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EN
To meet the higher demands of the lightweight industry, composite materials are used for weight-bearing structures. Due to their superior properties, CFRP (Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic) – aluminium stacks are especially attractive for many applications in the aerospace industry. Using rivets to connect these materials requires precise boreholes in large numbers, which are usually drilled. Because of the anisotropic material properties, high demands on the tool performance and process stability are set. Damages such as delamination, fibre pull-outs and inadequate surface properties are frequently observed at the drilled boreholes. To improve the monitoring status and failure detection, acoustic emission during drilling was analysed using the discrete wavelet transform method. By converting time signals into multiple independent time-frequency signals, temporary events during the monitoring of the cutting processes can be found. The studies show that certain combinations of wavelet families are particularly useful for describing correlations between acoustic emission and the delamination of the CFRP surface.
2
Content available remote Wiercenia kierunkowe w Polsce. Cz. 2
PL
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przybliżenie Czytelnikowi zagadnień związanych z wierceniami kierunkowymi. W pierwszej części omówione zostały podstawowe pojęcia stosowane, gdy mówimy o wierceniach kierunkowych, przykładowe zastosowania takich otworów, a także historia rozwoju narzędzi stosowanych w wierceniach kierunkowych. W części drugiej przybliżona zostanie historia wierceń kierunkowych w Polsce, od ich początku do dnia dzisiejszego, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ciekawych i nietypowych projektów.
EN
The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with issues related to directional drilling. The first part has discussed the basic concepts used when talking about directional drilling, examples of the use of such holes, and the history of the development of tools used in directional drilling. The second part is introducing the history of directional drilling in Poland, from their beginning to the present day, with particular emphasis on interesting and unusual projects.
3
Content available remote Wiercenia kierunkowe w Polsce. Cz. 1
PL
Celem niniejszego artykułu jest przybliżenie Czytelnikowi zagadnień związanych z wierceniami kierunkowymi. W pierwszej części omówione zostaną podstawowe pojęcia stosowane, gdy mówimy o wierceniach kierunkowych, przykładowe zastosowania takich otworów, a także historia rozwoju narzędzi stosowanych w wierceniach kierunkowych. W części drugiej przybliżona zostanie historia wierceń kierunkowych w Polsce, od ich początku do dnia dzisiejszego, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem ciekawych i nietypowych projektów.
EN
The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with issues related to directional drilling. The first part will discuss the basic concepts used when talking about directional drilling, examples of the use of such holes, and the history of the development of tools used in directional drilling. The second part will introduce the history of directional drilling in Poland, from their beginning to the present day, with particular emphasis on interesting and unusual projects.
4
Content available remote Opracowanie własnej receptury płuczki olejowej przez Exalo Drilling S.A.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano wyniki badań Laboratorium Płynów i Cementów oraz Działu Badań i Rozwoju Exalo Drilling S.A., które doprowadziły do opracowania własnej receptury płuczki olejowej (syntetycznej). Obszarem, na którym przede wszystkim stosowane są płuczki olejowe w Polsce jest Flisz Karpacki. Podstawą do opracowania własnej receptury były wymagania przedstawione przez Inwestora na jednym z otworów wierconych w tym rejonie. W badaniach nad recepturą płuczki olejowej uwzględniono budowę geologiczną oraz właściwości skał z obszaru, na którym miał być planowany otwór. Doświadczenie i wiedza pracowników Laboratorium Płynów i Cementów oraz Działu Badań i Rozwoju pozwoliły na zdefiniowanie autorskiej płuczki, która z powodzeniem została użyta w trakcie wiercenia planowanego otworu.
EN
In this paper are presented Exalo Drilling S.A. Mud and Cementing Laboratory and R&D Department researches which led to the formulation of personalized oil base (synthetic) mud. The region in Poland where oil base mud is usually used is the Carpathians flysch. The basis for developing the recipe were requirements of the Investor for performing one of several wells in this region. Researches on the recipe of OBM also considered geological structure and rock’s propeties in the region in which the well was planned. The background and knowledge of Exalo Drilling S.A. Mud and Cementing Laboratory and R&D Department has allowed for defining own Oil Base Mud, which has been used while Drilling the well.
PL
Exalo Drilling S.A. jest jednym z wiodących przedsiębiorstw z branży wierceń lądowych w Europie środkowo-wschodniej. Poza podstawową działalnością spółki jaką jest dostarczanie usług wiertniczych i serwisowych, w strukturach Exalo działa akredytowane laboratorium badawcze, tj. Laboratorium Płynów i Cementów, wykonujące zaawansowane pomiary i badania w zakresie technologii płynów wiertniczych i zaczynów cementowych.
EN
The paper presents the analysis of navigation processes used in wells and around-drilling processes. Most common navigation systems used in drilling processes are described. The authors have presented a concept of applying navigation to operations supporting drilling processes, including operations ensuring the safety of drilling staff. Also, they have discussed around-drilling processes which have not been supported by navigation systems. Finally, they have presented ideas of their possible applications as well as benefits resulting from using navigation systems.
PL
Zajęcia online w szkołach, teleporady lekarskie, wideokonferencje w pracy... To dziś nasza nowa rzeczywistość, wymuszona obecną sytuacją, choć jeszcze do niedawna nie do pomyślenia. Także w górnictwie można wprowadzić wiele inteligentnych rozwiązań, pozwalających na automatyzację i cyfryzację pracy, czyniąc ją mniej podatną na wszelkiego rodzaju słabości i błędy ludzkie. Takim rozwiązaniem jest system kompleksowej metodologii nowoczesnego prowadzenia robót strzałowych.
9
Content available remote Wiertło do materiałów kompozytowych redukujące zadziory i delaminację
PL
Podczas wiercenia materiałów kompozytowych, takich jak tworzywa sztuczne wzmacniane włóknem węglowym (CFRP), dochodzi do delaminacji oraz powstawania zadziorów na wejściu wiertła w otwór i jego wyjściu z otworu. W artykule zaproponowano projekt wiertła, które mogłoby ograniczyć te niekorzystne zjawiska.
EN
From ancient days to till today manufacturing industries, especially making of holes on the parts during drilling process for precision assembling of parts facing problems with burr formation. Drilling operation is one of the finishing operation in the production cycle, removing of burrs during drilling process is a time consuming and non-value added process to the manufacturing sector. So reducing the size of burrs is the main aim of the present study. In the present work, optimization of burr size is considered during drilling of aluminium 7075 alloy. In this connection, experiments are conducted based on Grey based Taguchi. From Grey relational grades of responses selected optimal combination of parameters to attain multiple performance characteristics of responses with a corresponding higher grey relational grade. For identifying the most significant input parameters that influence the output responses ANOVA is conducted. Based on interaction effect plots of data means of responses from results of ANOVA, confirmation tests are conducted by choosing most significant parameters. Finally, observations reveals that feed rate, point and clearance angles are the most influential factors on burr size and also experimental results divulge that the lower the thrust force causes to decrease the burr height. The proposed approach is helpful to the budding entrepreneurs in the related areas to select optimal combination of drilling parameters to attain multiple performance characteristics of responses especially in burr size to prevent the post finishing operations up to certain extent.
EN
The application of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) as lightweight construction material in aerospace industry is based on the favorable weight-to-strength ratio. But the inherent material properties pose great challenges for the tool- as well as the manufacturing industry. In terms of economic industrial production processes, the quality of machined workpieces exhibits poor reproducibility combined with high tool wear. For this purpose, high-performance drilling tools with different CVD diamond coatings and carbide substrates with varying binder content were tested and analyzed in order to assess coating adhesion and workpiece quality. Due to a reduction of cobalt binder within the tungsten carbide-based tool substrates, an increase of tool performance regarding borehole quantity until coating delamination is demonstrated. While the reduction of tool wear on the rake face of the drilling tools can be correlated with the cutting tool performance, the online monitoring of cutting forces does not explicitly identify damaged cutting tools during machining.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono przepisy i inne opracowania dotyczące odległości bezpiecznych od obiektów zakładów górniczych wydobywających węglowodory otworami wiertniczymi w odniesieniu do innych obiektów niezwiązanych z ruchem zakładów górniczych. Prześledzono także zmiany tych przepisów na przestrzeni lat oraz wątpliwości i wnioski, jakie nasuwają się w zakresie ich stosowania.
EN
This article presents regulations and standards determining rules on the location of mining plants extracting hydrocarbon through drilling in relation to the structures not related to the mining plants as well as the changes to those regulations over the years, and also concerns related to using them. It should be noted that the regulations on concerning "safe distances" from structures and facilities of oil and natural gas extraction, such as wells, refineries, equipment and installations for dehydration and desulphurisation of natural gas as well as crude oil and natural gas pressing permit certain structures to be built in the vicinity of the above-mentioned structures which, especially in the case of wells, may affect their safe operation. In relation to the controlled areas of gas pipelines, the current regulations were quoted and the rules concerning pipelines built before 12 December 2001 were explained, pointing to the need to clarify them. In relation to other pipelines of mining plant (not regulated by legislation), regulations and standards used for determining safety zones (strips) were quoted.
EN
Stemming plugs are one of the widely used accessory in surface mining operations. Stemming plugs assist conventional stemming material in gas retention and help in better fragmentation and explosive utilization. Effective use of the stemming plugs results in economic benefits and enhance the efficacy of the project. Economic and productive viability of stemming plugs have been conducted in depth by different researchers. Addition of stemming plugs to a new system requires ergonomic challenges for operators conducting drilling and blasting operation. Induction of a newer product in already established system is subject to overall positive feedback. This work investigates ergonomics of three different stemming plugs introduced to a limestone quarry in Pakistan. The stemming plugs were evaluated based on extra time needed, workers feedback, failures during operation, recovery time after failure and number of extra equipment required to carry out the operation. Points based matrix was established with likeliness of each plug and based on overall scores stemming plug 1 was most acceptable followed by stemming plug 3. Stemming plug 2 was disliked by operation and did not reach the level of acceptability of operators. This work will help stemming plug making industry in adapting to best practices by incorporating ergonomics of plugs in designing. Literature shows no previous work on ergonomics of stemming plugs.
EN
Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies are increasingly applied in various industries since they provide the possibility to manufacture the components with high geometrical complexity easier and faster than traditional processes. However, the subsequent semi-finish/finish machining operations such as drilling, turning and/or milling are still necessary for AM parts to obtain the required surface textures and meet the practical requirements. As such, the AM parts usually indicate different machinability compared with conventionally produced ones in view of the different material microstructures. A comprehensive understanding of this machining effort is of great importance for similar engineering applications but not widely reported. Thus, an attempt was made in this work to address the effect of the material microstructure on the machining stability and tool wear behavior in dry drilling of the hard titanium alloys. The experimental results highlight a correlation between the tool wear behavior and material microstructures. A great number of micro-pits appeared on the tool flank face and the abrasive marks, coating delamination, as well as catastrophic failure of the cutting edge were found to be more obvious during machining the DMLS alloy. In contrast, adhesion wear followed by micro chipping and build-up edge were distinguished when machining the wrought Ti6Al4V. Meanwhile, heat treatment can improve the flow plasticity and reduce the brittleness of the AM material since catastrophic failure disappeared and chip adhesion becomes more predominant when machining the HTDMLS Ti6Al4V.
PL
Wiercenie materiałów ciągliwych, do których zalicza się Ti6Al4V, często wiąże się z niewystarczającym odprowadzeniem wiórów, co prowadzi do wystąpienia zakłóceń procesu obróbki. Wióry powstające w trakcie procesu wiercenia materiałów plastycznych są ciągliwe i mają skłonność do gromadzenia się w rowkach wiórowych narzędzia. Takie gromadzenie się wiórów może skutkować zarysowaniami powierzchni otworu, przyklejeniami materiału do narzędzia skrawającego, a także do przyśpieszonego zużycia ostrza skrawającego. W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań uzyskane w procesie wiercenia stopu tytanu Ti6Al4V w aspekcie dokładności wymiarowo-kształtowej uzyskanych otworów. Obróbkę prowadzono bez chłodziwa (na sucho) przy różnych zestawach parametrów skrawania. W ramach badań monitorowano siłę posuwową i moment skrawania, dokładność kształtowo-wymiarową, jakość powierzchni otworu oraz kształt wiórów. Wyniki badań pokazują, że zarówno jakość otworu, jak i jego dokładność wymiarowo-kształtową można poprawić przez odpowiedni dobór parametrów skrawania. Ponadto, obserwacja powierzchni na wyjściu narzędzia z materiału wskazywała na występowanie odkształceń plastycznych (zadziory) związanych z parametrami skrawania. Wyniki eksperymentu wykazały także, że na kształt i wielkość zadziorów istotny wpływ ma prędkość posuwu.
EN
The drilling of ductile materials, such as Ti6Al4V, is often associated with insufficient chip evacuation, resulting in disturbances in the machining process. Chips formed during the drilling process of plastic materials are ductile and tend to accumulate in the chip flutes of the tool. Such chip formation may result in scratches on the hole surface, sticking the material to the cutting tool, and also on accelerated wear of the cutting edge. This article presents the analysis of the drilling process and assessment of the quality of the hole after drilling Ti6Al4V titanium alloy without coolant at various processing parameters. As part of the research, the feed force and cutting moment were monitored, the shape and dimensional accuracy and the quality of the hole surface and the shape of the chips. The test results show that the hole quality can be improved by appropriate selection of cutting parameters. Observation of the surface at the exit of the tool from the material indicated plastic deformation (burrs) in different cutting conditions. The results of the experiment also showed that the shape and size of burrs is strongly influenced by the feed speed.
19
Content available remote Zastosowanie jednostki CT przy realizacji prac w otworach horyzontalnych
EN
The development of Coiled Tubing as we know it today dates back to the early 1960's, and it has become an integral component of many well service and workover applications. While the initial development of coiled tubing was spurred by the desire to work on live wellbores, speed and economy have emerged as key advantages for application of CT. In addition, the relatively small footprint and short rig-up time make CT even more attractive for drilling and workover applications. In addition, modern CT strings provide sufficient rigidity and strength to be pushed/pulled through highly deviated or horizontal wellbores. In April 2019, Exalo Drilling S.A. performed a job for PGNiG S.A. with cleanup of un-tubular section in one of the horizontal wells using a Coiled Tubing Unit equipped with a 1 ¾” CT pipe. That was a well with a final depth of 4800m MD (3583m TVD) and a horizontal section length of over 1000m, which is entirely located in the un-pipe section under the shoe of 7” pipes. Design works shown that the use of CT with 1 ¾” diameter in this case may prevent the achievement of the final depth. Due to such technical limitations, work began on the selection of appropriate technologies that would allow for the smooth implementation of this project. The first element to reduce the friction coefficient was the use of Friction Reducers for the fluid used during operation. This allowed both to reduce the frictional resistance at the contact between the CT and the walls of the extraction pipes in the well and significantly reduced the hydraulic resistance during the operation. An additional aspect to increase the possibilities of RIH to the bottom of the well in such a long horizontal section was the use of specialized downhole tools. In this case, the NOV Agitator™ was used, which significantly improved the possibilities when working in the horizontal section. This tool, causing the delicate vibrations of a set of downhole tools, reduces friction and significantly improves weight transfer and improves control over the front tool (milling cutter), reducing friction vibrations. This increased the possibilities associated with the reach, and prevented the coil from "getting stuck" in the hole. Properly selected technology for carrying out this job allowed for its smooth implementation using a CT string with 1 ¾” diameter.
PL
W niniejszym artykule przedstawiono w sposób ogólny technologię Managed Pressure Drilling, w skrócie MPD. Technologia MPD znana jest w praktyce od ponad 20 lat, a oficjalnie została zaakceptowana i formalnie wdrożona dla wierceń na morzu w roku 2003. Technologia MPD wywodzi się z technologii Underbalanced Drilling w skrócie (UBD) i próby jej zastosowania miały miejsce na terenie Polski - o czym jest mowa w artykule. Autorzy artykułu zwracają uwagę na warunki stosowania technologii MPD jak również na korzyści z jej stosowania. W artykule jest również mowa o określonych ryzykach czy trudnościach przy zastosowaniu technologii MPD. Jedną z istotnych kwestii poruszanych w artykule jest sprawa zastosowania technologii MPD w Polsce dla realizacji trudnych projektów wiercenia m.in. otworów w Karpatach czy też otworów na Niżu Polskim szczególnie w utworach czerwonego spągowca tzw. „TIGHT FORMATION” i otworów Extended Reach Drilling. Dokonanie rozeznania w zakresie zastosowania technologii MPD dla wierceń w trudnych warunkach geologiczno-złożowych w Polsce zdaniem autorów artykułu może stanowić sposób na rozwiązanie szeregu problemów w optymalnym projektowaniu i skutecznym, dowiercaniu szczególnie trudnych technicznie otworów. Autorzy artykułu rekomendują rozważenie zastosowania i wdrożenia systemu MPD na urządzeniu typu BENTEC -450 AC dla realizacji głębokiego lub ERD wiercenia w Karpatach lub na Niżu Polskim.
EN
This article outlines Managed Pressure Drilling technology in a general way, MPD for short. MPD technology has been known in practice for over 20 years and has been officially accepted and formally implemented for offshore drilling in 2003. MPD technology is derived from Underbalanced Drilling technology in short UBD and attempts to apply it took place in Poland, which is mentioned in the article. The authors of the article pay attention to the conditions of using MPD technology as well as the benefits of using this technology, however, the article also mentions specific risks or difficulties when using MPD technology. One of the important issues raised in the article is the application of MPD technology in Poland for the implementation of difficult drilling projects, including boreholes in the Carpathian Basin or boreholes in the Paleozoic Basins especially in Rotliegend "TIGHT FORMATION" and Extended Reach Drilling boreholes. According to the authors of the article, making an insight into the application of MPD technology for drilling in difficult geological and reservoir conditions in Poland may be a way to solve a number of problems in optimal design and effective drilling of particularly technically difficult boreholes. The authors of the article recommend considering the application and implementation of the MPD system on the BENTEC -450 AC rig for deep or ERD drilling in the Carpathian Basin or the Paleozoic Basins.
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