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EN
The aim of the present work was to determine the influence of the microstructural evolution of copper single crystals with the initial orientations of <001> and <111> after cold drawing on their corrosion resistance. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron backscattering diffraction were used to characterize the microstructural changes. To evaluate the corrosion resistance after deformation, open circuit potential, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and potentiodynamic polarization analyses were conducted. The microstructural observations showed the presence of dislocation cell structures and shear bands indeformed sample with initial orientation <001> single crystal, as well as a strongly-developed substructure in sample <111>. The material with initial orientation of <001> was more resistive in analyzed medium than material with the initial orientation of <111>.
2
EN
The paper presents the results of the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings reinforced with the nano size SiC ceramic particles. The type and size of the ceramic particles or organic additives used play a important role during electrodeposition processes. A Watts type galvanic bath with various organic additives was used. These additives were: 2-sulfobenzoic acid imide, dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DSS), sodium dodecyl sulfate, tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane and hexamethyldisilizane. The nickel composite coating was electrodeposited on a 2xxx aluminum alloy series substrate (EN-AW 2017) with zinc interlayer. The work concerns the determination of the impact of the change in the zeta potential of SiC nanoceramic particles used on properties of composite coatings (wear resistance, corrosion, etc.). The paper characterized the composite nickel coatings on aluminum alloy using SEM techniques, wear resistance tests by TABER method and coating adhesion to the substrate using the “scratch test” method. The corrosion resistance of coatings was also tested using electrochemical methods. The research allowed to determine the effect of SiC nanoceramic particle size on the value of the zeta potential in the model KCl solution.
EN
The study attempts to investigate the influence of severe plastic deformation (SPD in the hydrostatic extrusion (HE) process on the anisotropy of the structure and mechanical properties of the AA 6060 alloy. Material in isotropic condition was subjected to a single round of hydrostatic extrusion with three different degrees of deformation (ε= 1.23, 1.57, 2.28). They allowed the grain size to be fragmented to the nanocrystalline level. Mechanical properties of the AA 6060 alloy, examined on mini-samples, showed an increase in ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and yield strength (YS) as compared to the initial material. Significant strengthening of the material results from high grain refinement in transverse section, from »220 μm in the initial material to »300 nm following the HE process. The material was characterized by the occurrence of structure anisotropy, which may determine the potential use of the material. Static tensile tests of mini-samples showed »10% anisotropy of properties between longitudinal and transverse cross-sections. In the AA6060 alloy, impact anisotropy was found depending on the direction of its testing. Higher impact toughness was observed in the cross-section parallel to the HE direction. The results obtained allow to analyze the characteristic structure created during the HE process and result in more efficient use of the AA 6060 alloy in applications.
EN
The paper presents the results of the electrodeposition of nickel composite coatings reinforced with the ceramic SiC particles. A Watts type galvanic bath modified with various organic additives was used. These additives were: 2-sulfobenzoic acid imide (LSA), dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (DSS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane (THAM) and hexamethyldisilizane (HMDS). The nickel composite coating was electrodeposited on a 2xxx aluminum alloy series substrate (EN-AW 2017) with zinc interlayer. Studies concerned the effect of the applied organic additives on properties of composite coatings such as: microstructure, microhardness, adhesion to the substrate, corrosion resistance and roughness. The structure of the coatings was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. Based on the studies of zeta potential it was found that the bath modification had a significant impact on the amount of the ceramic phase embedded in metal matrix. The tests conducted in a model 0.01 M KCl solution were not fully representative of the true behavior of particles in a Watts bath.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań właściwości mas formierskich z węglika krzemu przeznaczonych do otrzymywania elementów silników lotniczych metodą odlewania precyzyjnego. Całkowite stężenie fazy stałej w ceramicznych masach lejnych z SiC wynosiło 60% wag. Spoiwem konstrukcyjnym była nanodyspersja polimerowo-ceramiczna zawierająca koloidalny Al2O3. Jako spoiwa modyfikujące zastosowano wodne roztwory glikolu polietylenowego (PGE) o ciężarach cząsteczkowych 6000, 10000 i 20000 g/mol, które dodawano w ilościach 5%, 10% i 15% wagowych w stosunku do proszku. Proszek SiC charakteryzowano pod względem: wielkości cząstek metodą dyfrakcji laserowej i za pomocą skaningowego mikroskopu elektronowego (SEM) oraz składu fazowego i chemicznego za pomocą dyfraktometrów rentgenowskich XRD i XRF. Masy formierskie charakteryzowano pod względem: lepkości dynamicznej, czasu wypływu oraz adhezji do płyty (tzw. test płyty) i grubości warstwy. Pomiary te przeprowadzano przez 96 h w warunkach laboratoryjnych w temperaturze 21ºC. Otrzymane wyniki pokazały, że masy lejne z SiC zawierające nanodyspersję oraz PGE charakteryzują się obiecującymi właściwościami i mają szansę zostać zastosowane w odlewnictwie precyzyjnym.
EN
In the present paper properties of silicon carbide slurries in manufacturing shell moulds for investment casting of aircraft turbine elements were studied. Ceramic SiC slurries with a solid concentration of 60 wt. % were applied. As a structural binder nanodispersion containing colloidal Al2O3 was used. The poly(ethylene glycol) (PGE) with molecular weight 6000, 10000 and 20000 g/mol as a rheological modificators were added at different amount: 5, 10, 15 wt. %. Characterization of SiC powder were made by: grain size by laser diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD, XRF) methods. The properties of ceramic slurries such as: relative and dynamic viscosity, plate (plate weight test) and wax adhesion were studied by a range of techniques. These measurements were taken in laboratory conditions by 96 hours at temperature 21ºC. The results shows that SiC-based slurries, nanodispersion binder and PGE meet the investment casting requirements of aircraft turbine parts and had promising properties.
EN
Chapter VI includes a wide range of microstructure description of steels (carbon steels: K55, N80-1, highly alloyed H13 and stainless steel 316) and composites (GRE — Glassfibre Reinforced Epoxy and HDPE — High-Density Polyethylene), and its influence on their corrosion resistance, leading to elaboration of the database of materials used in the shale gas production system due to their kinetics of degradation. In this Chapter, the modern methods within the study of electrochemical and mechanical properties of selected materials were used. The mechanism and kinetics of corrosion and erosion degradation were measured using electrochemical DC methods (LPR, LSV, potentiostatic and galvanostatic), AC methods — electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), gravimetric methods and morphological studies of material degradation with the use of image analysis. The composition and structure of corrosion products were investigated by XRD technique, FTIR spectroscopy, and SEM followed by EDS analysis. The Authors focused on four main tasks, the first one included the description of research on the corrosive-erosive wear resistance of steel and composite materials in the crevice fluid and the second comprised of the research on the corrosion resistance of steel and composite materials in the H2O-CO2-H2S atmosphere. The third part of the results presented in this chapter related to the microbiological corrosion resistance SRB (Sulfate Reducing Bacteria) of steel and composite materials in the H2O-CO2-H2S atmosphere. An important part of the investigations described in Chapter 6 was to make the comparison of the corrosive behaviour of steels, which are in frequent use in the shale-gas production system, and composites under the neutral salt spray conditions. Based on the above mentioned experiments, the authors compiled an extensive data- base, where a broad description of corrosion resistance of materials for shale-gas production systems is included. The matching of microstructural features with corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of various types of steel and new generation composite materials would have a strong influence on future experiments conducted in such a common aspect in the shale-gas production system, as materials degradation is.
EN
The aim of this article was to assess the effect of previous plastic deformation on the transformation kinetics of selected steels with a wide range of chemical composition. Transformation (CCT and DCCT) diagrams were constructed on the basis of dilatometric tests on the plastometer Gleeble 3800 and metallographic analyses supplemented by measurements of HV hardness. Effect of previous deformation on transformation was evaluated of the critical rate of formation of the individual structural components (ferrite, pearlite and bainite) in the case of formation of martensite respect to Ms temperature. Previous plastic deformation accelerated especially diffuse transformations (ferrite and pearlite), temperature of Ms was lower after previous plastic deformation and bainitic transformation was highly dependent on the chemical composition of steel.
EN
The aim of the performed experiments was to determine the influence of a cooling rate on the evolution of microstructure and hardness of the steel 27MnCrB5. By using dilatometric tests performed on the plastometer Gleeble 3800 and by using mathematical modelling in the software QTSteel a continuous cooling transformation diagram for a heating temperature of 850°C was constructed. Conformity of diagrams constructed for both methods is relatively good, except for the position and shape of the ferrite nose. The values of hardness, temperatures of phase transformations and the volume fractions of structural phases upon cooling from the temperature of 850°C at the rate from 0.16°C · s-1 to 37.2°C · s-1 were determined. Mathematically predicted proportion of martensite with real data was of relatively solid conformity, but the hardness values evaluated by mathematical modelling was always higher.
EN
In this study, binary Al–2.3wt%Li alloy, ternary Al–2.2wt%Li–0.1wt%Zr alloy and quaternary Al–2.2wt%Li–0.1wt%Zr–1.2wt%Cu alloy in the solution treated condition and additionally in aging condition were severely plastically deformed by rolling with cyclic movement of rolls (RCMR) method to produce ultrafine grained structure. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scanning electron microscopy with EBSD detector (SEM/EBSD) were used for microstructural characterization and hardness test for a preliminary assessment of mechanical properties. The results shows, that the combination of aging treatments with RCMR deformation can effectively increase the hardness of Al–Li alloys. Second particles hinders the annihilation of dislocations in Al matrix during deformation leading to an increase of dislocation density. Significant amount of nanometric second particles in refined structure to ultrafine scale especially in Al–2.2wt%Li–0.1wt%Zr–1.2wt%Cu alloy effectively prevents the formation of high angle boundaries.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań dotyczące oceny czasu suszenia przymodelowej oraz konstrukcyjnej warstwy ceramicznej formy odlewniczej. W celu wykonania pomiarów wytworzono dwie testowe masy lejne, które posłużyły do wytworzenia odpowiednio pierwszej oraz konstrukcyjnej warstwy formy ceramicznej. Do wykonania mas formierskich zastosowano proszki tlenku glinu i wodne spoiwo na bazie krzemionki koloidalnej. Mikrostrukturę proszków badano przy użyciu elektronowego mikroskopu skaningowego, natomiast rozmiar cząstek określono przy pomocy analizatora laserowego. Gęstwy, które wykorzystano do budowy badanych warstw ceramicznej formy odlewniczej, przygotowano w mieszadle mechanicznym. Ich parametry, takie jak: temperatura, pH, lepkość względna i dynamiczna, były odczytywane przez pięć dni z rzędu. Pomiary termowizyjne przeprowadzono w pomieszczeniu o kontrolowanej temperaturze i znanej wilgotności. Wykazano, że formy ulegają całkowitej dehydratacji w momencie osiągnięcia temperatury otoczenia.
EN
The paper evaluates the drying time of two layers (model and constructional) of ceramic casting dies. The slurries were prepared using the aluminum oxide and a colloidal silica-based water binder. The constituents were examined in a scanning electron microscope (SEM), their particle size was determined in a LA-950 analyzer. Then, they were mixed in a mechanical mixer and the properties of the mixtures, such as the temperature, pH, as well as relative and dynamic viscosity were monitored using a thermo-visual camera during five consecutive days. After reaching the ambient temperature, the dies appeared to be fully dehydrated.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań właściwości mieszanek formierskich z korundu oraz glinokrzemianu (Remasil 60), które przeznaczono na pierwszą warstwę oraz warstwy konstrukcyjne form odlewniczych służących do odlewania precyzyjnego. Określono wpływ zawartości fazy stałej na parametry mas formierskich oraz dokonano wyboru systemów formierskich o odpowiednich parametrach. Najkorzystniejsze wyniki otrzymano dla mieszanek formierskich: przeznaczonych na warstwę przymodelową, których stężenie fazy stałej wynosiło 72,5% wag. oraz mieszanki na warstwy konstrukcyjne, gdzie udział proszku wyniósł 70% wag. Spoiwem konstrukcyjnym był nanokompozyt polimerowo-ceramiczny zawierający nanocząstki SiO2 (LUDOX AM30). Proszki charakteryzowano z użyciem: analizatora wielkości cząstek metodą dyfrakcji laserowej oraz skaningowych mikroskopów elektronowych (SEM), a nanokompozyt z wykorzystaniem mikroskopu STEM. Masy formierskie charakteryzowano pod względem: lepkości dynamicznej i względnej, gęstości, pH oraz adhezji do płyty (tzw. „test płyty”). Pomiary te przeprowadzano przez siedem dni w warunkach laboratoryjnych w temperaturze 20°C. Otrzymane wyniki pokazały, że masy lejne z korundu i glinokrzemianu oraz nanokompozytu zawierającego krzemionkę koloidalną charakteryzują się dobrymi właściwościami i mają szansę zostać zastosowane w odlewnictwie precyzyjnym do otrzymywania form.
EN
The paper presents results properties of alumina and aluminosilicate slurries dedicated to the first layer and construction layers of shell molds, respectively. The influence of the solid phase content on the parameters of the slurries was determined. Particle size distribution was determined with use of the advanced laser particle size analyzer Horiba LA-950 (LALLS technique). To characterize morphology of the powders and binder scanning electron microscopy (SEM and STEM) observations were performed. The slurries were prepared in a mechanical mixer. The experiment was based on a daily plate weight tests and pH, Zahn cup (4 mm diameter) viscosity and dynamic viscosity by rheometer with a shear rate range of 1–100–1 1/s measurements that are fundamental for investment casting industry. Adhesion of the examined mass was determined by the plate immersion (dimensions: 75×75 mm) in a slurry and estimation its weight of 75.46 g. The slurry dipping was controlled during 180 seconds with results notation every 15 seconds. The obtained results proved opportunity of their application for the investment casting and foundry, being prospective issue for future fabrication of shell moulds.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań materiałów formierskich, mas odlewniczych oraz procesu studzenia próbek wielowarstwowych form odlewniczych, jakie są stosowane w procesach odlewania precyzyjnego. Przygotowano mieszanki formierskie na pierwszą warstwę przymodelową i na warstwę konstrukcyjną, pokryto nimi prostopadłościenny model woskowy, uzyskując w ten sposób wielowarstwową próbkę formy odlewniczej. W ten sposób przygotowane próbki wygrzewano w piecu komorowym w temperaturze 700 °C w atmosferze powietrza w celu wytopienia wosku. Proces studzenia próbek badano z wykorzystaniem kamery termowizyjnej w zakresie temperatur 500-40 °C. Wykazano, że zastosowanie pomiarów pól temperatur za pomocą kamery termowizyjnej jest interesującym rozwiązaniem do oceny procesu studzenia form odlewniczych. Analiza procesu stygnięcia w czasie może umożliwić wykrywanie defektów form ceramicznych w postaci pęknięć, pustek czy niejednorodnej grubości, które mogą być niewidoczne gołym okiem.
EN
This paper presents investigations concerning applicability of a thermographic camera in ceramic shells cooling process. Moreover, ceramic materials and slurries have been investigated. There were slurries prepared for near-model and construction layers of a shell mould. Using the pre-prepared slurries, the ceramic near-model and construction layers were made on a wax pattern. The dewaxing process was run in a furnace at 700 °C. Cooling was investigated with the thermographic camera in the 500-40 °C temperature range. It has been proved that the usage of the thermographic camera for measurements of temperature fields was the good solution to evaluate the cooling process of ceramic shell moulds. The results showed defects like cracks, large pores or empty spaces in the ceramic shells, otherwise not visible by the unaided eye.
EN
Inconel 718 is a precipitation hardenable nickel-iron based superalloy. It has exceptionally high strength and ductility compared to other metallic materials. This is due to intense precipitation of the γ’ and γ” strengthening phases in the temperature range 650-850°C. The main purpose of the authors was to analyze the aging process in Inconel 718 obtained in accordance with AMS 5596, and its effect on the mechanical properties. Tensile and hardness tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties, in the initial aging process and after reheating, as a function of temperature and time respectively in the ranges 650°-900°C and 5-480 min. In addition, to link the mechanical properties with the microstructure transmission microscopy observations were carried out in selected specimens. As a result, factors influencing the microstructure changes at various stages of strengthening were observed. The authors found that the γ’’ phase nucleates mostly homogenously in the temperature range 650-750°C, causing the greatest increase in strength. On the other hand, the γ’ and δ phases are formed heterogeneously at 850°C or after longer annealing in 800°C, which may weaken the material.
15
Content available remote The effect of deformation degree on the microstructure of the 6060 aluminium alloy
EN
Purpose: All results obtained in the present study allowed to analyse the changes in the microstructure and texture of the commercial 6060 aluminium alloy, after deformation process by severe plastic deformation. There were compare two deformation degree samples received by cumulative hydrostatic extrusion. Design/methodology/approach: The samples of the 6060 alloy were subjected to a onepass and three-passes extrusion process and next the age hardening. The microstructure changes were investigated by using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. To study the texture evolution the X-ray diffraction were made. Findings: The microscopic observations results presented the refinement of microstructure as a result of deformation process. The evolution of fibrous character of texture was observed. There were noted the disappearance of fibrous component <100> during subsequent deformation processes and generation the fibrous component <111> after high deformation degree. In addition, for each state, the presence of cubic texture component was recorded. Research limitations/implications: For the future research are planned to analyse changes in mechanical properties after hydrostatic extrusion combinate with age hardening of investigated materials. Originality/value: The paper focuses on the investigation of microstructure and texture evolution after modern method of plastic deformation.
PL
A corrosion monitoring station was designed and built into a shale gas extraction pipeline. The station is universal and can be used in conventional oil and gas extraction systems. The device has been tested on wells in operational conditions during the fracturing process in Wysin 3H (flowback, flow stimulation with gas lift). The station’s operating pressure ranged from 3 to 40 bar for unsettled outflow of liquid and gas from the well. The proposed monitoring station makes it possible to carry out corrosion (LPR, EIS, ER), as well as physico-chemical (pH, redox potential) “on-line” measurements during the operation of a gas well. Laboratory and field tests have shown that the impedance method of measuring the polarization resistance is sensitive enough to allow both the monitoring of the corrosion rate (including pitting corrosion) as well as the performance of studies that help in the selection of materials and inhibitors.
EN
Zaprojektowano i zbudowano stację monitorowania korozji w liniach wydobycia gazu szczelinowego. Stacja ma charakter uniwersalny i może mieć zastosowanie w konwencjonalnych instalacjach wydobycia ropy i gazu. Urządzenie zostało przetestowane w warunkach ruchowych podczas czynności zabiegowych w odwiertach w Wysinie (odbieranie cieczy wypływowej – flowback, stymulacja złoża dźwigiem gazowym). Ciśnienie pracy stacji wynosiło od 3 do 40 bar przy nieuspokojonym wypływie cieczy i gazu z odwiertu. Proponowana stacja monitorowania pozwala na prowadzenie pomiarów korozyjnych (LPR, EIS, ER) oraz fizykochemicznych (pH, potencjał red-ox) „on line” w trakcie eksploatacji odwiertów gazu. Testy przeprowadzone w laboratorium i w warunkach polowych wykazały, że impedancyjna metoda pomiaru oporu polaryzacyjnego jest czułą metodą pozwalającą zarówno na monitorowanie szybkości korozji (w tym korozji wżerowej) jak i prowadzenie badań w zakresie selekcji materiałów, doboru inhibitorów.
EN
The present study demonstrate the effect of the combined deformation (hydrostatic extrusion and rolling) on microstructure and mechanical properties of model Al-Li alloys. It has been shown the anisotropy of material structure and properties. Additionally it has been demonstrated increase of yield strength at the result of the plastic deformation.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wpływ łączonego odkształcenia wyciskania hydrostatycznego i walcowania na zimno na mikrostrukturę i właściwości modelowych stopów Al-Li. Badania wykazały obecność anizotropii struktury materiału i właściwości. Ponadto przedstawiono wzrost wła-ściwości wytrzymałościowych w wyniku odkształcenia plastycznego.
19
EN
The presented paper relates to the application of new experimental proppants in the process of shale gas extraction. The tested proppants were produced through mechanical granulation methods. Ceramic proppants were sintered at 1550 ºC. The characterization of investigated proppants was carried out using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Light Microscope (LM). Properties of ceramic proppants such as: bulk density, crash tests, moisture, solubility in acids, sphericity factor, turbidity were studied using a range of techniques. The results show that new experimental proppants meet the industrial requirements and need some modification for future application.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia wyniki badań eksperymentalnych propantów ceramicznych z przeznaczeniem do wydobywania gazu z łupków. Otrzymane propanty zostały poddane spiekaniu w temperaturze 1550 ºC. Otrzymane w ten sposób próbki poddano badaniom mikrostruktury SEM, gęstości nasypowej, wytrzymałości mechanicznej, wilgotności, odporności na kwasy, współczynnika kulistości oraz mętności, z użyciem przeznaczonych do tych badań technik. Stwierdzono, iż nowo uzyskane propanty spełniają założenia przemysłowe, jednak wymagają modyfikacji w celu zastosowania ich do wydobywania gazu z formacji łupkowych.
EN
This paper presents the study of the experimental ceramic proppants. Examined samples were obtained by mechanical granulation method. After granulation process proppants had been sintered in 1550 °C. Investigated proppants were characterized by Scanning Electron microscope (SEM) with Electron Diffraction Spectroscope (EDS) and Light Microscope (LM). During the research solubility in acids, sphericity coefficient, turbidity, moisture were determined. Moreover bulk density was conducted. The result shows that new ceramic proppants are acceptable for industry and meet their requirements.
PL
Niniejsza praca prezentuje wyniki badań eksperymentalnych propantów ceramicznych. Badane próbki były otrzymane w wyniku procesu granulacji mechanicznej a następnie spieczone w temperaturze 1550 °C. Próbki poddano obserwacjom mikroskopowym z wykorzystaniem elektronowego mikroskopu skaningowego (SEM), z przystawką EDS, oraz mikroskopu świetlnego (LM). W trakcie badań określono: współczynnik kulistości, mętność, wilgotność oraz odporność na rozpuszczanie w kwasach. Dodatkowo wyznaczono gęstość nasypową.
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