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1
Content available remote Crack propagation analysis in selected railway bogie components
EN
This paper presents the practical application of fracture mechanics in investigating the possibility of crack propagation in a brake calliper bracket mounted in a vehicle bogie. The extended finite element method available in the Abaqus software was used. This method allows the modelling of material damage and its propagation independently of the finite element mesh. Damage can arise in any area of finite elements without changing the mesh. Numerical simulation of crack propagation was performed in order to analyse how crack changes as a result of the location change of damage initiation.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono praktyczne zastosowanie mechaniki pękania w badaniu możliwości propagacji pęknięć w wsporniku zacisku hamulca zamontowanym w wózku pojazdu. Zastosowano rozszerzoną metodę elementów skończonych dostępną w oprogramowaniu Abaqus. Ta metoda umożliwia modelowanie uszkodzeń materiału i jego rozprzestrzenianie się niezależnie od siatki elementów skończonych. Uszkodzenie może powstać w dowolnym obszarze elementów skończonych bez zmiany siatki. Przeprowadzono numeryczną symulację propagacji pęknięć w celu analizy zmian propagacji w wyniku zmiany lokalizacji inicjacji uszkodzeń.
2
Content available Homogenization of plates with parallel cracks
EN
The paper presents an analysis of effective elastic properties of plates with parallel cracks using the finite element method (FEM) and the boundary element method (BEM). Rectangular plates with parallel or inclined cracks to the edges of plates were considered. Different distances between cracks and different angles of cracks were studied. The displacement and traction boundary conditions were applied and their influence on the accuracy of overall properties of cracked material was analysed. The results obtained by the FEM and the BEM were compared.
EN
The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the stress field and selected triaxiality parameters near the crack tip for C(T) specimen dominated by the plane strain state using the finite element method. It includes some theoretical information about elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, the basics of the FEM modeling and presentation of the numerical results. The FEM analysis includes calculations with large strain assumptions. The influence of the external load and crack length is discussed. Additional elements of the paper are a qualitative assessment of the size of plastic zones and the crack tip opening displacement.
EN
This article presents the results of the computer simulations of a four-point bending test of a concrete single-edge notched beam. In this publication, the authors compared the X-FEM method of simulating the crack in the Abaqus FEA system. The paper also contains the results obtained with the Abaqus subroutine recently developed by the authors, used for defining the direction of the crack and the failure criterion. The publication explains the way of working of this algorithm. The described calculations show that computer analysis gives unrealistic results in terms of the destructive force. SEN-beam is an interesting laboratory test in which a lot of factors influence the results. It is especially important to study what phenomena occur in the final phase of the study, when the crack tip is near the opposite side.
PL
Artykuł ten przedstawia wyniki symulacji komputerowych testu czteropunktowego zginania betonowej belki z nacięciem (belka SEN). W tej pracy autorzy porównali metodę symulowania propagacji szczeliny X-FEM w systemie Abaqus FEA. Ponadto zawiera ona wyniki uzyskane z nowej autorskiej subrutyny programu Abaqus, odpowiedzialnej za definiowanie kierunku propagacji szczeliny i kryterium zniszczenia. Praca opisuje również zasadę działania tego algorytmu. Opisywane obliczenia pokazują, że komputerowa analiza daje wyniki siły niszczącej dalekie od rzeczywistości. Belka SEN jest ciekawym badaniem laboratoryjnym, w którym na wynik ma wpływ wiele czynników. Szczególnie ważne jest zbadanie zjawiska występującego w końcowej fazie symulacji, kiedy wierzchołek szczeliny jest blisko krawędzi.
EN
The paper presents the results of mechanical tests of three types of rocks from stone mines in Poland. Compression tests of cubic samples, three-point bending tests of beams, bending of beams with notch and testing of tensile strength using the quasi-Brazilian method were performed. Based on the tests, the compressive strength, tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratios were determined. The stress intensity factor and critical strain energy release rate in mode I were determined from the bending test of the notched beams. The determined values were used as parameters of computer models which are used to verify the authors’ method of predicting the crack propagation in the Abaqus FEA system.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje wyniki badań laboratoryjnych trzech typów skał z kopalni kamienia w Polsce. Wykonano badanie ściskania kostek, badanie trójpunktowego zginania belek, zginania belek z nacięciem i badanie rozciągania przy rozłupywaniu metodą kwazi-Brazylijską. Na podstawie badań uzyskano wytrzymałość na ściskanie, wytrzymałość na rozciąganie, moduł Younga i współczynnik Poissona. Współczynnik intensywności naprężenia i krytyczna energia pękania w modzie I zostały uzyskane z badań zginania belek z nacięciem. Uzyskane wyniki zostały użyte jako parametry do modeli komputerowych, które są używane do weryfikacji autorskiej metody przewidywania propagacji szczeliny w systemie Abaqus.
6
Content available remote Nominal stress-based estimation of fatigue life of welded joints
EN
The paper presents methods for determining the fatigue life of welded joints with particular emphasis given to typical joints. In addition, the article presents various possible nominal stress-based ways enabling the calculation of stresses, including structural stresses and involving the most complex linear fracture mechanics. The paper also discusses recommendations by the International Institute of Welding related to the determination of the fatigue life of welded joints in flat elements exposed to tension-compression conditions. The work is focused on assessing the fatigue life of welded joints (selected types) in accordance with the guidelines specified in related recommendations issued by the International Institute of Welding and taking into consideration the analysis concerned with the safety of such structures.
PL
Przedstawiono metody wyznaczania trwałości zmęczeniowej złączy spawanych ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem typowych złączy. Podano możliwe sposoby wyznaczania naprężeń uzyskanych na drodze obliczeniowej w złączach spawanych na podstawie naprężeń nominalnych według różnych propozycji, poprzez naprężenia strukturalne, aż po zastosowanie najbardziej skomplikowanej liniowej mechaniki pękania. Na tym tle przedstawiono zalecenia Międzynarodowego Instytutu Spawalnictwa dotyczące wyznaczania trwałości zmęczeniowej złączy spawanych w warunkach rozciągania-ściskania elementów płaskich. Skupiono uwagę na problemie oceny trwałości zmęczeniowej połączeń spawanych wybranych typów złączy zgodnie z wytycznymi zawartymi w zaleceniach Międzynarodowego Instytutu Spawalnictwa oraz analizie bezpieczeństwa takich konstrukcji.
EN
This paper contains the results simulation and linear elastic fracture mechanic (LEFM) calculation of the welded joint contains it discontinuity 1014. The model base material C-Mn non-alloy steel S235JRG2 according to EN 10025-2 and consumable GMAW wire electrode G3Si1 according to EN ISO 14341 was prepared. Due to stress singularity effect located at the tip of the crack, the Huber-Mises-Hencky (H-M-H) hypothesis cannot be used, so that the stress intensity factor (KI) and fracture toughness (KIC) was applied. The LEFM analysis showed the range where the existence of crack can be acceptable. Based on well-known LEFM issue the verification of simulation program was performed. The stress intensity factor (KI) values was obtained from FEM simulation process.
PL
Przedmiotem artykułu była prezentacja pola naprężenia złącza spawanego zawierającego niezgodność spawalniczą 1014 (pęknięcie podłużne w materiale podstawowym równoległe do osi spoiny) obliczonego za pomocą symulacji MES oraz mechaniki pękania.
8
Content available Analysis of crack propagation in a "pull-out" test
EN
The article describes a computer analysis of the pull-out test used to calculate the force needed to pull out a rock fragment and determine the shape of this broken fragment. The analyzed material is sandstone and porphyry. The analysis included the first approach to using own subroutine in the Simulia Abaqus system, that is, which task is undertaken to accurately determine the crack path of the Finite Element Method model. The work also contains a description of laboratory tests and analytical considerations.
9
Content available remote Numerical study of cracking a medium elastic iscoplastique of polyacetal
EN
The objective of this work is the analysis of the fracture behavior of a SENB cylinder with a defect where stress triaxiality is more severe. Numerical simulations are carried out in a 2D mode, to overcome a disadvantageous hypothesis plane strain or plane stress. The mesh sensitivity studies were also undertaken but are not presented here. Indeed, only the results for the most relevant mesh are the subject of the discussion.
EN
Analysis of cracked cruciform specimens under biaxial loading conditions is very important and closer to reality in the study of behavior of marine, naval, aeronautical and railway structures. The aim of this work is to examine the evolution of fracture parameters in a combined mixed mode of an aluminum alloy A6082-T6 cruciform specimen as a function of the biaxial loading with different ratios. To this end, the effects of main parameters, such as load ratio, crack length, crack orientation and non-proportional loading coefficient have been analyzed and discussed in order to highlight fracture toughness of the studied material. The results show that the finite element method is a useful tool for calculation of crack characteristics in the mechanics of biaxial fracture. According to the obtained results, a non-proportional evolution of the fracture parameters, namely, the SIFs KI and KII , T-stress, and the biaxiality parameter was observed. Indeed, the latter depends considerably on the crack length, the angle of crack orientation and the applied biaxial loading. Detailed concluding remarks are presented at the end of this work.
EN
In this paper, the cellular automata model is applied to analyse cleavage and ductile fracture in front of a crack in three-point-bend specimens made of Hardox-400 steel. The research programme was composed of experiments followed by fractographic and numerical analyses. On the basis of microscopic observations, the sizes of cells used in the automata were determined. The algorithm enabled mapping of the two-dimensional crack surface as well as a simulation of temperature-dependent failure mechanisms by defining transition rules based on the modified Ritchie-Knott-Rice cleavage fracture criterion. The critical stress values were estimated and verified by the cellular automata model.
PL
Podjęto próbę przedstawienia zarysu mechaniki pękania. Omówiono zagadnienia struktury betonu, jego porowatości, strefy przejściowej, kruszywa oraz toku badawczego stosowanego w mechanice pękania.
EN
The article attempts to present the outline of fracture mechanics. Issues of the structure of concrete, its porosity, transition zone, aggregate and the research process used in fracture mechanics are discussed.
EN
The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the stress field near a crack tip for a compact specimen dominated by the plane strain state using the finite element method. The analysis also includes the calculation of some parameters of in-plane constraints, both for small and large strain assumptions. It discusses the influence of the material characteristic, relative crack length and external load for the stress field, and the in-plane constraint parameter. The approximation formulas for some in-plane constraint parameters are presented.
14
Content available remote Comparison between numerical analysis and actual results for a pull-out test
EN
The paper describes a computer analysis of the pull-out test used to determine the force needed to pull out a fragment of rock and the shape of this broken fragment. The analyzed material is sandstone and porphyry. The analysis included a comparison of different methods of propagation of cracks in the Abaqus computer program using the Finite Element Method. The work also contains a description of laboratory tests and analytical considerations.
EN
The paper presents the results of the Ti10V2Fe3Al alloy crack resistance assessment using the Rice’s J-integral technique as a function of morphology and volume fraction of α-phase precipitates. Titanium alloys characterized by the two-phase structure α + β are an interesting alternative to classic steels with high mechanical properties. Despite the high manufacturing costs and processing of titanium alloys, they are used in heavily loaded constructions in the aerospace industry due to its high strength to density ratio. The literature lacks detailed data on the influence of microstructure and, in particular, the morphology of α phase precipitates on fracture toughness in high strength titanium alloys. In the following work an attempt was made to determine the correlation between the microstructure and resistance to cracking in the Ti10V2Fe3Al alloy.
EN
Fatigue investigations of two 4XXX0-series aluminum alloys (acc. PN-EN 1706) within a range of fewer than 104 cycles at a coefficient of cycle asymmetry of R = –1 were performed in the current paper. The so-called modified low-cycle test, which provided additional information concerning the fatigue life and strength of the tested alloys, was also performed. The obtained results were presented in the form of diagrams: stress amplitude σa – number of cycles before damage N. On the basis of the microscopic images of sample fractures, the influence of the observed casting defects on the decrease of cycle numbers at a given level of stress amplitude were analyzed. Based on the images and dimensions of the observed defects, stress intensity factor KI was analytically determined for each. Their numerical models were also made, and stress intensity factor KI was calculated by the finite element method (FEM).
17
Content available remote Właściwości mechaniczne betonu zbrojonego włóknem bazaltowym
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań wpływu włókien bazaltowych na wytrzymałość na ściskanie i rozciąganie oraz parametry mechaniki pękania betonów o zróżnicowanym wskaźniku w/c, wykonanych z zastosowaniem dwóch rodzajów cementu. Stwierdzono, że wprowadzenie dodatku włókien bazaltowych w ilości 2 – 8 kg/m3 znacznie poprawia parametry mechaniki pękania, przy jednoczesnym stosunkowo niewielkim wpływie na wytrzymałość betonu.
EN
This article presents the results of the effect of basalt fibers on the compressive and flexural strength as well as on fracture mechanics parameters of concretes with different w/c ratio made using two types of cement. The incorporation of basalt fiber (2 – 8 kg/m3) significantly improves the fracture mechanics parameters, while it has a relatively small effect on the strength properties of concrete.
18
EN
The notched beams have been commonly used in concrete fracture. In this study, the splitting-strip specimens, which have some advantages – compactness and lightness – compared to beams, are analyzed for effective crack models. Using the Fourier integrals and Fourier series, a formula for the maximum tensile strength of concrete is first derived for an un-notched splitting-strip in the plane of loading. Subsequently, the linear elastic fracture mechanics formulas of the splitting-strip specimens, namely the stress intensity factor KI , the crack mouth opening displacement CMOD, and the crack opening displacement profile COD, are determined for different load-distributed widths via the weight function.
EN
This paper provides a numerical analysis of selected parameters of fracture mechanics for double-edge notched specimens in tension, DEN(T), under plane strain conditions. The analysis was performed using the elastic-plastic material model. The study involved determining the stress distribution near the crack tip for both small and large deformations. The limit load solution was verified. The J-integral, the crack tip opening displacement, and the load line displacement were determined using the numerical method to propose the new hybrid solutions for calculating these parameters. The investigations also aimed to identify the influence of the plate geometry and the material characteristics on the parameters under consideration. This paper is a continuation of the author’s previous studies and simulations in the field of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych z dodatkiem polimerowych włókien rozproszonych. Ocenie poddano mieszankę włókien zbrojących aramidowo-poliolifenowych pod kątem wpływu ich zastosowania na właściwości niskotemperaturowe i odporności na deformacje trwałe mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych. Właściwości niskotemperaturowe oceniano na podstawie testu zginania próbek belkowych oraz na podstawie oceny parametrów mechaniki pękania w teście zginania próbek półwalcowych w temperaturze -20°C. Właściwości w wysokiej temperaturze, tj. w przedziale od +4°C do +45°C oceniano na podstawie krzywych wiodących modułu sztywności podczas osiowego dynamicznego ściskania. Na podstawie otrzymanych wyników badań można stwierdzić, że zastosowane włókna zbrojące mają znaczny potencjał w poprawie właściwości niskotemperaturowych mieszanek mineralno-asfaltowych.
EN
The paper presents selected results of the research program concerning fibre reinforced asphalt concrete. Aramid-polyalphaolefin fibres was used in this study. Selected properties responsible for low temperature cracking and resistance to permanent deformation are presented in this paper. Low temperature cracking susceptibility was evaluated with the results obtained from bending test of rectangular beams with constant rate of deformation and semi-circular bending test based on fracture mechanics theory. Performance in high temperatures was assessed by master curves of dynamic modulus. Obtained results indicated that evaluated fibres can improve low temperature pavement performance.
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