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EN
Purpose: The analysis process of the causes of the problem by often used the Ishikawa diagram is not effective when knowledge is lacking with regard to the particular causes and their validity about the problem. Moreover, its subjectivity is affected by the people undertaking the analysis. The aim of this paper is to reveal ways of improving the analysis process of problem causes by utilising the new method of integrated techniques, i.e.: Ishikawa diagram and FAHP method. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis process of problem causes was made by utilizing the integrated techniques, i.e.: Ishikawa diagram and FAHP method. The problem was identified after the FPI method, and it was a linear indication on the bearing cover from 410 steel. Findings: It was shown that implementing the FAHP method in the Ishikawa diagram allows a numerical analysis of the main causes of the problem. Research limitations/implications: Future analysis should be undertaken by applying the 5Why method, in order to fully identify the root cause of the problem. Practical implications: A new method can be used to precisely and reliably analyse different types of problems. Social implications: This method is an effective tool that supports the process of analysing the causes of the problem, and thus the process of making multi-criteria decisions. Originality/value: The article proposes a new method for integrating analysis techniques, i.e. the Ishikawa diagram and the FAHP method, which can be effective in precisely and reliably assessing the causes of the problem.
EN
Due to the constantly increasing demands of customers and global competition, companies are forced to look for production reserves, increase efficiency and quality of manufactured products. Hence the need to monitor the quality level, which gives the possibility to recognize waste in the implemented technological processes. The article is an attempt to respond to the problems formulated in manufacturing companies, including practical aspects of the application of Key Performance Indicators (KPI) within production process controlling. The aim of the article is to determine the impact of the applied quality management techniques on selected KPI indicators in the production process of frame and panel exterior doors. As part of the study, an analysis of the reasons for the decrease in the level of quality indicators was performed using traditional quality management tools.
3
Content available remote Analysis of the causes of porosity identified by non-destructive testing
EN
Product quality management refers to a set of activities, which allow checking the product quality and eliminating any inconsistencies. In eliminating incompatibilities its necessary to identify their root causes. It is possible by using the selected quality management techniques. As it was shown, it is very useful after analyses the incompatibilities identified by popular non-destructive tests (NDT), which are used to check an incompatible product. It was concluded that practice quality management techniques after NDT are necessary because NDTs are effective in finding incompatibilities in the product (without its destruction) but not identifying their causes. The aim of the study was the analysis of using the selected quality management techniques (Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method) to identify the source of the porosity which was detected by the fluorescent method. The problem was identified in an enterprise localized in the Podkarpacie region. But after identifying the incompatibility in the product, no further analyses to find the root cause of the problem occurrence were made. After the NDT (fluorescent inspection method) on the product (made from 410 steel) used in the aviation industry, the porosity was identified. Because the root cause of porosity was not known, the sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method was used. These methods were used in an adequate way (first the Ishikawa diagram and second the 5Why method) because only in this way it is possible to find the root cause of the problem. By the Ishikawa diagram, the potential causes and two main causes (i.e. inadequate preparation, water in molding sand) were identified. The source of the porosity (contaminated material) was found through the 5Why method. It was concluded that the selected quality management techniques (Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method) were useful in finding the root cause of the porosity of the product. Additionally, the paper proposed the use of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method after the NDT test, and this sequence was effective in finding the root causes identified by NDT tests, so it can also be used to solve other problems with incompatibilities.
PL
Występujące w przedsiębiorstwach niezgodności wyrobów powinny być analizowane w efektywny sposób, tak aby możliwe było zidentyfikowanie źródła powstania tych niezgodności. Jest to możliwe za pomocą odpowiednio dobranej sekwencji technik zarządzania jakością. Sekwencją tą jest diagram Ishikawy i metoda 5Why. Celem pracy było przeanalizowanie niezgodności wyrobu (wada płyty meblowej) i wskazanie źródła jej powstania za pomocą sekwencji technik: diagramu Ishikawy i metody 5Why. Problem z niezgodnością w płytach meblowych zidentyfikowano w przedsiębiorstwie zlokalizowanym na Podkarpaciu, w którym produkowano meble i fronty meblowe. Wybór niezgodności dotyczącej wady płyty meblowej uwarunkowany był częstotliwością występowania problemu (ponad 470 sztuk płyt meblowych/9 miesięcy). Z kolei dobór sekwencji technik diagramu Ishikawy i metody 5Why wynikał z ich potwierdzonej skuteczności do analiz niezgodności wyrobów w ramach wskazania źródła ich powstania. Za pomocą diagramu Ishikawy określono potencjalne przyczyny niezgodności dotyczącej płyty meblowej, spośród których wskazano trzy przyczyny główne (wyeksploatowana maszyna, złe magazynowanie oraz złe układanie płyt meblowych na paletach). Kolejno, za pomocą metody 5Why zidentyfikowano źródło analizowanej niezgodności (tj. zła organizacja pracy, brak okresowych TMP maszyny), po czym zaproponowano działania doskonalące. Zaproponowana sekwencja technik diagramu Ishikawy i metody 5Why może być praktykowana w innych przedsiębiorstwach zarówno do analiz różnego rodzaju wyrobów, jak i niezgodności.
EN
The incompatibilities of products that are occurring in enterprises should be analyzed in an effective way, so as to could identify the root of occurred these incompatibilities. It is possible by adequate selected sequence of quality management techniques. This sequence is the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. Therefore, the aim of the work was to analysed the incompatibility of the product (defect of furniture board) and identified the root of it occurred by using the sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The problem with the incompatibility of furniture board was identified in enterprise localized in Podkarpacie, in which the furniture and furniture fronts were produced. The choice of incompatibility of the furniture board was conditioned by the frequency of occurred the problem (above 470 pieces of furniture boards/9 months). In turn, the selection of the technique sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method was resulted from their proven effectiveness to analyze of incompatibilities of products as an indication of the source of their origin. By the Ishikawa diagram the potential causes of incompatibility of furniture fronts were identified, from which the three main causes were selected (worn out machine, bad storage, an incorrect arrangement of furniture boards on pallets). Subsequently, the source of the incompatibility was identified using the 5Why method (i.e. poor work organization, no periodic TMP machines), after which the improving actions were proposed. The proposed technique sequence of the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method can be practice in other enterprises to analyze different types of products and incompatibilities.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wybrane zagadnienia bezpieczeństwa urządzeń Internetu Rzeczy. Przedstawiono klasyfikację zagrożeń w środowisku współdziałających urządzeń IoT w modelu 5M + E. Jako podstawową przyjęto klasyfikację TOP-10 OWASP dla IoT i dostosowano ją do potrzeb analizy przy pomocy diagramu Ishikawy. Powiązano zagrożenia z grupami przyczyn i zastosowano diagram Ishikawy do oceny jakościowej zagrożeń. Zaproponowano macierzowy model bezpieczeństwa układu urządzeń pracujących zgodnie z zasadą IFTTT. Przyjęto typowy, trójstanowy model oceny stanu bezpieczeństwa każdego z urządzeń i wykazano przydatność modelu macierzowego do oceny stanu pracy i bezpieczeństwa systemu. Wskazano na możliwości podziału zadań w modelu macierzowym na obliczenia we mgle i w chmurze.
EN
The paper presents selected issues of Internet of Things security. The classification of threats in the environment of cooperating IoT devices in the 5M + E model is presented. The TOP-10 OWASP classification for IoT was adopted as the basic one and was adapted to the needs of the analysis using the Ishikawa diagram. Threats were mapped to cause groups and the Ishikawa diagram was used to qualitatively assess the threats. A matrix security model of the ecosystem of devices operating in accordance with the IFTTT principle was proposed. A typical three-state model for assessing the safety status of each device was adopted and the usefulness of the matrix model for assessing the state of work and system security was justified. The possibilities of dividing tasks in the matrix model into fog computing and in the cloud were pointed out.
EN
Machinery faults are a problem that incorrectly diagnosed may result in the increase of waste. The fault mentioned in the article was identified at an opencast facility located in Podkarpacie. The purpose of the study was to analyse the defect identified on the excavator arm using quality management techniques. These techniques were the Ishikawa diagram and the 5Why method. In the plant, unit faults on various types of machines were detected. The fracture on the excavator arm was identified, however, the cause of the problem was not known. Potential causes of the fault and the main cause of the problem (material fatigue) were detected using the Ishikawa diagram. The root cause of the material fatigue, the long-term and repetitive operation of the excavator during the excavation of the deposit, was identified by the 5Why method. The proposed processes can be used to identify the root causes of various faults both in the mining industry as well as production and service plants.
EN
Effective quality management of the product is an element that allows profit within the enterprise. Identifying unconformity and establishing their source enables quality. However, identifying unconformity is sometimes neglected. Such was evident in the analysis of the service-manufacturing enterprise located in Podkarpacie. In the enterprise, quality was assessed via non-destructive testing (via fluorescence), but decisions on sources of non-compliance were made without utilizing additional methods that allow source identification. Hence, the way of recognizing unconformity was not precise. Therefore, method sequence (Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method) approaches were proposed to enable this. The aim of this paper is to show the effectiveness of such approaches in identifying sources of unconformity. The subject of study was tubing that is used in aircraft engines. Via the applied analysis, the unconformity in production and the source cause was traced to material supplied from outside. The proposed method sequence approach can be used in other enterprises for quality analyses purposes.
EN
Analysis of the incompatibilities occurring in an organization relies on identifying the problem and then applying the appropriate corrective and improvement actions. It is possible by using appropriate instruments of quality management and, basically, their sequence, which is a modern way of solving the problem, and it enables the improvement of functioning of an enterprise. Therefore, it is advisable to select an appropriate group of quality management instruments and use them in the appropriate sequence, because then they are complete and lead to full analysis and conclusions adequate to the problem. The aim of the article is to analyze the correlation and influence of the selected factors on the incompatibilities in selected processes, i.e. the production process of furniture fronts and furniture in general. Moreover, the idea is to use the appropriate sequence of instruments of quality management to solve various types of incompatibilities. The analysis was made at a company where a lot of different kinds of incompatibilities in processes were identified within 9 months. It was important to solve the problem for this enterprise because it was generating relatively large financial losses, and the lack of identified causes of the problem precluded taking preventive actions and developing the enterprise. After the initial analysis of the processes and problems, it was decided to use the correlation analysis, the Pareto-Lorenz diagram, the 5W2H method, the Ishikawa diagram and the 5Why method. The methodology and conclusions drawn from the analysis may be useful in solving complex problems at other production and service enterprises.
EN
Identifying inconsistencies and taking adequate actions to eliminate them is an effective way to improve the quality of products. Casting products are one of the items commonly manufactured in the foundry industry. Determining their quality becomes problematic due to a large number of factors affecting them during production which can generate various types of incompatibilities. The problem with a large number of incompatibilities of castings arose in a company in the southern part of Poland. The aim of the research was to diagnose the state of a batch of castings of industrial robot arm parts and to precisely determine the most important reasons for the occurrence of unworthiness, in relation to which appropriate preventive measures could significantly contribute to the reduction of the number of non-compliant castings and hence, waste. The analysis of incompatibilities occurring in the casting using the Pareto-Lorenz method and the ABC method allowed indication of the most important (in terms of frequency and severity) incompatibility of castings - gas porosity. Continuing the analysis of the problem by means of a brainstorming session and organizing ideas via the Ishikawa diagram made it possible to identify the key cause of the problem, which was the inadequately prepared (wet) core of the casting mold.
EN
The transport system can initiate development activities in the economy if it can meet the expectations of users. A special type of transport is the transport of prisoners, carried out within the prison system. Due to the specific nature of this type of transport, the aim of the article was to analyze the interferences occurring in the process of transporting prisoners. The scope of research concerned the analysis of convoys and escorts of prisoners in one of the largest Polish custodial remands. The Ishikawa Diagram was used to diagnose the interferences.
EN
Application of selected quality tools to increase machine efficiency in a production enterprise Maintaining the company’s technical infrastructure in an appropriate condition is a prerequisite for ensuring stability in the implementation of production processes. The effectiveness of actions implemented to achieve this goal improves the use of adequate quality methods and tools. This article shows the practical implications of tools such as Pareto analysis, Ishikawa diagram, MTTR, MTBF to increase the efficiency of machine operation by eliminating the main causes of downtime of an automatic molding line and implementing effective corrective actions.
EN
The analysis of the problem of the mechanical damage was made for a company manufacturing furniture and furniture fronts. From January to September the company identified 285 pieces of mechanically damaged products. The management of the company wanted to identify the source of the incompatibility; therefore, it was purposeful to analyse the problem of the mechanical damage using the sequence of the selected instruments of the quality management that enable this. Additionally, until now the company has not used the instruments of the quality managements to analyse the problems involving nonconformity, so it was important to show the company their practical use. The aim was to analyse the problem of the occurrence of the mechanical damage in fronts and furniture and to identify the root cause of the problem. Also to show the effective use of the sequence of the quality management instruments (i.e. 52WH method, Pareto-Lorenz diagram, Ishikawa diagram, 5Why method) to solve the problem of incompatibility. It was concluded that the root cause of the mechanical damage of fronts and furniture was the lack of management knowledge and awareness of the need to implement visualization principles in the company. The analysis and the proposed improvement actions may be practiced in other companies from both the production and service industries.
EN
In the article was presented the results of analysis of the nonconformities which occur during the production of PET bottles in the selected company from Poland. The analysis included six process unit operations of forming PET bottles. The aim of the analysis is to present specific corrective and improvement actions based on the results obtained. The article presents a short description of the process of shaping PET bottles for six selected operations. The block diagram of the PET bottle shaping process is presented. Quality management tools were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis. The use of the Pareto-Lorenz diagram allowed for quantitative an approach to the quality problems of PET bottles. The Ishikawa diagram was used to identify potential causes of the most frequent problem. Corrective actions were proposed to improve the quality of PET bottles tested. The research problem has been solved. As a critical element requiring improvement, the competences of employees and the process of operating machines and devices were indicated.
EN
As part of continuous quality improvement in well-managed enterprises, identifying unconformity should initiate actions to find their causes. Therefore, it was proposed to the enterprise located in Podkarpacie to use in the sequential way the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The aim was to analyse of unconformity (porosity cluster) on the turbine outlet nozzle and identify the root of its creation. In the enterprise, the quality analysis of the products with a fluorescent method was carried out, but after identifying the unconformity, non-analysis of their reason for their occurrence was not practiced. Therefore, it was intentional to propose the use of sequence i.e. Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method to identify the root of unconformity. The subject of study was the turbine outlet nozzle, on which the fluorescent method the porosity cluster was identified. With the use of the Ishikawa diagram, the main cause of the problem was pointed (unconformity during production), and by the 5Why method the root cause of the problem, i.e. unconformity material from the supplier, was identified. The proposed method sequence is a simple and effective way to make analyses of unconformities and it can be used in different products and service enterprises.
EN
All castings can have defects caused by, for example, deviations in material characteristics, structure or properties, but the skillful use of available technologies and quality management tools allows for the detection and elimination of casting incompatibilities as well as the prevention of their recurrence in the future. The aim of the article was to analyse the types of defects in castings, locate the areas with the most frequent occurrence of defects and identify the reasons for the presence of defects in castings of the control panel and its cover. The paper presents the usefulness of a combination of quality management instruments for diagnosing material discontinuities in the analyzed castings.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano zastosowanie metody FMEA procesu na konkretnym przykładzie produkcji bielizny w przedsiębiorstwie Hanna Style. Podejście oparte na założeniu, aby podczas FMEA procesu nie kojarzyć przyczyn błędów z ich skutkami pozwala na kompleksowe podejście do problematyki doskonalenia jakości procesów. Przyjęcie założenia, że każda przyczyna może wywołać błąd, który spowoduje wiele skutków, pozwala na bardziej szczegółową i głębszą analizę problemów w procesie, co stanowi zaletę podejścia kompleksowego. Jest to również możliwe wyłącznie przy wsparciu przeprowadzanej analizy konkretnymi narzędziami zarządzania jakością, np. Diagram Ishikawy i 5 WHY. Wyniki działań doskonalących zaprezentowanych w artykule stanowią jedynie fragment prowadzonych na bieżąco w przedsiębiorstwie Hanna Style działań doskonalących.
EN
The paper presents the application of the FMEA process on a specific example of underwear production in the Hanna Style company. The methodology based on the assumption that during the FMEA process the causes of errors should not be associated with their effects allows a comprehensive approach to the issues of process quality improvement. Accepting the assumption that any cause can trigger an error that will result in many effects allows a more detailed and deeper analysis of problems in the process, which is the advantage of a comprehensive approach. This is possible only when the analysis is carried out with specific quality management tools, e.g. Ishikawa Diagram and 5 WHY. The results of the improvement activities presented in the article are only a fragment of ongoing improvement activities at Hanna Style.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono analizę przyczyn i skutków możliwych zagrożeń na stanowisku pracy kierowcy autobusu. W tym celu wykorzystano narzędzie zarządzania jakością, jakim jest diagram Ishikawy. Zdefiniowane zagrożenia i ich przyczyny dotyczyły konkretnych zadań, jakie występują na stanowisku pracy kierowcy autobusu w wybranym przedsiębiorstwie komunikacyjnym.
EN
In the article an analysis of the causes and consequences of possible risks in the bus driver’s workplace was presented. For this aim a quality management tool was used, such as the Ishikawa' s diagram. Defined risks and their causes concerned to task, which occur at the workplace of the bus driver in the chosen enterprise.
EN
The article presents the analysis of quality management tools, such as the Ishikawa diagram and the Pareto-Lorenz diagram for flaw structure assessment of pulleys founded in the enterprise that is being surveyed. The conducted research allowed to identify the most significant inconsistencies that appear in pulleys. The analysis helped to diagnose their causes, which gives the basis for proposing appropriate corrective actions. The defect structure of the process has been presented using the Pareto-Lorenz diagram. In order to recognize the reasons of identified incompatibilities, the Ishikawa cause-and-effect diagram has been applied. Moreover, the article also includes a number of recommendations that are aimed at improving the entire process of pulleys production in this company.
PL
System zarządzania jakością jest jednym z najważniejszych czynników zarządzania przedsiębiorstwem. Pomaga firmie określić i wybrać właściwy kierunek jej rozwoju. Systemy zarządzania zapewniają za pomocą metod i narzędzi stałą możliwość monitorowania procesów przedsiębiorstwa, a ponadto umożliwiają szybką reakcję na wszelkie niepokojące symptomy. Różnorodność narzędzi i metod zarządzania jakością oraz ich zastosowanie w organizacji stwarza możliwości do optymalizacji procesów produkcji. Wyniki przeprowadzonych badań w badanej firmie dotyczyły zastosowania różnych narzędzi zarządzania jakością, tj. Wykresu Pareto-Lorenza oraz diagramu Ishikawy. Natomiast analiza przeprowadzona za pomocą wyżej wymienionych narzędzi umożliwia szybkie określenie, problemów które dana firma eliminować powinna w pierwszej kolejności.
PL
Celem artykułu było zwrócenie uwagi na istotę narzędzi zarządzania jakością, które chronią przedsiębiorstwo przed zagrożeniem w postaci wad, a w konsekwencji odpływem klientów. Przedstawiono analizę przyczyn wystąpienia wady, jaką jest niedostateczne przyleganie okleiny do ramiaka pionowego drzwi wewnątrzlokalowych STILE. W tym celu wykorzystano takie narzędzia jak diagram Ishikawy oraz metodę FMEA. W wyniku badań zidentyfikowano kluczowe przyczyny występowania wady oraz zaproponowano sposoby ich eliminacji.
EN
The aim of the study was to draw attention to the essence of quality management tools that protect the company from the risk of defects and consequently the outflow of customers. The paper presents an analysis of the causes of the defect of insufficient adhesion of the veneer to the vertical stile of the STILE internal door. For this purpose, tools such as the Ishikawa diagram and the FMEA method were used. As a result of the study, the main causes of the defect were identified and methods of elimination.
PL
W niniejszym artykule podjęto problematykę możliwości wykorzystania kart kontrolnych Shewarta do badania i sterowania procesem produkcyjnym. W szczególności skupiono się na opracowaniu i weryfikacji sposobu zastosowania kart kontrolnych Shewarta do oceny i doskonalenia wykonania punktów lutowniczych. Zaprezentowano zaproponowane etapy analizy, a także porównano wybrane parametry oceny jakości wykonania punktów lutowniczych przed wdrożeniem zmian udoskonalających proces, jak i po ich implementacji.
EN
This article engaged the possibility of using Shewart's control charts for testing and controlling the production process. In particular this article was focused on developing and verifying the using of Shewart's control charts to evaluate and improve the execution of soldering points. It was presented offered steps of the analysis and selected parameters of the quality evaluation of the soldering points were compared before the implementation of the improvements improving the process, as well as after their implementation.
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