transport at the turn of the 20th century. A classic navigation model used since the mid-twentieth century as well as the development directions of current integrated navigation model have been described here.
EN
This paper presents draft guidelines on the display of navigation-related information received by communications equipment elaborated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) [3]. It aims mainly to ensure that information is displayed in an efficient, reliable and consistent format, in a manner that is easily and accurately interpreted to support decision-making process. These guidelines supplement resolution MSC.191(79) Performance standards for the presentation of navigation-related information on shipborne navigational displays [7] in regard to the presentation of navigation information received via communication equipment. The use of these guidelines will ensure that navigation information received via communications equipment is displayed in a harmonized manner on the ships’ navigational bridge. The availability of electronic data that enhances the safe and efficient navigation of ships necessitates that shipborne systems capable of presenting this information to the user should do so in a harmonized and readily assimilated way.
6
Content available The concept of time in navigation
EN
The article discusses the concept of time in navigation, especially in marine navigation, as well as selected time measures, among others: Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), Universal Time Coordinated (UTC), International Atomic Time TAI (Temps Atomique International), GPST (Global Positioning System Time) eLoran Time and interrelation between these measures. Understanding how time is involved in navigation, and using it, is one of the navigator's most important duties. Nowadays we have satellite navigation to help us know where we are. These satellites contain several very precise and accurate clocks, because time and location are completely and totally inter-related in satellite navigation. There is growing interest internationally concerning the vulnerability Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) to natural and man-made interference, plus the jamming and spoofing of their transmissions. These vulnerabilities have led to a demand for sources of resilient PNT (Positioning, Navigation and Timing) [16], including a robust means of distributing precise time nationally and internationally.
EN
In this paper approach parameters widely used collision avoidance systems such as the distance at closest point of approach and time to the closest point of approach and less known and used as the distance on course, the distance abeam and any distance and the times intervals to their occurrences are derived, analyzed and graphically interpreted in the combined coordinate system for position and motion. They can be used in collision avoidance systems and for reversed purposes - manoeuvring to required approach parameters, intentional approaches and naval tactical manoeuvres.
8
Content available Domena statku w nawigacji morskiej
PL
W artykule opisano różnego rodzaju domeny statku. Omówiono domeny o zróżnicowanych kształtach i wymiarach (2D–3D), stosowanych w różnych fazach żeglugi morskiej. Przedstawiono domeny jako narzędzia w nawigacji morskiej do oceny ryzyka w nawigacji. Omówiono również wykorzystanie domen w celu zwiększenia poziomu bezpieczeństwa nawigacyjnego w rejonach nawigacyjnie trudnych do żeglugi w pobliżu niebezpieczeństw nawigacyjnych.
EN
In this paper different kind of ship domain has been defined and described. Different dimensions and shapes of ship domain (2D–3D) used in all phases of navigation has been discussed. The ship domain as a tool in navigation for assessing the risk in navigation has been given. How to use the ship domain to increase safety of navigation in restricted waters has been discussed.
9
Content available Middle rules and rhumb-line sailing
EN
This work tackles the problem of misconception when using sophisticated mathematical tools, nonlinear optimization in this particular case, to solve a navigational problem. Namely, to reach the Great Circle vertex with two rhumb line legs ensuing the optimized distance, an initial rhumb line course equal to the orthodromic course at middle latitude may be used. The initial course is thereupon optimized by the incremental value steps. The optimized distance is achieved if the rhumb line course is altered towards the vertex at the orthodrome-loxodrome intersection point. As determination of this point cannot be formulated in a closed form, an iterative solution is to be applied. The derived transcendental equation forms a basis for an iterative solution of intersection using the Newton-Raphson method. To the contrary, finding solutions to a system of nonlinear equations can mislead a researcher unable to comprehend and grasp the mathematical meanings of the algorithm. The gist of this essay is a novel concept showing an intrinsic property i.e. orthodrome-loxodrome correlation using a well-known formula.
PL
W artykule sformułowano funkcje wrażliwości modelu procesu transportowego i logistycznego oraz optymalnego sterowania tym procesem. Opisano model podstawowy procesu bezpiecznego kierowania ruchem statku jako gry różniczkowej, a następnie algorytmy optymalnego sterowania w postaci wieloetapowej gry pozycyjnej i wielokrokowej gry macierzowej. Przedstawiono charakterystyki wrażliwości bezpiecznego kierowania statkiem w rzeczywistej sytuacji kolizyjnej na niedokładność informacji o stanie procesu i na zmiany jego parametrów, wyznaczone na drodze komputerowej symulacji algorytmów w oprogramowaniu Matlab/Simulink.
EN
The paper presents the sensitivity functions of the transport and logistics process model and the optimal control of this process. The basic model of safe ship motion management as a differential game was described, followed by optimal control algorithms in the form of multi-stage positioning game and multi-matrix game. The sensitivity characteristics of safe ship control in the real collision situation are presented in terms of inaccuracy of process status information and changes in its parameters, as determined by computer simulation algorithms in Matlab/Simulink software.
EN
This paper presents the authors’ reflections on using integral calculus when preparing the process of locating single ground-based chains of positioning systems in marine navigation. These reflections are purely theoretical and presented research results apply to a hypothetical navigation system that operates based on the ratio of distances, which is regarded as a navigation parameter.
EN
Virtual electronic aids to navigation are being introduced into the present short range aids to navigation system in the form of Automated Information System radio-based aids. Research is also underway into the development of their equivalents for use in regions that feature hostile environments, are poorly charted and lack any infrastructure whatsoever to support traditional or radio navigation aids. Such aids are entirely virtual in nature and exist only as a digital data object that resides within an electronic navigation chart for display to mariners through an Electronic Chart Display and Information System. They are at present experimental in nature, and are not intended to replace existing physical or radio-based aids to navigation. Results of research are described in terms of fulfilling traditional navigation aid functions and the development of new functions that are only possible using virtual aids. Their advantages in design and implementation are highlighted, as are their limitations and shortcomings as compared to present methodologies. Notable, however, is the approach used to overcome limitations and shortcomings by considering attributes of the physical environment to ensure their proper location and display of correct characteristics. Such an approach is unique in the modern world, yet it emulates ancient methods of navigation using known landmarks and terrain features.
13
Content available Conceptual Grounds of Navigation Safety
EN
The most important global problem being solved by the whole world community nowadays is to provide sustainable mankind development. Recent research in the field of sustainable development states that civilization safety is impossible without transfer sustainable development. At the same time, sustainable development (i.e. preservation of human culture and biosphere) is impossible as a system that serves to meet economical, cultural, scientific, recreational and other human needs without safety. Safety plays an important role in sustainable development goals achievement. An essential condition of effective navigation functioning is to provide its safety. The “prescriptive” approach to the navigation safety, which is currently used in the world maritime field, is based on long-term experience and ship accidents investigation results. Thus this approach acted as an the great fact in reduction of number of accidents at sea. Having adopted the International Safety Management Code all the activities connected with navigation safety problems solution were transferred to the higher qualitative level. Search and development of new approaches and methods of ship accidents prevention during their operation have obtained greater importance. However, the maritime safety concept (i.e. the different points on ways, means and methods that should be used to achieve this goal) hasn't been formed and described yet. The article contains a brief review of the main provisions of Navigation Safety Conceptions, which contribute to the number of accidents and incidents at sea reduction.
PL
W artykule dokonano analizy wyników badań symulacyjnych nad manewrami antykolizyjnymi statków. Dane rejestrowano podczas symulacji prowadzonych w laboratorium systemów ECDIS z udziałem ekspertów - nawigatorów morskich. Przeanalizowano sposób ich wykonywania w celu identyfikacji najbardziej spodziewanego sposobu ich przeprowadzenia a następnie powiązania ich z odpowiednim profilem bezpieczeństwa nawigatora morskiego. Analizowano manewry zmiany kursu, prędkości i łączne zmiany obu parametrów ruchu statku. Przedstawiono założenia i przebieg badań symulacyjnych, oceniono wyniki i możliwość ich wykorzystania w dalszych pracach nad oceną profilu bezpieczeństwa oficerów nawigacyjnych na statkach. Przedstawiono wyniki w poszczególnych symulowanych scenariuszach, wybrane analizy cząstkowe oraz sformułowano wnioski.
EN
The article analyses the results of simulation research on anti-collision maneuvers of ships. The data was recorded during the simulation research conducted in the laboratory of ECDIS systems with the participation of experts – marine navigators. The main purpose was identification of the most expected way that navigators perform them, and then link them with appropriate safety profile of the marine navigator. Paper presents guidelines and course of the simulation tests, results and the possibility of their use in further work on the evaluation of the safety profile of navigational officers. The results in different simulated scenarios and selected partial analysis are presented. Conclusions are drawn.
15
Content available Magnetic Compass in Modern Maritime Navigation
EN
This article looks into the role of magnetic compass in providing the navigational safety of the ship. Existing requirements for the magnetic compass at the presence of satellite navigation are not economically justified. Therefore, a new rational requirement is proposed for the accuracy and frequency of deviation compensation work assuring the safety of navigation and cost-effectiveness. The proposed method has been verified by a lab experiment.
EN
In the paper the author tries to present the results of monitoring the implementation of the Electronic Chart Display Information System (ECDIS) to ensure that issues identified in regard to the anomalous operation of some ECDIS are collated, analyzed, communicated and resolved as speedily as possible to maintain the safety of navigation and to assist the smooth transition from paper to digital navigation.
PL
Systemy nawigacji satelitarnej umożliwiają wyznaczenie pozycji obserwatora we współrzędnych geograficznych, np. GPS korzysta z układu WGS-84. W technice dynamicznego pozycjonowania stosowanych jest wiele systemów nawigacyjnych dużej dokładności, ale pracujących w lokalnych układach odniesienia. W radarach wyznacza się położenie obiektu w lokalnych, biegunowych współ- rzędnych, które są transformowane do współrzędnych geograficznych. Ze względu na wysoką dokładność pozycjonowania zagadnienia transformacji układów nabierają znaczenia, szczególnie w brzegowych systemach kontroli ruchu morskiego. Na te zagadnienia zwrócono uwagę w artykule.
EN
Satellite navigation systems help to determine position of the observer in geographic coordinates, e.g. WGS-84 datum is used in GPS but there are many others. Dynamic position.ing technique makes use of many high accuracy navigation systems but operating in local reference systems. Location of a target in radar is determined in local, polar coordinates which are transformed into geographic coordinates. Due to high accuracy of positioning systems, transformation issues become important, especially in shore based maritime traffic control systems. This paper highlights these issues.
EN
The e-Navigation initiative of IMO and IALA has stimulated and inspired a number of ambitious research projects and technological developments in the maritime field. The global transportation of goods is not only facing rapidly growing ship dimensions but also increasing industrial off shore activities, changing the relation between the need of areas for safe and reliable vessel traffic and its availability. Off shore activities is increasingly limiting the available navigable spaces and concentrating traffic flows, especially in coastal waters and port approaches. Enhanced technical systems and equipment with numerous added functionalities are in use and under further development providing new opportunities for traffic surveillance and interaction. Integrated Bridge and Navigation Systems on board modern ships not only support the bridge teams and pilots on board, but also allow for more comprehensive shore-based traffic monitoring and even allow for re-thinking of existing regimes and procedures on traffic management. A sophisticated manoeuvring support tool using fast real-time simulation technology and its application for on board support as well as for its potential integration into enhanced shore-based monitoring processes when linked with the ‘Maritime Cloud’ will be introduced. The potential for contribution to generate harmonized collision warnings will be discussed and explained. This paper is a reviewed and extended version of (Baldauf, Benedict & Gluch, 2014).
EN
Detection of small crafts/targets, in particular, sailing yachts with the ship's radar is not always possible. Radar reflectors are used to improve their detection. The AIS (Automatic Identification System) transmits position, motion vector and identification signals of a vessel to other ships and VTS (Vessel Traffic Services) centers . This system significantly increases the possibility to detect small crafts. The paper presents results of comparative study of using information from the Automatic Identification System and from radar to determine the accuracy of tracking the position and motion vector of ships in the Gulf of Gdansk. Possibilities and limitations of the AIS are also presented.
EN
In this paper, using cloud model and Delphi, we build a comprehensive evaluation cloud model to solve the problems of qualitative description and quantitative transformation in ship navigation adaptability comprehensive evaluation. In the model, the normal cloud generator is used to find optimal cloud models of reviews and evaluation factors. The weight of each evaluation factor is determined by cloud model and Delphi. The floating cloud algorithm is applied to aggregate the bottom level’s evaluation factors, and comprehensive cloud algorithm is used to aggregate the highest level’s evaluation factors to get comprehensive evaluation cloud model. Finally, evaluation result is got by matching comprehensive evaluation cloud model and optimal cloud model of reviews. As case study, the model is applied to the small LNG ship’s navigation adaptability in Southeast Asia. Compared with the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the model proposed in this paper is more intuitive and reliable in comprehensive evaluation of the small LNG ship’s navigation adaptability.
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