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EN
High demands on the aesthetics of the final product as well as sophisticated packaging shapes make the labeling process an operation that requires more and more precision and quality of workmanship. The quality of the labeling process is influenced mainly by the technology used, i.e. machinery and equipment, the knowledge, skills, and experience of operators, organization and working methods used, and by aspects related to proper maintenance. This article is a case study on the analysis and evaluation of the technology used in the process of labeling glass packaging and its impact on quality and work safety. The article aims to answer the question: does the labeling machine used by the surveyed company, due to the current portfolio of modernity of its parts and subassemblies, guarantee the realization of the labeling process at a high quality level and work safety. The article discusses in depth the factors influencing the quality of the process of labeling glass packaging in the studied company, paying attention to the issues related to the applied technology. ABC technology method was used to assess technology level and also indirectly safety level and Ishikawa diagram, L shape matrix diagram and affinity diagram to analyze and improve quality level. The article ends with a list of specific improvement actions to be taken to achieve the ultimate goal of managing the technology of glass packaging labeling - high quality of the final product resulting from the labeling process.
PL
Niewątpliwy światowy sukces systemu certyfikacji dla termicznych kolektorów słonecznych oparty na znaku KEYMARK miał duży wpływ na decyzję o rozszerzeniu zasięgu programu na nowy typ produktów i regulację rynku pomp ciepła. Europa stawia na jednolitość systemów certyfikacji, a znak KEYMARK ze względu na jasne procedury i kryteria certyfikacji, coraz większą uznawalność i powszechność stosowania przyczynia się do zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa i zaufania konsumentów w Europie.
EN
International management standards can provide organizations with challenging opportunities only if they understand the intended aims and features of those standards and apply them creatively and integrated into their business management. For that to happen, the business leaders of the organizations play the key role. For this subject, this discursive article focuses on the ISO 9004 quality management (QM) standard, which is one of the international management standards, which can be applied to all kinds of organizations. In addition to the opportunities, this article discusses difficulties and pitfalls associated with the ISO 9004 standard, and their possible solutions in practical implementations. The authors highlight aspects of how ISO 9004 can be considered as the most challenging standard in the ISO 9000 series of the QM standards. However, many organizations, which have not acknowledged the differences and relationship of the ISO 9004 and ISO 9001 standards, often apply the ISO 9000 standards in inadequate ways and hence have not the ability to exploit the potential opportunities of the standards. Especially, ISO 9004 considers QM from the entire business point of view and aims at the quality of the whole organization. ISO 9004 standard can provide QM guidance to achieve sustained success even in complex, demanding and ever-changing contemporary business environments, including the challenges of the 4th industrial revolution. This article gives ideas and creative theoretical and practical views for the ISO 9004 implementations. The aim is to emphasize that, according to ISO 9004, the organization's identity and its differentiating competitive advantages are the bases for the quality of the organization and its sustained success. In this context, each organization has its own and always existing QM realization, which cannot be separated from business management and which can be continually improved according to the organization's business development strategies and practices. In this respect, the ISO 9004 can be seen as flexible and challenging. Based on the authors’ experience, QM targets can be achieved and developed in the most natural way through the principles and practices of the learning organization. In addition to the ISO 9000 standards, organizations also use other well-known managerial references, including performance excellence models and many various management system standards of the specific disciplines. All these may be seen as sub-domains within the ISO 9004 framework. ISO 9004 also can be used for diverse TQM and sustainability implementations. This article is based on the authors’ long experience in the practical promotion and application of the ISO 9000 standard in different kinds of organizations. The first author of the article has involved in the international drafting process of the ISO 9004 standard-editions since the 1980s. He also was a cowriter of a similar ISO 9004 article about twenty years ago. That article has been publicly available on the Internet, and its over one thousand recent readers evidence a growing interest in this standard. Moreover, after 2000, ISO 9004 standard has been revised twice and rewritten completely recently. Hence, it is well-founded to re-examine this subject again in this article.
PL
W obecnym podejściu do jakości produktów różne jej aspekty stają się istotne. Tak jest z aspektem środowiskowym, który w przypadku wielu produktów należy nawet do najistotniejszych. W niniejszym tekście przedstawia się ważniejsze uwarunkowania tego faktu. Zwraca się uwagę, iż choć jakość produktów, rozumiana praktycznie – jako stopień spełniania wymagań klienta, adresowana jest przede wszystkim do bezpośrednich klientów, ma jednak pośrednich (odległych) klientów, to jest interesariuszy spoza kręgu bezpośredniej relacji: producent produktu – klient użytkownik. Racje pośrednich klientów, to jest ogólnie mówiąc, instytucji stojących na straży racjonalnego korzystania z zasobów środowiskowych, są równie ważne i muszą być brane pod uwagę. Omawiana jest także rola sztucznej inteligencji dla relacji między jakością a innowacjami. W finalnej części tekstu przedstawia się propozycję sposobu uwzględnienia aspektu środowiskowego na etapie projektowania, czyli tam, gdzie kształtowana jest jakość produktu i gdzie decyduje się o poziomie oddziaływania tego produktu na środowisko w całym jego cyklu życia.
EN
In the current approach to product quality, its various aspects become important. This is so with the environmental aspect, which is for many products amongst the most important. Here are some of the more important ramifications of this fact. It is noted that although the quality of products, understood practically as the degree of fulfillment of customer requirements, is addressed primarily to direct customers, it has intermediate (distant) customers, i.e. stakeholders outside the circle of direct relationship: product manufacturer – customer user. These indirect customers, that is generally speaking institutions that safeguard the rational use of environmental resources, have their reasons that are equally important and must be taken into account. One part of the text is devoted to the role of the artificial intelligence for relation between quality and innovations. The final part of the text presents a proposal how to take environmental aspects into account at the design stage, i.e. where product quality is being developed and where the environmental impact of the product throughout its life cycle is determined.
PL
Celem artykułu jest próba ustalenia zestawu wskaźników oceny jakości funkcjonowania grupy zakupowej z perspektywy producenta. Zadanie jest istotne z uwagi na współczesne dążenie przedsiębiorstw do poszukiwania sposobów optymalizujących ich działalność, czego przejawem jest poszukiwanie różnych form współdziałania. Artykuł pozwoli zatem wyjaśnić, czy jakość można przyrównać do efektywności takiej kooperacji. Dla realizacji celu artykułu przeprowadzono studia literaturowe związane z jego tematem, które uzupełniono badaniami empirycznymi w wybranym przedsiębiorstwie. W ramach badań empirycznych wykorzystano analizę wskaźnikową, analizę porównawczą i wywiad swobodny.
EN
The aim of the article is an attempt to establish a set of indicators for assessing the quality of the functioning of a group purchasing organizations (GPO) from the producer’s perspective. The purpose is important due to the contemporary aspiration of enterprises to seek ways to optimize their activities, which is visible in the search for various forms of cooperation. Therefore, the article will explain whether the quality can be compared to the effectiveness of such cooperation. In order to achieve the aim of the article, literature studies related to its topic were conducted, supplemented by empirical research in a selected company. As part of the empirical research, the following methods were used: ratio analysis, comparative analysis and free-form interview.
PL
Kompleksowo rozumiana jakość we współczesnym świecie posiada znaczenie strategiczne. Stanowi szansę na sukces organizacji funkcjonujących w warunkach zmian, niepewności, ryzyka, chaosu oraz braku ciągłości działania. Należy nią skutecznie zarządzać z wykorzystaniem coraz bardziej rozwijających się narzędzi i metod w ramach technologii IT. Warunkiem rozwoju i doskonalenia jakości jest dostęp do informacji i wiedzy oraz chęć działania. W centrum problematyki jakości znajduje się troska o klienta i zaspokojenie jego potrzeb. Newralgicznym problemem ze względów ekonomicznych i społecznych jest mierzenie jakości. Dorobek światowych i polskich klasyków jakości stanowi kanwę dla badań naukowych i rozwiązań praktycznych w obszarze jakości. Jednocześnie tempo zmian, jakie narzucają rozwiązania Przemysłu 4.0, zmusza do szerszego spojrzenia na problemy związane z jakością. Rozwiązania powstające w ramach Rewolucji 4.0 wymuszają transformację do Gospodarki 4.0, w tym także obejmują konieczność transformacji do Jakości 4.0 i poszukiwania możliwości jej doskonalenia w czasach cyfryzacji i sztucznej inteligencji. Rozwiązania te posiadają wiele zalet, ale budzą także obawy i lęk. Dlatego badania nad koncepcją Jakości 4.0 stają się koniecznością.
EN
Broadly understood quality in the modern world is of strategic significance. It is an opportunity for the success of organizations operating in conditions of change, uncertainty, risk, chaos and discontinuity. Quality should be effectively managed with the use of more advanced and sophisticated tools and methods based on IT technology. For quality development and improvement people need access to information and knowledge and the will to act to improve their products and services. In the center of the quality issue is the concern about the customer and meeting their needs. A critical problem is the measurement of quality. Many seminal works of foreign and Polish provide the basis for scientific research and offer practical solutions in the area of quality. At the same time, the pace of changes imposed by Industry 4.0 solutions forces us to take a broader look at the problems related to quality. Solutions emerging within the 4.0 Revolution force transformation to the 4.0 Economy, including the necessity of transformation to Quality 4.0 and searching for possibilities of quality improvement in times of digitalization and artificial intelligence. These solutions have many advantages, but they also raise concerns and fears. Therefore the research on Quality 4.0 concept becomes a necessity.
EN
The article presents the results of research concerning the assessment of the effect of inulin on the quality of turkey meat burgers. The physical and sensory characteristics of products without additional and with addition inulin 2% and 5% were assessed after the poultry burgers had cooled down to room temperature. The addition of 2% and 5% inulin in the form of a powder to the recipe composition of poultry burgers contributed to the darkening of the products and the increased desirability of smell as well as a better structure and binding of turkey burgers. Poultry burgers containing 5% inulin were characterized by lower water holding capacity and higher cutting force, compared to burgers with 2% addition and a control product. The obtained research results indicate that both the addition of 2% and 5%can be used in the technology of turkey burger production, obtaining a tasty, good quality product.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono prezentację wyników badań dotyczących oceny wpływu dodatku inuliny na jakość burgerów drobiowych o stałym składzie surowcowym. Cechy fizyczne i sensoryczne produktów bez dodatku i z dodatkiem 2% i 5% inuliny oceniano po wychłodzeniu burgerów do temperatury pokojowej. Wykazano, że dodatek 2% i 5% inuliny w postaci proszku do składu receptur burgerów drobiowych przyczynił się do przyciemnienia produktów i zwiększenia atrakcyjności zapachowej oraz lepszej struktury i konsystencji burgerów indyczych. Burgery zawierające 5% inuliny charakteryzowały się mniejszą wodochłonnością i większą siłą cięcia w porównaniu z burgerami z dodatkiem 2% i produktem kontrolnym. Uzyskane wyniki badań wskazują, że zarówno dodatek 2%, jak i 5% można zastosować w technologii produkcji burgerów z indyka, uzyskując smaczny, dobrej jakości product.
PL
Końcowa jakość wyrobów mięsnych w dużym stopniu jest uzależniona od ich warunków przechowywania w magazynach. Wdrożenie odpowiednich systemów zapewnienia jakości jest niezbędnym warunkiem zachowania odpowiednich standardów. Dotyczą one zapewnienia wysokiej czystości mikrobiologicznej mięsa, poprzez wdrożenie odpowiednich procedur. Do nich należy zapewnienie odpowiednich standardów wykonania powierzchni magazynowych, takich jak: podłogi, sufity, ściany i drzwi. Na etapie projektowania magazynów dla przemysłu mięsnego należy zapewnić odpowiednią wielkość drzwi, nienasiąkliwość materiałów wykończeniowych, łatwość mycia i dezynfekcji.
EN
The final quality of meat products largely depends on their storage conditions in warehouses. The implementation of appropriate quality assurance systems is a necessary condition for maintaining appropriate standards. They relate to ensuring high microbiological purity of meat by implementing appropriate procedures. They are responsible for ensuring the appropriate standards for the execution of warehouse spaces such as floors, ceilings, walls, doors. At the stage of designing warehouses for the meat industry, the appropriate size of the door, impermeability of finishing materials, and ease of cleaning and disinfection should be ensured.
PL
Artykuł dotyczy testowania usługi WebRTC (Web Real Time Communication) w środowisku MiniNet. Przedstawiony został problem wpływu opóźnienia, przepustowości oraz poziomu strat pakietów na jakość komunikacji z wykorzystaniem usługi WebRTC. Przedstawione zostały aplikacje pozwalające na zmianę warunków panujących w sieci oraz aplikacja analizująca audio i wideo pod kątem jakości. Przybliżone zostały trzy scenariusze badań oraz wpływ zmieniających się parametrów w każdym z przypadków na jakość komunikacji.
EN
This article focused on testing the WebRTC (Web Real Time Communication) service in a MiniNet environment. The problem of how latency, bandwidth, and packet loss levels affect the quality of communication using the WebRTC service was shown. Applications that allow changing network conditions and an application that analyses audio and video for quality were presented. Three test scenarios and the impact of changing parameters in each case on the quality of communication are presented.
EN
With the rapid development of urban area of Xi’an in recent years, the contradiction between ecological environmental protection and urban development has become prominent. The traditional remote sensing classification method has been unable to meet the accuracy requirements of urban vegetation monitoring. Therefore, how to quickly and accurately conduct dynamic monitoring of urban vegetation based on the spectral component characteristics of vegetation is urgent. This study used the data of Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI in 2011, 2014 and 2017 as main information source and LSMM, region of variation grid analysis and other methods to analyse the law of spatial-temporal change of vegetation components in Xi’an urban area and its influencing factors. The result shows that: (1) The average vegetation coverage of the study area from 2011 to 2017 reached more than 50 %, meeting the standard of National Garden City (great than 40 %). The overall vegetation coverage grade was high, but it had a decreasing trend during this period. (2) The vegetation in urban area of Xi’an experienced a significant change. From 2011 to 2017, only 30 % of the low-covered vegetation, 24.39 % of the medium-covered vegetation and 20.15 % of the high-covered vegetation remained unchanged, while the vegetation in the northwest, northeast, southwest and southeast of the edge of the city’s third ring changed significantly. (3) The vegetation quality in urban area of Xi’an has decreased from 2011 to 2014 with 6.9 % of vegetation coverage reduced; while from 2014 to 2017, the overall vegetation quality of this area has improved with 2.1 % of the vegetation coverage increased, which was mainly attributed to urban construction and Urban Green Projects. This study not only can obtain the dynamic change information of urban vegetation quickly, but also can provide suggestions and data support for urban planning of ecological environmental protection.
11
Content available The quality of smart mobility: a systematic review
EN
Smart cities and smart mobility are often analysed by systematic, sustainability-related, informatical, etc., issues. However, the quality elements of smart mobility services have not yet been reviewed. In this paper, we reviewed smart cities and smart mobility as well as the quality elements of smart mobility services. Based on the reviewed literature, we illustrated the requirements against smart mobility and uncovered the need for optimisation. We also interpret a monitoring method based on SERVQUAL. This method can be a base of establishing key performance indicators as well as benchmarking between cities.
12
EN
In this article, Control charts are employed to analyse the strength quality control of ready-mixed concrete for rigid pavement. The results of the study support that CUSUM statistical analysis is more sensitive than the Shewhart control chart. The CUSUM chart can detect the continual changes in the concrete quality in a more accurate way. By combining the CUSUM control chart and the Shewhart control chart, higher accuracy of quality control analysis could be achieved, in order words, for quality control performance when in built/pouring the ready-mix concrete as rigid pavement.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the presented investigations was to explore the possibilities of the effective use of the 8D method to improve the merchandise distribution processes. Design/methodology/approach: The application of the 8D method involved the use of support tools, such as 5Why or ABC. These tools helped to identify and categorize problems involved in the distribution of goods. Next, major problems and their causes were identified. The 8D method enabled establishing improvement, corrective and remedial actions. The last stage of the analysis was verifying the effectiveness of the implemented actions, which proved that the application of the 8D method to improve distribution processes was justified. Findings: The 8D method turned out to be an effective tool for solving problems identified in the distribution process, which proves its effective transfer from the automotive industry. Research limitations/implications: The correct use of the 8D method, which guarantees obtaining reliable and useful results, is only possible if an interdisciplinary research team is appointed. Such a team should consist of a leader and specialists from organizational units responsible for the process correctness. Small and medium-size companies may have insufficient resources to conduct investigations and analyses in a proper way. Practical implications: The discussed case study proves that it is possible to use advanced management methods in the company. Creating an efficient and experienced team should result in developing an effective mechanism for identifying the causes and solving problems in the company’s logistic processes. Originality/value: An original solution is implementation of the 8D method from the automotive industry to improve logistic processes.
EN
Purpose: The effectiveness of the NDT tests is to identify the incompatibility of the products without their destruction, but NDT tests do not point out the root of incompatibility. The aim of the study was to identify the incompatibility in the product (the mechanical sealer) using the fluorescent method (FPI) and to identify the root of this incompatibility using quality management techniques (5W2H method, Ishikawa diagram, 5Why method). Design/methodology/approach: To identify the root of incompatibility in the product the quality management techniques were used, i. e. 5W2H method, Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The subject (the mechanical sealer) on which being incompatibility (porosity cluster) was identified, was made from 410 steel. The problem in which the porosity cluster was identified after the fluorescent method (FPI). Findings: It has been shown that integrating NDT with the selected quality management techniques is an effective way to identify the problem and the root of its creation. Practical implications: This approach can be used in enterprises to analyze different types of products and incompatibilities. Originality/value: It was proposed to integrate the NDT tests with the selected quality management techniques. This integration allows identify the root of the problem and achieving the needed quality of the product.
EN
Purpose: Contemporary management seeks ways to foster competitiveness and to enhance organizational development. This can often be achieved by carrying out activities that identify and monitor stakeholder expectations and requirements. This article aims to show the importance of stakeholders in the improvement of quality in an organization. Design/methodology/approach: The multi-faced and multi-dimensional nature of the issue (the role of a stakeholder in the quality improvement) and the identification of the covered research areas was accomplished by means of a two surveys conducted in years 2011-2014 in the Central Pomeranian region. The first survey was done in January-April 2011 and the second in November 2013-April 2014. Therein, 600 organizations were interviewed in the first and 1107 in the second survey. Findings: The study shows that stakeholders consciously influence quality in an organization, which directly affects the need to improve quality (e.g. by the implementation of management systems), enhancing trust, the satisfaction of the entities and the competitiveness of the organizations. The use of management systems by organizations (e.g. ISO 9001), allows companies to adapt to the identified market needs. Originality/value: The results confirmed a correlation between the stakeholder and quality, as the relationship between the quality and the internal/external stakeholder determine improvement of an organization (perceived as a process). This results in, inter alia, the need to continuously monitor and improve the processes, as well as to assess the level of parameterization through the implementation of the management system (e.g. ISO 9001). The stakeholders are important determinant of quality.
16
EN
Purpose: The primary purpose of the paper is to present the authors' own model of a temperature controlled warehouse management model. The detailed objectives of the paper is to review literature and normative acts on the subject matter and to develope a warehouse scheme as a system which provides the basis for modelling. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative methods of input data collection were used to build a temperature controlled warehouse management model. The data included was based on observation of the environment, auditors' experience in quality management systems, desk research, as well as an analysis of literature on the subject matter and a conceptual framework. Findings: The model of warehouse management with temperature control takes into account static and dynamic factors resulting from the specificity of the storage process. Originality/value: The designed temperature controlled warehouse safety management model, which applies to a warehouse where food products are stored, takes organisational, legal and technical aspects into account. The model takes into account the hazards which can affect both kinds of the presented aspects (organisational, legal and technical), which is an essential part of the model.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the research was to identify problems and develop a way to improve the communication process between partners in the logistics process. Design/methodology/approach: By analysing complaints and interviewing employees, the most important problems in the process were identified. Thanks to the 5 Whys analysis, the root causes of the problems were then identified. Understanding the sources of problems was used to design and implement an IT system supporting communication between suppliers and the manufacturer. Findings: The use of a quality management tool has identified the causes of the problems observed. Three basic sources have been distinguished: lack of dedicated platform to contact the carrier, lack of a knowledge base about the means of transport available at carriers and lack of integration of documentation with a given carrier in the IT system. By knowing the sources of the problems, it was possible to design an efficient and effective IT system. Research limitations/implications: Improvement of the process was possible thanks to the involvement of top management and awareness of the necessity of changes by interested parties. Practical implications: As a result of the analyses, a coherent design of the IT system was developed, whose implementation ensured that problems in the process were reduced, including sending errors and invoicing errors, as well as a shortening of the average processing time for a single order. Originality/value: The implication of quality management tools to improve the logistics process.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper was to measure the quality of customer service from the perspective of the personnel of the chosen service company using the Servqual method. The scope of the paper concerns the quality of customer service from the perspective of a group of employees hired by the company where the satisfaction research was conducted in part I of the paper. Design/methodology/approach: The Servqual method was used in the research and its renewed use was governed by the possibility of comparison of the research results while using the same tool. This allows, in the opinion of the authors, for a higher level of significance of references in comparative analysis. The unweighted (SQn) and weighted (SQw) servqual indicators were calculated for each of the examined dimensions. They were also interpreted. Findings: The basis of providing the service that is satisfying to the customer is to recognise the customer expectations and to skilfully transform them into aims and tasks of the service organisation. The effectiveness of realisation of these tasks will depend largely on the competence and motivation of all employees of the service organisation. It is impossible to talk about service quality without analysing the relationships between the service quality and the customer satisfaction. Research limitations/implications: Extending the research of the customer service quality beyond the perspective of a client by examining the personnel perspective does not exhaust the subject of the research. In the future, a deeper comparative analysis should be made along with monitoring of the changes. Practical implications: Presented approach finds practical application in the process of identification of the weaknesses of customer service quality and indicates factors of changes which can be used for improving the quality also in small enterprises. Originality/value The paper confirms the need to use the Servqual method in evaluation of both perspectives, where each of these two assessments may shape the quality of the service understood as general impression of the client which results from comparison of both positive and negative impressions that concern the service company and the service provided.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the paper is to present the usefulness of the Servqual method in improving the customer service quality in terms of identification of the deficiencies in the process of providing the service. Design/methodology/approach: The Servqual method has been used in the research and it helped evaluating the level of customer expectations.The evaluation was based on separate criteria which allowed to examine how the perception of the service by customers is shaped. The unweighted(SQn) and weighted (SQw) servqual indicator was calculated for each of the examined dimensions. They were also interpreted. Findings: The main result of the work was the diagnosis and the evaluation of the customer service quality in the chosen service company. Moreover, received results confirmed the high usefulness of the Servqual method for the management of the quality in terms of requirements of the customers. Research limitations/implications: During the research and inference, it was noticed that the client's perspective, although prominent, should be extended by the perspective of the researched subject's personnel. Practical implications: The presented approach finds practical application in the process of identification of the weaknesses of customer service and indicates factors of changes which can be used for improving the quality also in small enterprises. The method, on the one hand, is simple to use and its results offer clear indications for the people managing the company. The dissemination of its usage could significantly improve the situation, especially of the SME, which often cannot detect the expectations of the customers and cannot formulate the customer service strategy effectively. Originality/value The paper confirms effectiveness of the Servqual method in evaluation of the customer service quality in small companies and allows to identify deficiencies in the service provision process.
EN
Purpose: In order to maintain the highest possible quality of services, more and more often the enterprises make use of proven optimization methods that allow them to maintain competitiveness on the market. One of these methods is spatial placement of workstations that influences the functioning of enterprises. There are many techniques of placing workstations, depending on the business activity run by the company. Design/methodology/approach: This article presents the use of Bloch-Schmigalla triangular method to improve the placement of office workstations in a commercial industry enterprise. The method used allowed to improve the functioning of the company by shortening the time for forwarding of all documents and information. Findings: The use of Bloch-Schmigalla triangular method allowed for quick placement of workstations, new placement of workstations. As a result, the workstations will not be as loaded and specific tasks will be performed faster. The time saved can be used to complete other tasks. Thanks to Bloch-Schmigalla triangular method, the distances between the workstations are equal. Before, the distances between several of the workstations were greater than in the case of other ones. Research limitations/implications: The major limitation of the paper is that it is based on one case of an. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct studies in more organizations so as to find out if the same result can be achieved. Originality/ value: The article concerned the use of the Bloch-Schmigalli method to improve the positioning of office spaces in a commercial industry company. Until now, this method has not been used to improve the quality of work in office positions.
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