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EN
Pb(1-x)La(x) [(Zr0.6Ti0.4)(1-x) (Mn1/3Sb2/3)(x)]O3 ceramics with x = 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, and 0.05 were synthesized by using a conventional solid state reaction route. The influence of La, Mn, and Sb contents on phase structure, microstructure, and electric properties were investigated. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) show that the phase structure of the ceramics transforms from rhombohedral phase to tetragonal phase. However, the minority pyrochlore phase appears on the micrographs of XRD and SEM if the doping concentration is greater than 2 mol%. The grain size of the ceramics gradually increases (from 1.36 μm to 1.57 μm) with increasing doping. The dielectric properties of the ceramics have been measured as a function of temperature in the range of 20 °C to 430 °C at 1 kHz. The results indicate that the transition temperature and the maximum dielectric constant decrease with increasing PL-PMS content in the system. These results clearly show the significance of PL-PMS in controlling the dielectric behavior of the PL-PMS-PZT system.
PL
Klasyczne zarządzanie projektami w budownictwie oparte jest na wielu wyspecjalizowanych aplikacjach komputerowych, które w nikłym zakresie wymieniają między sobą dane. Metodyka BIM (Building Information Modelling) umożliwia współpracę i wymianę danych — w szczególności w oparciu o format IFC (Industrial Foundation Classes) — obejmując projektowanie budowlane w CAD i FEM oraz planowanie budowy z użyciem PMS. Integracja BIM napotyka na ograniczenia metodyczne i biznesowe. Ograniczenia biznesowe to duże koszty oprogramowania niezbędne do poniesienia w celu wykonania analizy kompleksowej. Problemy te pozwala pokonać Open BIM i koncepcja autorów oparta na dekompozycji obiektu budowlanego i selektywnym przetwarzaniu danych, możliwa do uzyskania dzięki powiązaniu wiedzy o projektowaniu budynków i procesów ich budowy. Artykuł zawiera przegląd systemów i opis koncepcji w kontekście polskiego budownictwa.
EN
The conventional approach to project management in construction industry is based on multiple specialized software tools which have very limited capability of data exchange. The BIM methodology allows for co-operation and data transfers among various member subsystems relying on IFC which supports construction designing with CAD, FEM, and construction planning using PMS. The most challenging obstacles to full integration are of two kinds: methodological and business related. The business-related problems result from high costs of a complete analysis and software tools. These challenges can be overcome with Open BIM, an approach proposed by the authors, which is based on the model decomposition and independent processing resulting from combination of the design and management processes awareness of the building features. This survey includes both proposed systems and the underlying concepts in Polish construction context.
EN
There are many studies on k-out-of-n systems, load-sharing systems (LSS) and phased-mission systems (PMS); however, little attention has been given to load-sharing k-out-of-n systems with phased-mission requirements. This paper considers equal loadsharing k-out-of-n phased-mission systems with identical components. A method is proposed for the phased-mission reliability analysis of the studied systems based on the applicable failure path (AFP). A modified universal generating function (UGF) is used in the AFP-searching algorithm because of its efficiency. The tampered failure rate load-sharing model for the exactly k-out-of-n: F system is introduced and integrated into the method. With the TFR model, the systems with arbitrary load-dependent component failure distributions can be analyzed. According to the time and space complexity analysis, this method is particularly suitable for systems with small k-values. Two applications of the method are introduced in this paper. 1) A genetic algorithm (GA) based on the method is presented to solve the operational scheduling problem of systems with independent submissions. Two theorems are provided to solve the problem under some special conditions. 2) The method is used to select the optimal number of components to make the system reliable and robust.
PL
Istnieje wiele badań na temat systemów typu „k z n”, systemów z podziałem obciążenia (load-sharing systems, LSS) oraz systemów fazowych (tj. systemów o zadaniach okresowych) (phased-missionsystems, PMS); jak dotąd mało uwagi poświęcono jednak systemom typu „k z n” z podziałem obciążenia wymagającym realizacji różnych zadań w różnych przedziałach czasowych. Niniejszy artykuł omawia systemy fazowe typu „k z n” o równym podziale obciążenia przypadającego na identyczne elementy składowe. Zaproponowano metodę analizy niezawodności badanych systemów w poszczególnych fazach ich eksploatacji opartą na pojęciu właściwej ścieżki uszkodzeń (applicablefailurepath, AFP). W algorytmie wyszukującym AFP zastosowano zmodyfikowaną uniwersalną funkcję tworzącą (universal generating function, UGF), która cechuje się dużą wydajnością. Wprowadzono model manipulowanej intensywności uszkodzeń (tamperedfailurerate, TFR) elementów o równym podziale obciążenia dla systemu, w którym liczba uszkodzeń wynosi dokładnie k z n. Model ten włączono do proponowanej metody analizy niezawodności. Przy pomocy modelu TFR można analizować systemy o dowolnych rozkładach uszkodzeń części składowych, gdzie uszkodzenia są zależne od obciążenia. Zgodnie z analizą złożoności czasowej i przestrzennej, metoda ta jest szczególnie przydatna do modelowania układów o małych wartościach k. W pracy przedstawiono dwa zastosowania metody. 1) oparty o omawianą metodę algorytm genetyczny (GA) do rozwiązywania problemu harmonogramowania prac w systemach z niezależnymi podzadaniami. Sformułowano dwa twierdzenia pozwalające na rozwiązanie problemu w pewnych szczególnych warunkach. 2) Wybór optymalnej liczby elementów składowych pozwalającej na zachowanie niezawodności i odporności systemu.
PL
Systemy zarządzania stanem nawierzchni drogowej (PMS) wspomagają zarządcę na poziomie strategicznym i operacyjnym. Na poziomie strategicznym umożliwiają one planowanie budżetów na utrzymanie dróg w długim horyzoncie czasu (15-20 lat) tak, aby uzyskać założone cele jakościowe, opisywane poprzez wymagany stan nawierzchni. PMS na poziomie operacyjnym wspomaga zarządcę przy planowaniu konkretnych programów utrzymaniowych w krótkim horyzoncie czasu (do 3 lat), optymalizujących korzyści dla użytkowników dróg przy równoczesnym spełnieniu ograniczeń budżetowych. Efektywne wykorzystanie systemów zarządzania stanem nawierzchni przez administrację drogową jest możliwe tylko przy wykorzystaniu odpowiedniego oprogramowania. Programy PMS na poziomie strategicznym mają charakter "automatu decyzyjnego" i bazują na danych o dużym stopniu agregacji, natomiast na poziomie operacyjnym wykorzystywane są dane szczegółowe, zaś sam program umożliwia interakcję z operatorem.
EN
Pavement Management Systems (PMS) support the road administration on the strategic level as well as on the operational level. On the strategic level, PMS allow to plan the budget for pavement maintenance for a long-term period (15-20 years) in such a way, that the targeted quality goals, which are determined by the required pavement condition, are reached. PMS on the operational level help the road administration plan specific maintenance program for a short-term period (up to 3 years). These maintenance programs optimize road users benefits and fulfill budgetary constraints. Road administration can use PMS effectively only if they use proper software. PMS software on the strategic level act according a defined algorithm. On the operational level however, detailed data are used and the software itself allows for the interaction with the operator.
5
Content available remote Detection of Tooth Crack Nucleation Using Bispectral Measures
EN
The objectives of the presented paper are to better understand the mechanism of failure development in the dynamic mechanical systems. It is important to consider carefully the present changes in a technical conditions of elements of the system when planning the requirements to a proactive risk managements strategy. While a dynamical system traditionally is modeled by structural decomposition, in the paper the dynamic behavior of system is modeled by decomposition of the behavior flow into events and errors accompanying occurrence of failure. From this point of view the nonlinear model of failure occurrence, made from Volterra Series, is analyzed to realizing long term benefits of a proactive maintenance strategy. The models describes the effect on the evolution at the process variables for each hypothesized fault failure. In the paper it is also analyzed the impact of nonlinearity of the sub-section on the behavior of the whole system by using of high-order spectra.
EN
New chapter 4, added to Annex VI of MARPOL convention, put into effect regulations on the ships ‘energy efficiency. It makes mandatory since 1st January 2013 the so called Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) for new ships and the Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan (SEEMP) for new and existing vessels of 400 gt and above. There is a huge space to save the energy, improve the ships’ efficiency and reduce the GHG emissions for the sea going ships such as container carriers are. The aspects presented in the paper are based on the contemporary container vessels with the state of the art technology implemented to their design and operational stage. The estimation of the electric power and number of diesel generators with use of the statistical tools is the main aim of the paper. The container vessels fitted only with the diesel generators without any other type of electric generator unit are taken into account in the calculation process. The electric power equation has been determined, applying the multiple regression model with an absolute term, based on the ship’s parameters for the entire range of the container vessels’ load capacity TEU. It shown, the reefer containers RC and the main propulsion rating SMCR are the most important parameters statistically significant. It is calculated as well how the total ship’s electric power is very strictly dependent on the number of diesel generators installed on board. The reefer containers’ number and its assumed power considering the cargo type and the simultaneity coefficient are also presented in the article, as this impact the electric power demand. The different types of Power Management Systems for diesel generators load are discussed at the last stage of the paper.
7
Content available remote PLM optimization with cooperation of PMS in production stage
EN
Purpose: To present a short overview of PLM and its directions including evolution, different phases of PLM and Closed-loop PLM. To describe a new approach in order to improve the closed-loop lifecycle by using production monitoring systems at an early stage of the lifecycle. Monitoring of products in their early life stages in production processes and to use this information for the improvement of the product development and implementation process. Design/methodology/approach: Implementation of a production monitoring system plays an important role in our approach. Sensors that are part of a production monitoring system are sending valuable data from the production to the PLM database where it can be used for production development and analysis. Findings: It is demonstrated that installation of the production monitoring system improved product lifecycle at the beginning of their lifecycle. Feedback from production monitoring systems helps to make better conclusions and quicker decisions in the development phase and gives real-time input to the analysis process. Research limitations/implications: Production monitoring systems improve product lifecycle management in the early stages but do not support the product directly in the other life stages. Decisions can be made only based on this information. Practical implications: Information gathered by production monitoring systems could help to modify the production development and implementation process . Also afterwards the information can be used to identify deviations and mistakes. All this is necessary to fill the gaps in product lifecycle. Originality/value: The proposed installation of production monitoring systems improves new data income to the system that provides better decision making opportunities. Based on this real-time information, it is easier to make changes in the product development phases.
EN
The article contains a short description of the integrated on-line radiological monitoring system, which is part of the Aerosol Sampling Stations (ASS-500) and the Permanent Monitoring Stations (PMS) network in Poland. The integrated system has been designed by the Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection and was implemented in Poland in 2000. It allows prompt detection of the presence of artificial radionuclides in the ground-level atmosphere by means of continuous monitoring of the radioactivity collected on a filter.
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