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The sea ice in the Arctic has shrunk significantly in the last decades. The transport pattern has as a result partly changed with more traffic in remote areas. This change may influence on the risk pattern. The critical factors are harsh weather, ice conditions, remoteness and vulnerability of nature. In this paper, we look into the risk of accidents in Atlantic Arctic based on previous ship accidents and the changes in maritime activity. The risk has to be assessed to ensure a proper level of emergency response. The consequences of incidents depend on the incident type, scale and location. As accidents are rare, there are limited statistics available for Arctic maritime accidents. Hence, this study offers a qualitative analysis and an expert-based risk assessment. Implications for the emergency preparedness system of the Arctic region are discussed.
Content available Tidal currents in the western Svalbard Fjords
The paper is focusing on the tides and on the strong tidal current generated in the western fjords of Svalbard. Numerical model is chosen as a tool to study the barotropic tides. Model results are compared against measured sea level and drifters. Numerical modeling and observation of tides point that the tidal amplitude does not change strongly in these fjords but the tidal currents are enhanced in several locations, namely at the entrance to the Dickson Fjord, in the narrow passages in proximity to Svea, and in the central part of Van Keulenfjorden. As the strongest currents have been found at the passages at Akseløya Island we have focused our research on this location. The narrow northern channel (Akselsundet) at Akseløya is the main waterway to Svea coal mines. Tidal currents computed and observed at the northern tip of Akseløya Island can reach amplitude from 2 to 3 m s−1. Observation of the deployed drifters and calculation of the seeded particles in the passage at Akseløya depicted a complicated pattern of eddies. The jet-like currents and eddies are quite different at the ebb and flood tide phases. As the Akseløya Island orientation relative to the shore is different for the flood and ebb waters the flow through Akselsundet is differently constrained by this geometry. The observations show that the oscillating tidal motion causes large excursions of the water particle. The drifters released in the passage during flood ended up trapped in the eddy on the eastern side of the island.
All activities in the Arctic are conducted near the limit of technological opportunities and human abilities. But the drain of resources in the areas convenient for development obliges us to look at this severe polar region. The main objectives of the PetroArctic project (offshore and coastal technology for petroleum production and transport from arctic water) as a part of PETROMAX and MarSafe project (Marine Safety Management) are to obtain and provide information for safety of Arctic operation such as hydrocarbons production and transport from Polar seas. One of the tasks is a collection of ice pilot experiences from the people involved in the Arctic activities to learn how they felt in these conditions, how they solved difficult tasks and managed the ice. Items of special interest are connected to lost vessels and other marine accidents. Appreciable amount of written documentation and interviews have been processed and organized into a data base of marine accidents in Russian Arctic since 1900. It includes a set of maps where the locations of the accidents are shown with a description of the accidents (date, geographical environment, vessel type, what happened and how the people acted, etc). This paper includes the map for Kara Sea and descriptions of several accidents in the eastern part of Arctic as example of different situations, as well as the principles of the data base construction and accidents classification.
The main principles, the structure and the use of the prototype of the system for the technical diagnostics of wind-driven power units are discussed.
W pracy opisano budowę i zastosowanie systemu ekspertowego do diagnostyki elektrowni wiatrowych.
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